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Full text of "A Consice Dictionary Akkadian"

SANTAG 

Arbeiten und Untersuchungen 
zur Keilschriftkunde 

Herausgegeben von 
Karl Hecker und Walter Sommerfeld 

Band 5 



A Concise Dictionary 
of Akkadian 

edited by 
Jeremy Black • Andrew George • Nicholas Postgate 

with the assistance of 

Tina Breckwoldt, Graham Cunningham, 

Marie-Christine Ludwig, Clemens Reichel, 

Jonathan Blanchard Smith, Junko Taniguchi 

and Cornelia Wunsch 

2 nd (corrected) printing 



2000 
Harrassowitz Verlag • Wiesbaden 



2000 
Harrassowitz Verlag • Wiesbaden 



Contents 



Preface 

Introduction 

Key to abbreviations 

Index of verbal roots 

Concise dictionary of Akkadian 



XV11-XX1V 



1-450 



Die Deutsche Bibliothek - ClP-Einheilsaufnahme 

Ein Titeldalensatz filr diese Publikation ist bei Der Deutschen Bibliothek erhgltlich 

Die Deutsche Bibliothek - C1P Cataloguing-in-Publication-Data 

A catalogue jccord for this publication is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek 

e-mail: hammer@dbf.ddb.de 



2 M (corrected) printing 

© Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1999, 2000 

This work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. 

Any use beyond the limits of copyright law without the permission 

of the publisher is forbidden and subject to penalty. This applies 

particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage 

and processing in electronic systems. 

Printed on permanent/durable paper. 

Printing and binding by WS Druckerei Werner Schaubruch GmbH, Bodenheim 

Printed in Germany 

ISSN 0179-6356 
ISBN 3-447-04264-8 



Preface 



The idea of creating a concise and relatively inexpensive Akkadian-English dictionary was conceived in 
1989 by Nicholas Postgate. It was plain from the start that it would need to be based on the Akkadisches 
Handworterbuch (AHw) of W. von Soden, who gave the scheme his blessing in the autumn of that 
year. From the start Jeremy Black and Andrew George agreed to collaborate in the venture, and in the 
course of the work we received considerable assistance from other colleagues with Assyriological 
experience. Although the three Editors have undertaken different proportions of the work, decisions on 
the dictionary's content and presentation were made collectively. Our procedure was first to produce a 
drastically abbreviated English translation of AHw, letter by letter. This was then checked against AHw 
by a second collaborator. To reduce the risk of misunderstandings of AHw's intentions either the first or 
the second stage was done in each case by a native German-speaker (Tina Breckwoldt, Marie-Christine 
Ludwig or Cornelia Wunsch). Each letter has been processed at some stage by at least one of the 
principal Editors. During or after the first stage the provisional text of each letter was word-processed, 
and the next major stage was the inclusion of corrections and additions. These came from various 
sources, including the addenda and corrigenda of AHw itself. The principal concern was to take full 
advantage of the material in the encyclopaedic Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD), now almost 
complete, wherever this amplified or corrected AHw. Further to this the reviews of both dictionaries in 
the Assyriological literature were initially harvested by Clemens Reichel, but for each letter responsibility 
for the difficult task of harmonizing or adjudicating between AHw and CAD where they diverged rested 
with one of the Editors. There followed a long period during which the complete text was subjected to 
various editorial and typographical refinements, as well as philological revision and correction. 

Acknowledgements 

It will be evident that our principal debt by far is to Professor von Soden himself. The production of 
CDA has taken all of ten years, and this serves to emphasize the single-minded dedication with which 
the AHw was achieved. Of the collaborators named on the title page Tina Breckwoldt carried out a large 
part of the initial stage of abbreviation and translation, as well as establishing some of the word- 
processing guidelines. At the other end of the line Graham Cunningham has had a major role in 
converting a rather ragged text into a coherent whole, single-handedly re-ordering and re-numbering the 
lemmata, checking all cross-references, standardizing abbreviations and punctuation, proof-reading, etc. 
etc. Both these collaborators put their own time and expertise into the project far beyond the call of duty. 
Our thanks go likewise to Clemens Reichel, to Marie-Christine Ludwig for her considerable input at the 
first and second stages, and to Cornelia Wunsch for her timely assistance with the last of the second- 
stage checking. Jonathan Blanchard Smith toiled indefatigably deciphering the handwriting of much of 
the first draft and committing it to disk. Junko Taniguchi prepared with great thoroughness the necessary 
documentation for the standardization of the logograms with R. Borger's Assyrisch-babylonische 



Preface 



CDA 



Zeichenliste. To all these collaborators, who often contributed independent philological improvements of 
their own, we are much indebted, but we must stress that none of them can be held responsible for the 
inadequacies and especially the inconsistencies which doubtless still exist. 

At the very beginning Professor von Soden alerted us to the fact that a Riickldufiges Worterbuch des 
Akkadischen (SANTAG 1; Harrassowitz 1990) was being produced by his colleague and successor at 
Miinster, Karl Hecker. He has supported our project since that time, and at the final stages of the work, 
in 1998, he reviewed the manuscript for us and sent a long list of improvements and additions, 
particularly for the Old Assyrian material. We are grateful to him and Walter Sommerfeld for accepting 
the CDA in the SANTAG series. Several other scholars have given us assistance with particular words 
and issues. Alphabetically, we would like to thank David Brown, Stephanie Dalley, John Emerton, John 
MacGinnis, Alasdair Livingstone, Eleanor Robson, Christopher Walker, and Martin West, as well as the 
authors of anonymous corrections inscribed in earlier drafts of the dictionary used in our respective 
libraries. We would like to say a special word of thanks to Michael Jursa and his colleagues for his 
unwitting contribution in the shape of the lists of words which regularly appear in the Archiv fur 
Orientforschung. 

Given that our intention has been to create a work tool for students, we have striven to keep the cost of 
the volume as low as possible, and the text has been supplied to the printers in camera-ready form. For 
the first nine years of our work, which was done on a series of Macintosh machines, we used a font 
called "Raydia", designed and given to us by Roy Norman. We are very grateful for this: although with 
the passage of time it has been overhauled for technical reasons, his font made a substantial contribution 
to the dictionary. For the final camera-ready version we converted the font to "Assyrian Dictionary", 
originally generated for the Oriental Institute in Chicago. Guy Deutscher gave unstintingly of his time 
and computing expertise in the final stages of producing the printout. For ever-present help with 
computing resources in Trinity College, Cambridge, our thanks are due to Laura Cordy and Peter 
Thompson. Nicholas Postgate would also like to include a special word of thanks to Neil Mitchison, on 
whose verandah in Brebbia large sections of the first draft were transcribed. 

Over the years we have had a great deal of financial assistance for the support of our collaborators. 
Our thanks are due to the British Academy, to the C.H.W. Johns Memorial Fund and to the Master and 
Fellows of Trinity College in Cambridge, to the Shillito Fund and the Faculty of Oriental Studies in the 
University of Oxford, and to the School of Oriental and African Studies in the University of London. 



Jeremy Black 

Faculty of Oriental Studies 

University of Oxford 



Andrew George 

School of Oriental and African Studies 

University of London 



Nicholas Postgate 
Faculty of Oriental Studies 
University of Cambridge 



July 1999 



Introduction 



The purpose of the dictionary 

The demand for a relatively short and inexpensive dictionary of Akkadian is undeniable, especially in the 
English-speaking world. The only complete and sufficiently modem dictionary of Akkadian available 
hitherto is Wolfram von Soden's Akkadisches Handworterbuch (AHw). While anyone working 
seriously on the textual riches of the ancient Near East will end up reading German, it is not encouraging 
for beginners in Akkadian to be told that they must learn German first. The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary 
(CAD) still lacks several volumes (at the time of writing, P, R, T, T and U), and even more than AHw it 
is far too expensive for a beginner or for those with a non-specialist interest in the language. Moreover, 
there is the purely physical consideration that neither dictionary can be conveniently transported in even 
the most capacious briefcase. 

Our experience in our respective universities suggests that for these reasons A Concise Dictionary of 
Akkadian (CDA) will be much used by students, and in their first year or two this is perfectly 
appropriate. Nevertheless, we must stress here that it is in no way a substitute for the two fundamental 
Akkadian dictionaries. Far more than in modem or even Classical languages, these are essential research 
tools, which need to be constantly consulted by anyone working on the original texts. There are several 
reasons for this. The CDA does not give textual references, so that the contexts in which a word is used 
cannot be controlled, which is essential as soon as finer nuances of meaning require to be established. 
Nor can our succinct presentation convey the relative rarity of many words, or indeed the degree of 
uncertainty surrounding their normalization, meaning, or even their very existence. In AHw and CAD 
the writing of the word is given sign by sign for each textual passage. The normalized transcription of 
each Akkadian word is derived from an interactive process drawing on the attested writings and our 
perceptions of the morphophonemic structure of Akkadian. Especially with infrequent words the attested 
writings can often admit of more than one defensible normalization, an ambiguity to which the format of 
CDA cannot do full justice. The actual writing of a word may also include a determinative which can 
help to define the area of meaning (e.g. gis for wooden and kus for leather items), and this too is not 
usually given in CDA. Further, CDA does not list the lexical equivalences, whether with Sumerian or 
synonyms in Akkadian, and these too can play a major role in establishing a word's meaning. 



CAD, AHw and new material 

As explained in the Preface, the CDA is based on Professor von Soden's AHw. This means that unless 
there was a compelling reason to the contrary, we have accepted the normalization and translation of a 
word as given in AHw. We have however used different principles for determining the alphabetical 
order of the entries, and adopted a simplified numbering system for words normalized identically. The 
publication of AHw was spread over more than twenty years, from 1958 to 1981. There are inevitably 
changes and inconsistencies in its format and content. Some of these will be reflected in the CDA, 



Introduction 



CDA 



though we have of course noted the detailed addenda and corrigenda at the end of the third volume of 
AHw. In preparing these, Professor von Soden took account of relevant volumes of the CAD, when 
these existed; for the CDA we have checked our first draft against all published volumes of the CAD. In 
the Nachwort to AHw (in Band III) Professor von Soden explains that the pressure of time did not 
allow him always to take account of newly emerging philological commentaries or all of the reviews 
devoted to both the AHw and the CAD in journals. We have consulted such reviews, as also the lists of 
words treated in Assyriological literature published in the Archiv fur Orientforschung, and some of the 
principal textual editions which have appeared since the completion of the AHw itself. Consequently 
there are additions and occasional corrections to AHw incorporated in the CDA. The style of the 
dictionary does not permit us to provide chapter and verse in justification of such changes, and the 
Editors are considering how best to make such justification available to colleagues. We must stress that 
there are certainly many more improvements which could have been made on the basis of the 
Assyriological literature published since 1982 but which we have not taken on board, and significant 
fresh material appears every year. We would be grateful to receive suggestions from colleagues for 
addenda and corrigenda for an eventual revised edition. 



Principles for ordering of lemmata 

The words ("lemmata") are arranged in the order of the English alphabet, ignoring any internal brackets 
and using the generally accepted conventions that dotted letters (s and t) follow the undotted letter, and s 
follows s. We have not used the symbol ^ in our dictionary, although this is found occasionally in AHw 
in some Old Akkadian contexts, nor have we used the vowel o, nor a symbol for the velar nasal in some 
loanwords from Sumerian. In our transcriptions and in the alphabetical ordering we use the letter y 
instead of the,/' of AHw (and of CAD, which follows German practice). This means that I and Y entries 
are separated from each other, but in a single volume this should not cause inconvenience. 

Those familiar with other Semitic languages should note that neither /h/ nor /h/ is recognized in 
transcriptions of Akkadian, although there is good reason to think that the difference between the two 
phonemes is reflected in the realization of an underlying adjacent /a/ vowel as a or e respectively. A 
glottal stop indicated in the cuneiform script is often represented in our transcription by an aleph ( '); this 
need not always have been an aleph in origin, and again the difference between a Semitic aleph and 'ayin 
is reflected in the realization of an underlying adjacent /a/ vowel as a or e. This is not the place to discuss 
the realization of other phonemes surviving in Arabic such as the ghayin. 

The only other problem with the alphabetization concerns letters with a macron, for long vowels, or a 
circumflex, for contracted vowels, and words transcribed with an aleph ( ' )• The principle by which these 
are ordered is relatively unimportant to the user, since all words displaying the same basic letters are 
placed together. AHw and CAD have quite different practices, and ours is different again. To satisfy the 
curious our practice is as follows: words are first ordered alphabetically ignoring macrons and 
circumflexes, so that all words containing the same letters in the same order are found together. Within 
the resulting groups of words, starting from the beginning of each word, words containing unmarked 
vowels are placed before those containing vowels with macrons, and both are placed before vowels with 
circumflexes. As for aleph, it does not count as a "letter" for alphabetization purposes, and does not have 
a position in the alphabetical sequence. A word containing an aleph will be placed immediately after the 
same sequence of letters without an aleph, or in the place where that word would be if it existed. 

Following AHw the head-words are presented in their notional Old Babylonian forms, in contrast to 
the CAD which adopts a Standard Babylonian version. This has certain consequences for the order of 
the lemmata, most significantly that words with an initial /w/ are found under W, and verbs with HI as 
middle radical are to be sought under their uncontracted form (e.g. didnum). There are inevitably 
difficulties with words whose root has /w/ as a first radical. In some cases one derivative from the root 
(e.g. the verb) may be attested in Old Babylonian and listed under W, while another derivative (e.g. an 



CDA 



XI 



Introduction 



adjective) may only be known from later dialects, in which case it will probably be found in A. In these 
cases the derivations and derivatives listed at the end of the entries should make the position clear. 

Mimation (that is, the final -m of the nominative case ending) is ignored in the alphabetic ordering of 
the entries; this usually makes very little difference to the order, but note that the final -m of dative or 
loc.-adv. forms is observed, and this can have a significant effect on the position of some entries, such as 

-kum or ahum. 

Words with identical transcriptions, or differing only by the presence or absence of mimation, are 
differentiated by Roman numerals (e.g. kibsu(m)l, kibsuJI). In CDA only the substantive entries 
(shown in a bold font) are numbered thus; where we also list an identically transcribed word or words 
as a variant of a word or words whose substantive entry is elsewhere (shown in italics), a cross- 
reference to that entry is given, but unlike AHw further Roman numerals are not assigned to the 
variant(s). 



The lemma 

Nouns are listed in the nominative singular, as are adjectives in their masculine form. A few nouns are 
cited in nominative plural form where a singular is not attested. Verbs are listed in the nominative 
infinitive of the G stem, where that stem is attested (or has been reconstructed for the convenience of the 
dictionary, in which case the reconstructed form may be marked with an asterisk, e.g. *ahu(m)). In most 
instances where a verb is not attested in the G stem it will be listed under the D, S or N form, whichever 
is attested. Note that such forms can be tracked down by use of the index of roots (pp. xvii-xxiv). 
Quadriliteral verbs are listed under their N stem, if this is attested, where the S stem will also be found; if 
only the S stem is known, seek it under S. 

As in AHw the lemmata are presented in their Old Babylonian or Old Assyrian form, where attested. 
In these cases, as with the occasional word attested only in Old Akkadian, the form will normally retain 
its mimation. If the word is also attested in later dialects the mimation is bracketed, e.g. eleppu(m), and if 
it is not attested in any of the earlier dialects, no mimation is shown. As mentioned above, the mimation 
is ignored in the alphabetization. There are special problems with Assyrian forms, and the following 
guidelines, which were adopted late in the day, may not have been applied fully consistently. Where a 
Babylonian form exists it is used as the head-word, and Assyrian forms which differ in accordance with 
regular changes between the two dialects are not separately specified: thus, for instance, the Assyrian 
emddu(m) is not specified in the entry emedu(m) since this is an entirely predictable change, and the 
same applies to short syllables subject to vowel assimilation, such as nemudu for the Babylonian 
nemedu. Nonetheless, in some cases such forms have been mentioned for the user's convenience. 
Where, on the other hand, no Babylonian form is attested, the word is cited in its Assyrian form. Thus 
the verb etaku is known only from Assyrian texts and we have refrained from inventing its Babylonian 
equivalent, so that it is listed as etaku (not eteku). Similar considerations apply e.g. to wazzunum and 
nouns such as uthurum. Again the list of roots (pp. xvii-xxiv) should assist the user in tracking down 
some of these less predictable entries. 

After the first form of the lemma, shown in bold type, other forms may be listed, in italics. These may 
be contemporary variants, or the forms attested in other dialects either as a result of predictable dialectal 
differences or less regular changes. The different dialects are often specified, but the caveats applying to 
the dialectal distribution of the word as a whole (see below) also apply here. In many cases we are at 
present unable to determine the correct normalization of a word, because of ambiguities in the way it is 
written in cuneiform: in such cases the format is x (or v), implying that one or other of the forms is 
possible (but not both). 



Introduction 



CDA 



Difficulties tracking down a word 

The ambiguities of the cuneiform script frequently make it difficult to track a word down, especially for 
the student starting out. Apart from problems caused by incorrect grammatical analysis of verbal forms, 
most elusive words will be located by trying one of three strategies. The first is to look under e instead of 
i, or vice versa: many cuneiform signs do not distinguish the two vowels (such as li = le), and even 
signs which can (such as mi and me) are often used "wrongly" for each other. In general, AHw and 
hence CDA normalize to e (rather than i) more frequently than CAD, and in particular the rule is usually 
observed that /i/ followed by /r/ or /h/ in a closed syllable is realized as /e/ (see GAG §9b). Hence the 
/pirsum/ form of pardsum has to be sought under persum. A second frequent difficulty is posed by the 
inability of many cuneiform signs to differentiate voiced from unvoiced and emphatic from unemphatic 
consonants. Thus the sign DA may be read as da or ta, AD as ad, at or at, BU can be bu and pu, and 
UB can be ub or up; etc. etc. This is in most cases purely a graphic uncertainty caused by the 
multivalence of the sign, and it is not the duty of the dictionary to alert the user to all these options. (One 
particular problem of Old Babylonian texts is posed by cases where a word with a written h may 
alternate with forms showing no consonant in that position (e.g. (h)aldlu). The real nature of the 
phoneme is difficult to determine, and it is not assisted by the use of the AH sign, which in OB may also 
be used for a glottal stop, and only after 1500 was differentiated from the new sign A'). Thirdly, 
especially in earlier texts the scribes often did not indicate double consonants. Hence those reading 
cuneiform texts need to bear in mind the possibility that where they see only a single written consonant it 
may be shown by us as doubled. 

Further details of the lemma 

Where desirable to avoid uncertainty, a word may be followed by a statement identifying its part of 
speech (e.g. adv.) or by f. for feminine nouns not instantly recognizable as such, pi. for nouns cited in 
their plural form, or pi. tant. for nouns cited and thought to occur solely in the plural. There may also 
follow, introduced by f. or pi., feminine or plural forms of the word; these are usually only given where 
they diverge from the expected. 

The principal meaning(s) 

The meaning of a word is normally presented between inverted commas, thus "elephant". For verbs, the 
English infinitive is used at first, thus "to cut off", but the "to" is not repeated further on in the article. 
Alternative English renderings of the same area of meaning are separated by commas, "to gain control of, 
acquire", while distinct meanings may be separated by semicolons, "to restore; have success". When the 
meaning of a word is not known or unclear, the dictionary states mng. unkn., mng. unci, or mng. uncert., 
categories which obviously overlap. Following AHw practice, single inverted commas are sometimes 
used to convey the "original" or "etymological" meaning of a word, a concept which may overlap with 
"literally". The symbol ~ before a meaning signifies "approximately". In many cases, especially with 
nouns, the broad area of meaning is certain but the precise translation impossible to determine; with these 
generic meanings the broad area is indicated between parentheses, e.g. (a plant) or (a disease). If a 
precise but tentative identification can be suggested we have tended to use the formulation: (a plant, 
phps.) "parsley". 



The periods of attestation 

After the principal meaning(s) are shown the dialects in which the word is attested, unless it is 
encountered generally throughout the Babylonian and Assyrian dialects of Akkadian, in which case in 
keeping with AHw practice no dialectal distribution is given. After Old Akkadian in the 3rd millennium 



CDA 



Introduction 



BC, we distinguish the two main dialects of the vernacular, each of which is divided chronologically into 
Old, Middle or Neo-Babylonian (OB, MB and NB) and Old, Middle or Neo-Assyrian (OA, MA and 
NA). These main periods may be be further refined by geographical qualifications, such as (N.Mes.), 
(Bogh.) or (Urar.). After about 1500 BC, in a parallel development, a more or less degraded version of 
Old Babylonian was preserved by the scribal tradition in Babylonia, in Assyria, and in the various 
surrounding centres where Akkadian was used as a legal or scholarly medium. This is called 
"jungbabylonisch" by German philologists, which corresponds broadly to the term "Standard 
Babylonian" introduced for the CAD. However, the two terms do not coincide exactly and we have 
elected to retain the abbreviation "jB", partly because it is very familiar to Assyriologists, and partly to 
emphasize that the period attribution is that of AHw. It is probably not necessary to underline that there 
was always a degree of cross-fertilization between the "jB" literary dialect and the contemporary 
vernaculars, especially Middle and Neo-Babylonian. 

There is only one important respect in which our period designations diverge from AHw, and that is 
in our abandonment of the category "spatbabylonisch" (spB). The CAD uses the equivalent term "Late 
Babylonian", but differently at different stages of the dictionary's compilation. The task of establishing 
our own criteria and applying them to each entry consistently was too daunting, and we decided that for 
our purposes the simplest solution was to include all spB (and CAD LB) references under Neo- 
Babylonian. Users of CDA should therefore be aware that NB now includes both the later vernacular 
(after 625 BC on) and other texts of the Persian and Seleucid periods not written in jB or Standard 
Babylonian. 

It is important to emphasize that these chronological and geographical categories cannot reflect the real 
distribution of each word's usage, only its attestations. The periods listed refer only to the texts from 
which the word is known to us, not to the periods in which the word may really have been used. In the 
course of preparing the CDA one of the commonest changes from AHw has been the addition of new 
period attestations, and we can be confident that as new texts are found many of our words will turn up 
outside their presently known range of dialect and time. 

While mentioning dialectal distribution we should refer to the limits of our textual catchment area. 
Generally the dictionary includes words in Akkadian texts from the earliest Old Akkadian in the 24th 
century BC to the latest cuneiform texts of the 1 st century AD. Akkadian, like 20th century English, was 
abroad church, and under "Akkadian texts" we include even the most divergent products of Human or 
Canaanite scribes. This means that the dictionary does include loan words from other languages (such as 
Hurrian, Sumerian and West Semitic languages) provided they have been incorporated into an Akkadian 
text; however such words are not included when they are listed as equivalents of Akkadian words in 
bilingual or multilingual texts. In general, Akkadian words attested solely in texts in other languages are 
not included, but where a known Akkadian word is encountered, for instance, in a Hittite or Elamite text, 
this may be recorded. 



Amplified meanings 

After the statement of dialectal attestation there follows amplification of the meaning(s), which differs in 
its arrangement from entry to entry. In the case of verbs the entry is arranged according to the_ verbal 
stems attested (G, D, S and N, with tn and t forms of each where appropriate; and the occasional SD and 
R stems). The vowel of class (a/a, Hi, ulu, alu etc.) is usually stated for the G stem, together with other 
details of the conjugation which are not to be predicted. In longer entries where the further meanings can 
be divided into significant groups they may be numbered ( 1 ., 2., etc.). These groups are not intended to 
correspond to similar subdivisions in the corresponding AHw entries. Such numbering is also used in 
cases, mostly nouns, where quite distinct meanings are given under a single entry. 



Introduction 



CDA 



Logograms 

Logographic writings of a word, usually borrowed from Sumerian, are shown in small Roman capitals 
between square brackets, thus [UDU]. They are usually placed after the dialectal distribution, but different 
logographic writings may apply to parts of an entry only (e.g. to the D stem of a verb, or a specialized 
usage of a noun), in which case they are shown in the appropriate place. No uniformity prevails among 
cuneiform specialists in the transcription of logograms. With rare exceptions we have adopted the values 
given in R. Borger, Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste (3. Auflage, with Supplement; Alter Orient und 
Altes Testament 33/33A, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1986), since it seems best that the work-tools of the 
Assyriologist should be as consistent with each other as possible. Borger's choice of transcription is 
intended not merely to indicate the sign in use, but also to reproduce the presumed Sumerian value 
associated with that meaning. Hence, in contrast to AHw, we write [MA.GURs] rather than [mA.TU] as 
the logogram for makuru(m); this does not imply that AHw was wrong, but is a necessary consequence 
of our exclusion of the lexical section of the AHw entries, from which the user can usually identify the 
"correct" Sumerian values. 

Derivations and derivatives 

Akkadian is unusual among Semitic languages in that our modern dictionaries are arranged alphabetically 
word by word, instead of by roots. This is a consequence of two considerations: there are too many 
foreign imports from languages which do not share the Semitic word structures (primarily of course 
Sumerian), and in too many cases the (usually) triliteral root of an "indigenous" Akkadian word cannot 
be confidently identified. In this respect we have followed the practice of AHw and CAD, but one can 
only regret the consequent separation of closely related words from their close relatives, so that, for 
instance, kinu(m), mukinnu(m) and takittum have to be sought in different parts of the dictionary. As a 
poor mitigation of this separation, at the end of each entry for an "indigenous" Akkadian word are listed 
words "derived" from it (preceded by the symbol >), and/or a word from which it "derives" (preceded 
by <). It will hardly need stressing that one form does not always strictly derive from another, but for 
pure convenience we have adopted the convention that the verbal infinitive is primary, and other forms 
derive from it. In some cases, where two closely related forms are placed next to each other, we have not 
felt the need to state their relationship (e.g. gasisis and gasisu(m)). 

When a word is borrowed into Akkadian from elsewhere, the derivation section merely indicates the 
presumed language of origin (preceded by <), e.g. Sum., Hurr., W.Sem., Ug., Hitt., Elam. etc. 



Cross-references 

After the derivatives section (and elsewhere) there may also be cross-references introduced by an arrow 
(-»). These often go back to the "rod-and-ring" symbol adopted by AHw, and like it they are intended to 
draw the user's attention to another entry for a variety of different reasons. Similarly with the many 
italicized head-words which are followed only by an arrow referring the user to a main entry, the form in 
question may not always be listed under the main entry since some are forms not acknowledged by CDA 
but listed solely to assist the user in tracking down the correct entry. There are however many fewer such 
cross-references than in AHw, partly because the density of entries on the page makes them less 
necessary. In particular cross-references to an entry have generally not been included where they would 
have come immediately before or after it. 



Key to abbreviations 



abbr. 


stands for 


abbr. 


abbreviation, abbreviated 


absol. 


absol ute(ly) 


abstr. 


abstract 


ace. 


accusative 


Achaem. 


Achaemenid inscriptions 


act. 


active 


adj. 


adjective, adjectival 


adv. 


adverb(ial) 


Akk. 


Akkadian 


Alal. 


Alalakh 


Am. 


El-Amama 


appos. 


apposition 


Arab. 


Arabic 


Aram. 


Aramaic 


arch. 


archaic, archaizing 


archit. 


architecture, architectural 


Ass. 


Assyrian 


astr. 


astrological, astronomical 


Bab. 


Babylonian 


BC 


before Christ 


Bogh. 


Boghazkoy 


c. 


circa 


caus. 


causative 


cf. 


comparer 


cohort. 


cohortative 


col. 


colophon(s) 


coll. 


collective 


comb. 


combination(s) 


comm. 


commentary 


condit. 


conditional 


conj. 


(subordinating) conjunction 


dat. 


dative 


denom. 


denominative 


descr. 


description 


desig. 


designation, designating 


det. 


determinative 


dimin. 


diminutive 


dir. 


direct 


distrib. 


distributive 


DN 


divine name 


du. 


dual 


Eg. 


Egypt(ian) 


e.g. 


exempli gratia 



Elam. 


Elamite 


ellipt. 


elliptical 


epith. 


epithet 


erron. 


erroneous(ly) 


esp. 


especially 


Esn. 


Esnunna 


etc. 


et cetera 


etym. 


etymology 


euph. 


euphemism, euphemistic 


ext. 


extispicy 


f. 


feminine 


fact. 


factitive 


fDN 


female divine name 


fig. etym. 


figura etymologica 


fPN 


female personal name 


freq. 


frequent(ly) 


GAG 


W. von Sod en, Grand) iss der 




akkadischen Grammatik (3., erganzte 




Auflage; Rome 1985) 


gen. 


genitive 


gener. 


general(ly) 


Gilg. 


Epic of Giigames 


Gk. 


Greek 


gramm. 


grammatical 


hendiad. 


hendiadys 


Hitt. 


Hittite 


Hurr. 


Human 


hypocorist. 


hypocoristic 


i.e. 


id est 


imper. 


imperative 


incl. 


including 


indie. 


indicative 


indir. 


indirect 


Indo-Iran. 


Indo-Iranian 


infin. 


infinitive 


ingress. 


ingressive 


intens. 


intensive 


interj. 


interjection 


interrog. 


interrogative 


intrans. 


intransitive 


Iran. 


Iranian 


irreg. 


irregular 


iter. 


iterative 


JB 


jungbabylonisch 


Kass. 


Kassite 



Abbreviations 


leg. 


legal 


lex. 


lexical(ly) 


lit. 


literature, literary 


liter. 


literal(ly) 


loc.-adv. 


locative-adverbial 


log. 


logogram 


Iw. 


loanword 


m. 


masculine 


MA 


Middle Assyrian 


mag. 


magic(al) 


math. 


mathematical 


MB 


Middle Babylonian 


med. 


medicine, medical(ly) 


metath. 


metathesis(ed) 


meteor. 


meteorological 


misc. 


miscellaneous 


Mit. 


Mittani 


MN 


month name 


mng. 


meaning 


myth. 


mythological 


NA 


Neo-Assyrian 


NB 


Neo-Babylonian 


neg. 


negative 


N.Mes. 


North Mesopotamia 


nom. 


nominative 


nom. unit. 


nomen unitatis 


OA 


Old Assyrian 


OAkk 


Old Akkadian 


OB 


Old Babylonian 


obj. 


object 


obi. 


oblique 


occas. 


occasional(ly) 


om. 


omen(s) 


OPers. 


Old Persian 


opp. 


opposite 


orig. 


originally 


o.'s 


one's 


o.s. 


oneself 


P- 


page 


pass. 


passive 


perf. 


perfect 


pers. 


person(al) 


phps. 


perhaps 


pi. 


plural 


PIN 


place name 


pi. tant. 


plurale tantum (plural only) 


PN 


personal name 


poet. 


poetic 


pos. 


positive 


poss. 


possessive 


prec. 


precative 


pred. 


predicate, predicative 


prep. 


preposition(al) 


pres. 


present 


Pre-Sarg. 


Pre-Sargonic 


pret. 


preterite 


prob. 


probable, probably 



CDA 



prof. 


profession(al) 


proh. 


prohibitive 


pron. 


pronoun, pronominal 


ptcl. 


particle 


ptcp. 


participle 


rdg. 


reading 


recipr. 


reciprocal(ly) 


ref. 


referring 


refl. 


reflexive 


rel. 


relative 


rit. 


ritual 


RN 


royal name 


roy. inscr. 


royal inscription(s) 


Sanskr. 


Sanskrit 


Sem. 


Semitic 


sg- 


singular 


sim. 


similar(ly) 


s.o. 


someone 


sq. 


square 


st. abs. 


status absolutus 


stat. 


stative 


st. constr. 


status constructus 


s.th. 


something 


subj. 


subject 


subjunct. 


subjunctive 


subord. 


subordinate 


subst. 


substantive(s), substantival 


suff. 


suffix(es) 


Sum. 


Sumerian 


syll. 


syllable, syllabic(ally) 


syn. 


synonym 


term.-adv. 


terminative-adverbial 


TN 


temple name 


topog. 


topographical(ly) 


trans. 


transitive 


transf. 


transferred 


Ug- 


Ugarit(ic) 


uncert. 


uncertain 


unci. 


unclear 


unkn. 


unknown 


Urar. 


Urartu, Urartian 


usu. 


usually 


var. 


variant(s) 


vb. 


verb(al) 


vent. 


ventive 


voc. 


vocative 


vol. 


volume 


W.Sem. 


West Semitic 


wr. 


writing, written 


Symbols 




~ 


approximately 


< 


comes from 


> 


goes to 


-> 


see 


* 


unattested form 



Index of verbal roots 



This index refers the reader to those lemmata which are verbs in which the given root letters occur. It is 
intended for practical purposes, to assist the user in identifying a particular verb and find its entry in the 
dictionary, and does not necessarily carry any implications about the history or etymology of the verb. It 
does not refer to other parts of speech. The aleph sign used here (') stands for all weaknesses, including 
medial a, I, and u, but excluding initial w. 

aparu(m); eberu(m) I; 

eperu(m) 
epesum I; uppusu II 
epesu(m) II 
eqfl(m); uqqfl(m) II 
ekepu(m) 
eqequ 

(w)aqaru(m) 
aru(m) III.IV.VI; 

eru(m) III; warum II 
erebu(m) I; nerubu(m) 
aradu; (w)aradu(m) 
arat)u(m) MI; erehu 
araku(m) 
araniu 
erepu(m) 
araru(m) II.III; ereru(m); 

na'arruru(m) 
sutersu(m) 

eresu(m) I.H; *warasum 
azu(m) I; esfl 
ussudu 

esebu(m) I; ezej)u(m) 
esehu(m) I; esequ(m) 
eselu 

(w)asamu(m) 
esepu(m) 
esequ(m) 
eseru(m) II.III 
esu; (w)asu(m) 
wasabum 
esedu(m) II 
eselu(m) 
esenu(m) 

esepu(m); wasabum 
eseru(m) II; eseru(m); 

ussuru(m) II.III 



" 


hahu II 


•kl 


akalu(m); ekelu(m) 


'pr 


•d 


adu 


'km 


akamu II; ekemu(m) 




•1 


alu; e'elu(m) 


•kp 


ekepu(m); ukkupu 


•ps 


Y 


eru(m) 


•ks 


ekesu 


•ps 


's 


wiasum 


•ks 


akasu(m) 


'q' 


's 


asu 


•r 


elu(m) III; utlellu(m) 


'qb 


b' 


apu III; ebu II 


'I" 


sutelu'u 


'qq 


bb 


ebebu(m) 


•Id 


(w)aladu(m) 


'qr 


bd 


abatu(m) II 


'lh 


elehu(m) 


V 


bh 


ebetju 


•Ik 


alaku(m) 




bk 


abaku(m) I.H 


•II 


alalu(m) II.III; 


Yb 


bl 


abalu(m); apalu(m) I; 




elelu(m) II.III 


Yd 




ebelu; wabalu(m) 


•ir 


ne'ellu 


'* 


br 


abaru(m)III; 


•Ip 


alapu(m); elepu(m) 


•rk. 




eberu(m) I. II 


'1? 


elesu(m) 


'rm 


'bs 


uppusu II 


•It 


alatu(m); palatum 


'rp 


•bt 


abatu(m) I.H 


'm' 


amOm V; ewOm I; itmu 


'rr 


'bt 


ebetu(m) I.II; ubbutu IV 


'md 


emedu(m) 




YT 


edu(m) II 


'mm 


ememu(m) 


'rs' 


•db 


edepu(m) 


'mq 


emequ(m) I.II 


Ys 


•dd 


ededu(m) 


'mr 


amaru(m) I.II; 


's' 


'dh/k 


edehu(m) 




emeru(m) I.II 


•sd 


•dl 


edelu(m) 


'ms 


amasu 


'sb 


'dm 


adamum 


'ms 


amasu; emesu(m) I.II 


•sk 


'dp 


edepu(m) 


'ms 


amasu; emesu 


•si 


'dq 


edequ(m) 


V 


enu(m) HI 


'sm 


'dr 


adaru(m) I.II; ederu(m) 


'nb 


enebu 


•sp 


•ds 


edesu(m) 


'nb 


anahu(m) I.II 


•sq 


'g' 


egu(m) III 


'nn 


enenu(m) I.II.III.IV; 


'sr 


'gg 


agagu(m); ekeku; eqequ 




utnenu(m) II 


's' 


"gni 


agamu 


'nq 


enequ(m) 


' 


b 


'gr 


agaru(m); egeru(m) 


'ns 


enesu(m) 


' 


d 


¥ 


abO(m) II; harju II 


'nt 


enetu 


' 


,1 


'hr 


atjaru(m) 


'P' 


apu III; epu(m) II 


' 


>n 


'hz 


a()azu(m) 


'Pi 


apalu(m) I.II; 


' 


5P 


•k' 


ekO(m) II 




uppulu(m) II 


' 


>r 


•kd 


ekedu(m) 


'PP 


apapum 




•kk 


ekeku 


'pq 


epequ(m) 







Jf 



Verbs 


il roots 




xviii 




CDA 


's' 


ese'u(m); esu(m) IV.V; 


bit) 


barabu 


drr 


dararu(m) I.II 




isu(m) 


brm 


baramu(m) I.II 


drs 


darasu(m) 


'sb 


esebu; (w)asabu(m) 


brq 


baraqu(m) 


drs 


darasu(m) I.II; darasu(m) 


'sr 


asaru(m); eseru(m); 


brr 


bararu 


ds' 


desu(m) 




(w)asaru(m) 


brs 


barasu 


dsp 


dasapu(m) 


'ss 


asasu(m) III.IV; 


brs 


barasu 


dw' 


dawum 




ussusu(m) III 


bsl 


basalu 






't' 


nentu 


bsm 


bussumu(m) II 


g" 


ga'u; ga'um 


'tk 


ataku; etaku 


bsr 


bussuru(m) 


g'r 


giaru(m) 


'tl 


itulu(m) 


bsr 


basaru(m) 


g's 


gesu(m) I; gesu(m) I 


'tm 


etemu(m) 


bss 


basasu 


g's 


gSsu(m) I.II; g6su(m) I.II 


'tn 


etemu(m) 


bil 


basalu(m) 


gbb 


kababu II 


'tq 


etequ(m) 


bsm 


basaniu(m) II.II1 


gdd 


gadadu 


'tr 


(w)ataru(m) 


bss 


basasum 


gdm 


gadamu 


't' 


etQII 


bs' 


basu(m) 


gbb 


gubbubu 


't' 


etelu(m) 


btq 


bataqu(m) 


gl' 


galO II 


'tr 


eteru(m) I.II 


btr 


butturu II 


gib 


gullubu(m) II 


'w' 


awOm; ewOm I.II 


btl 


batalu(m) 


gid 


galatu(m) 


'z' 


azO(m) I; ezfl(m) I.II 


bt' 


bedum 


g'l 


galalu II; gullulu(m) 


'zb 


ezebu(m) 


bz'/b 


baza'um 


gls 


galasu; gullusu 


'zh 


ezetju(m) 






g't 


galatu(m) 


'zr 


azaru; esefu(m) II; ezeru 


d'b 


da'apu 


git' 


nagaltO 


'zz 


ezezu(m); izuzzum 


d'k 


daku(m) 


gm' 


gama'u 






d'l 


dalu(m) 


gml 


gamalu(m) 


b" 


ba'u(m)UI;bu"u(m)II 


d'm 


da'amu(m) I.II 


gmm 


gamamu 


b'd 


biatum 


d'n 


dianum 


gmr 


gamaru(m) II 


b'l 


ba'alu(m); balu; belu(m); 


d'p 


da'apu; depu 


gmt 


gummutu 




bullu I 


d'r 


duarum 


gn' 


genu 


b'r ' 


baru(m) I.II.III; 


d's 


dasu(m) 


gnb 


ganabu 




beru(m) I.II 


d's 


diasum 


gnn 


gananu 


b's 


ba'asu; basu(m) I.II; 


dbb 


dababu(m) II 


gns 


ganasu 




be'esu(m); besu(m) 


dbq 


dubbuqu 


gp' 


gepu 


b't 


biatum 


dbr 


dabarul 


gpr 


gaparu(m) 


b't 


batu 


dgl 


dagalu(m) 


gps 


gapasu(m) 


bbl 


babalu(m); wabalu(m) 


dh/ 


dabfl(m) II 


gr' 


gerii(m) 


bd' 


bedum 


dbs 


dubbusu 


grd 


garadu(m) 


bdd 


buddudu 


dk' 


dekfl(m) n 


grb 


garasu 


bdb 


badabu 


dkk 


dakaku(m) I.II 


grm 


garamu 


bdm 


badamu 


dkm 


dakamu 


gm 


qaranu(m) 


bdq 


bataqu(m) 


dks 


dakasu(m) 


grr 


qararu(m); sugarruru(m) 


bds 


badasu 


dl' 


dalull 


grs 


karasu(m) 


W 


batju II; bu"u(m) II 


dlb 


dalabu(m) 


grs 


garasu(m); qarasu(m) 


t*r 


beheru; bubburu 


dll 


dalalu(m) I.n 


grs' 


*nagarsO 


bhs 


buhbusu 


dlb 


dalapu(m) 


g?? 


gazazu(m); kasasu(m) I 


bk' 


baku(m) 


dip 


dalapu(m) 


gs' 


gesu 


bl' 


belO(m) II 


dm' 


dawflm; dummQ 


gsr 


gasaru(m) 


blkt 


nabalkutu(m) II 


dmni 


damamu(m) 


gss 


gasasu(m) 


bll 


balalu(m) 


dmq 


damaqu(m) 


gz' 


gutezzu 


blm 


balamu 


dms 


damasu 


gzz 


gazazu(m) 


bis 


balasu I.II 


dms 


damasu 






bit 


balatu(m) II 


dn' 


danu(m) 


b'b 


babu; biapum 


bn' 


banu(m) II.IV 


dnn 


dananu(m) II 


b'd 


biadu; b>atu(m) 


bnn 


bunnunu 


dpn 


dapanu(m) II 


b'l 


bSlu; bialum 


bql 


baqalu 


dpr 


duppuru(m) I 


b'P 


bapu; b'apum 


bqm/n 


baqamu(m) 


dqq 


daqaqu 


b'q 


bSqu; hiaqu(m) 


bqr 


baqaru(m); buqquru; 


dqs 


daqasu(m) 


b'r 


hiaru(m) 




(w)aqaru(m) 


dr' 


darfl(m); derfl; durrQ(m) 


b's 


basu 


bqs 


baqasu 


drg 


darakum II 


b's 


bSsu(m) I.II; biasum 


br' 


barO(m) I.III.IV; 


drk 


daraku(m) I.U.UI 


b't 


batum 




beru(m) II; bitru II 


drq 


darakum II 


b't 


biatu(m) 



CDA 






xix 




Verbal roots 


hb' 


habu(m) II.III.IV; 


hrr 


araru(m) III; bararu(m) I; 


kll 


kullulu(m) II; 




kubbO II 




subarruru(m) II; subruru 




suklulu(m) II 


hbb 


hababu(m) 


brs 


barasu 


klm 


kullumu(m) 


hbl 


habalu(m) Il.m.IV 


hrs 


barasu(m); karasu(m) 


klm' 


nekelmO(m) 


t)br 


habaru(m) I.II; kabaru(m) 


hrs 


barasu(m)I.II.m 


kls 


kalasu(m) 


hbs 


habasu(m) I.II 


brss 


naharsusu 


km' 


kamQ(m) II; kawQm II 


hbs 


habasu(m) I.II 


hrt 


haratum 


kmd 


kamadu(m) 


hbt 


habatu(m) I.ILID.IV 


bs' 


besO(m) 


kml 


kamalu 


hd' 


hadu(m) III.IV 


hsp 


hasapu(m) 


kmm 


kamamu 


bdd 


hadadu I.II; kadadu 


hsr 


hasaru(m) 


kmr 


kamaru(m) IV 


hdl 


hadalu(m) I.II 


bss 


basasu(m) 


kms 


kamasu(m) I.II 


hdq 


hadaqu 


hs' 


hazOm II 


kms 


kamasu(m) I.II 


hdr 


adaru(m)I 


bsb 


basabu(m) I.II 


kms 


kamasu(m) II 


hds 


badasu 


bsn 


basanu(m) 


kn' 


kanu(m) 


bV 


bahu II 


bss 


*asasu(m) I.II 


knb 


kunnupu 


hk' 


hakum 


hs' 


haifl(m) IV.V.VI 


knk 


kanaku(m) 


hkm 


hakamu(m) 


bsb 


hasabu 


knn 


gananu; kananu(m) 


hkr 


hakaru(m) 


hsh 


hasabu(m) 


knp 


kunnupu 


hi' 


balflm III; helu(m) II 


hsl 


basalu(m) 


kns 


kanasu(m) I.II 


hlb 


halabu 


hsr 


basaru 


knz 


kanazu 


h" 


alalu II; halalu(m) I.II.III 


hss 


basasu(m) I.II 


kp' 


kepu(m) 


b'P 


halapu(m) I.II 


bf 


batu(m) II.III 


kpd 


kapadu(m) 


hlq 


halaqu(m) 


btk 


batakum 


kpl 


kapalu(m) 


his 


halasu(m); harasu(m) 


btn 


hatanu 


kpp 


kapapu(m) 


his' 


nebelsu(m) 


htp 


hatapu(m) 


kpr 


kaparu(m) I.II.III 


his 


halasu(m) 


btr 


bataru 


kps 


kapasu(m)II 


hit 


halatum 


ht' 


batO(m) II 


kps 


kapasu(m)II 


hm' 


hama'u; hamu I.II; hawfl 


htm 


hatamu 


kps 


kapasu(m) 


hind 


hamadu(m) 


htp 


hatapu(m) 


kpt 


kapadu(m); kapatu(m) 


hml 


hamalu 


hit 


hatatu(m) I.II 


kr' 


heru(m) II; kara'u; 


hinm 


hamamu(m) 


hw' 


bawQ 




karO(m) II 


hmr 


hainaru(m); bemeru 


hz' 


azQ(m) I 


krb 


karabu(m)II 


hms 


bamasu(m) 


hz' 


hazflm II; butenzu 


krk 


karaku 


hms 


hamasu(m) I.II; 


bzm 


hazamu 


krm 


karamu(m) 




kamasu(m) II 


hzq 


bazaqu 


krr 


kararu I.n 


hint 


hamatu(m) II.III 






krs' 


karasu 


'in' 


hanu(m) II; bunnu(m) 


k" 


gS'u; ka"u 


krs 


karasu(m) 


hnb 


banabu(m) 


k'd 


kadu(m) I.II 


krt 


karatu 


hnm 


hanamum 


k'n 


kanu(m) 


krt 


karatu(m) 


hnn 


hananu 


k'l 


kullu(m) III 


ks' 


kasu(m) III 


hup 


hanapu I.II 


k'p 


kapu 


ksm 


kasamu(m) 


hnq 


hanaqu(m) 


k'r 


kSru(m) I.II 


ksp 


kasapu(m) I.II 


hns 


hanasu 


k's 


kSsu(m) 


ksr 


kasaru(m) 


hns 


kanasu(m) I 


k's 


kasu 


kss 


kasasu(m) 


hp' 


hapum; bepu(m) II 


k's 


kasu 


ks' 


kasO(m) III 


hpd 


huppudum II 


kb' 


kubbu II; kubbu'u 


ksb 


kasabu 


hpp 


hapapu I.II 


kbb 


kababu II; kapapu(m) 


ksd 


kasadum 


hpr 


haparu(m) I.II; beperu 


kbd 


kabatu(m) 


ksp 


kasapu 


hpt 


hapatum 


kbl 


kabalu(m) 


ksr 


kasaru(m) 


hqm 


huqqumum 


kbr 


kabaru(m) 


kss 


gazazu(m); kasasu(m); 


hqr 


haqaru 


kbs 


kabasu(m); kapasu(m) II 




kasasu(m) I 


h'" 


liaru IV; heru(m) II 


kbs 


kapasu(m) II 


ks' 


kasu(m)I.II.III 


hrb 


harabu; harapu(m) I 


kbs 


kabasu(m); kabasu 


ksd 


kasadu(m) 


hrbs 


naharbusu 


kbt 


kabatu(m) 


ksb 


hasahu(m) 


hrd 


haradu(m) III.IV 


kdd 


kadadu 


ksp 


kasapu(m) 


hrk 


haraku 


kdn 


kuddunu 


ksr 


kasaru(m) 


hrm 


liaramu(m) I.II 


kdp 


kadapu 


kss 


kasasu(m) I.II 


hrmm 


nahannumu ' 


kdr 


kadaru(m)II.in.IV 


kst 


kasatu(m) 


hnnt 


nahannutu(m) 


kl' 


kalQ(m)V 


kt' 


kata'um 


hrp 


harapu(m) I.II 






ktm 


katamu(m) 



Verbal roots 




XX 




CDA 


ktr 


kataru I.II 


m'q 


muqqu II 


msk 


masaku(m) 


ktt 


katatu(m) 


m'r 


maru; (w)aru(m) 


msl 


masalu(m) 


ktp 


qatapu(m) 


m's 


mSsu; mesu(m) 


msr 


masaru(m); (w)asaru(m) 


kw' 


kawum II 


m's 


masu(m); wiasum 


mss 


masasu(m) 


kzb 


kazabu(m) I.II 


m's 


mSsu; mesu(m); muasu 


mth 


matahu 


kzr 


kezeru(m) I 


m't 


matu(m) 


mtq 


mataqu(m) 


kzz 


gazazu(m) 


m'z 


mazu(m) 


mtr 


mataru(m); (w)ataru(m) 






md' 


medu 


mt' 


matu(m) II 


1" 


le'u(m); lu"u(m) II 


mdd 


madadu(m) I.II 


mz' 


maza'u(m) II; mazum II 


l'b 


la'abu(m) 


mdl 


madalu 


mzq 


mazaqu 


I'd 


ladu(m) 


mdr 


madaru(m) II 


mzr 


masarum; masaru(m); 


I'k 


leku(m) 


mgg 


magagu 




mazaru 


I'm 


lemu(m); luamum; 
lummu II 


mgr 


magaru(m); makaru(m) I; 
mugguru 


mzz 


muzzuzu 


1'P 


la"upum II; liapum 


mgs 


muggusu(m) 


n" 


na'u; na'u(m); n6'u(m) 


Ps 


la'asu(m); lasu I.II 


mh' 


mahu(m) 


n'd 


na'adu(m); nadu(m) 


l't 


la'atu 


mbb 


ma(iat)u(m) 


n'h 


nahu(m) 


l't 


latu(m) 


mbl 


mahalu 


n'k 


naku; niaku(m) 


lb' 


labu; lawum II 


mhr 


ma(iaru(m) 


n'l 


itulu(m); na'alu(m); 


lbb 


lababu(m) 


m(is 


mahasu(m) 




nalu(m) 


lbt 


lapatu(m) 


mk' 


maku(m) III.IV; 


n'm 


na'amu(m) 


lbk 


labaku(m) 




meku(m) V 


n'p 


na'apu(m); napu I.II 


lbn 


labanu(m) 


mkk 


makaku 


n'q 


naqu(m) I.II 


lbr 


labaru(m) 


mkl 


mekelu 


n'r 


na'aru(m); neru(m) 


lbs 


labasu(m) 


mkr 


makaru(m) I.II 


n's 


na'asu(m) 


lgg 


lagagu 


mks 


makasu(m) 


n's 


nasu(m) 


lhb 


laJjabu 


mks 


makasu 


n's 


na'asu; nasu(m); nesu(m) 


lhd 


lahatu 


ml' 


mala'u; malu(m) IV 


n't 


netu I.II 


Him 


lahamu(m) I.II; lehemu 


mid 


(w)aladu(m) 


n't 


natu 


His 


lahasu(m) 


mlh 


malahu IV 


nb' 


naba'u(m); nabu(m) II; 


lht/t 


lahatu 


mlk 


malaku(m) II.III 




nebu(m) II 


Ik' 


laku(m) II; leku 


mil 


malalu(m) I; melulu(m) 


nbb 


nababu 


lkd 


lakadu(m) 


mls/s 


malasu 


nbh 


nabahu 


lkk 


lukkuku 


mlt 


malatu 


nbk/q 


nabakum 


lks/s 


lukkusu 


mn' 


manu(m) IV; menu(m) 


nbt 


nabatu(m) 


IP 


lalu II; lullu II 


mqr 


(w)aqaru(m) 


nbz 


nabazu 


lm' 


lawum II; lemu(m) I.II 


mqq 


magagu 


nd' 


nadu(m) III.IV; 


lmd 


lamadu(m) 


mqt 


maqatu(m) 




natu(m) IV 


Imm 


lamamu I.II 


mr' 


marfl(m) II.III; murru I 


ndd 


nadadu(m) 


Imn 


lemenu(m) 


mrh 


marat)u(m) 


ndk 


nadaqu 


1ms 


Uimmusu 


mrk' 


namarku 


ndn 


nadanu(m) II 


lpn 


lapanu(m) 


mrq 


maraqu(m) 


ndq 


nadaqu 


lpp 


lapapu(m) 


mrr 


mararu(m) I.II. Ill 


ndr 


nadaru(m) I.II 


lpt 


lapatu(m) 


mrs 


marasu 


nds 


nadasum 


iq 1 


laqa'u; leku; lequ(m) II 


mrs 


marasu(m) 


ngb 


nagabum 


Iqh 


laqahu 


mrs 


*warasum 


ngg 


nagagu(m) 


lqt 


laqatu(m) 


mrt 


maratu 


ngl 


nagalu 


Ism 


lasamu(m) 


ms' 


mesu(m) II; wussum 


ngr 


nagaru(m) II 


It' 


letu(m) II 


ms(i 


mas ahum 


ngs 


nagasu(m) 


ltk 


lataku(m) 


msk 


masaku(m) 


ng' 


nagu(m) II 


lw' 


lawum II 


msr 


masarum; masaru(m) 


nb' 


na^u; nebfl(m) II 


lz' 


lezu II 


ms' 


masu(m); (w)ussu(m) 


nhl 


nahalu(m) I.II 


Izn 


lezenu 


msl 


sumsulu(m) 


nhr 


naharu(m) I.II 


lzz 


lazazu 


msr 


masarum; masaru(m) 


nbs 


nahasu(m) 






mss 


muzzuzu 


nhs 


nuhhusu 


111" 


ma'u(m); ma'u(m); 


ms' 


masa'u(m); masu(m) II; 


nhs 


na(iasu(m) 




mua'um 




mussu'u; sumsu(m); 


nht 


natjatu(m) 


m'd 


madu(m) 




wussum 


nht 


nuhhutu 


m'h 


niahum 


msd 


masadu(m) 


nkd 


nakadu(m) 


in' n 


manu 


ms(i 


masahu(m) I.II 


nkl 


nakalu(m) 



CDA 






xxi 




Verbal roots 


nkm 


nakamu(m) 


nzr 


nazaru(m) 


ps' 


pasu; pesu 


nkp 


nakapu(m) 


nzz 


nasasu I; nazazu(m) 


psh 


pasahu(m) 


nkr 


nakaru(m) 






psk 


passuku 


nks 


nakasu(m) 


p'd 


padu(m); puadum 


psl 


pasalu(m) 


nks 


nakasu(m) 


P'g 


puagu(m) 


psm 


pasamu(m) 


ills 


nalasu(m) 


P'b 


pubbu(m) 


psn 


pesenu 


nm' 


itmfl; nawum II 


P'n 


penu 


psq 


pasaqu(m) 


nmr 


nawaru(m) 


p'q 


piaqum; puqqu(m) 


psr 


bussuru(m) 


nms 


namasu(m) 


P'r 


paru(m) I.II 


pss 


pasasu(m) 


np' 


napu(m) II; nepum; 


P'? 


pa'asu(m) 


P?' 


pesu(m) II 




nuppu'um 


p's 


pasu; puasu(m) 


psd 


pasadu(m) 


npd 


napadu II 


p't/t 


puadum 


psm 


pasftmu 


npg 


napagu 


pd' 


padfl(m) 


psn 


pasanu(m) 


nph 


napahu(m) 


Pg' 


pagQ(m) II 


P? s 


pasasu 


npk 


nabakum 


Pgl 


pagalu 


ps' 


pasu(m) 


npl 


napalu(m) I.II.III 


Pb' 


pebu(m) II 


psb 


pasat)u(m) 


npq 


nabakum; napaqu(m); 


Pbd 


pat)adu 


psl 


basalu(m); pasalu(m) 




nuppuqu(m) 


pbb 


pat)St)u 


psn 


pasanu 


npr 


naparu 


Pbr 


paharu(m) II 


psq 


pasaqu(m) 


np? 


napasu(m) 


pbs/? 


pat)asu(m) 


psr 


pasaru(m) 


nps 


napasu(m) I.II 


phz 


pahasu; pat)azu 


pss 


pasasu(m); pasasu 


npt 


napatu 


pkl 


pagalu 


pst 


pasatu(m) 


nq' 


naqu(m) 


pkr 


pakaru; pukkuru 


Pt' 


petu(m) II 


nqb 


naqabu(m) 


pl' 


pelO HI 


pth 


patahu(m) 


nqd 


naqadu(m) 


pld 


paladu II 


ptl 


patalu(m) 


nqr 


naqaru(m) 


p'b 


palahu(m) 


ptn 


patanu(m) I.II 


nrb 


narabu(m) 


plk 


palaku(m); palaqu(m) 


ptq 


pataqu(m) I.II 


nil 


naratu(m) 


plk' 


nepelku(m) 


ptm 


patamum 


ns' 


nesu(m) II 


pll 


palalum 


Ptr 


pataru(m) 


nsh 


nasahu(m); nasalju(m) 


plq 


palaqu(m) 


pzr 


pazaru(m) 


nsk 


nasaku(m) 


pis 


palasu(m) 






nsq 


nasaqu(m) 


p'sb 


napalsubu(m) 


q" 


ga'u; qu"u(m) 


nsr 


nasaru 


pis 


palasu(m) 


q'b 


qapu(m) 


nss 


nasasu(m); nasasu I 


pit' 


napaltu 


q'd 


qadu 


nsb 


nasabu(m) I.II 


pn' 


panu(m) 


q'i 


qa'alum; qalu(m); 


nsr 


nasaru (m) 


png/k 


panaku 




qialu(m) 


nss 


nasu(m) II 


pnn 


bunnunu 


q'p 


qapu(m); qiapu(m) 


ns' 


nasu(m) II; nesfl(m) 


pq' 


pequm 


q's/t 


qiasu(m) 


nsb 


nussubum 


pqd 


paqadu(m) 


qb' 


qabu(m) II; qu"u(m) 


nsh 


nasahu(m) 


pqr 


baqaru(m) 


qbl 


qitbulu; qubbulu 


nsk 


nasaku(m); nasaku(m) 


Pr' 


para'u(m) I.II; 


qbr 


qeberu(m) 


nsp 


nasapu(m) 




paru III.IV; purrum II 


qbt 


habatu IV; qubbutu 


nsq 


nasaqu(m) 


prd 


paradu(m) I.II 


qd' 


qada'um; qadu II 


nsr 


nasaru(m) I.II 


pra" 


napardfl II 


qdd 


qadadu(m) 


nss 


nasasu I.II 


prh 


para^u; paraku(m); 


qdp 


qadapu 


nt' 


natu(m) IV; nentu; 




para'u(m) I 


qds 


qadasu(m) 




nuttum II 


prk 


paraku(m) 


qi' 


qalu(m) II 


ntk 


nataku(m) 


prk' 


naparku II 


qll 


qalalu(m) I.II 


ntp 


natapu(m) 


prq 


paraqu 


qlp 


qalapu(m) 


ntr 


nataru 


prqd 


naparqudu(m) 


qlt 


qullutu 


nt' 


natu(m) III.IV 


prr 


pararu(m); 


qm' 


qamu(m) II; qemum; 


ntl 


natalu(m) 




suparruru(m) II 




qu"u(m) 


ntp 


natapu(m) 


prs 


parasu(m) I.II 


qmm 


qamamu 


nw' 


nawu(m) II 


prsb 


napalsu^u 


qms 


qummusu 


nwr 


nawaru(m) 


prs 


parasu(m) I.II 


qn' 


qanu(m) II; qenu 


nz' 


nezu 


prs 


naprusu(m) II; parasu(m) 


qnn 


kananu(m); qananu(m) 


nzl 


nazalu(m) 


prsd 


naparsudu(m) 


qnp 


qunnupu 


nzm 


nazamu(m) 


prsm 


parsumu 


qlp' 


neqelpu(m) 


nzp 


nazapum 


PI 


paratu 


qp' 


qapu 


nzq 


nazaqu(m) 


przb 


suparzuhu 


qpl 


kapalu(m) 



Verbal roots 


qr' 


qeru(m) 


qrb 


qerebu(m) 


qrd 


garadum; qaradu(m) 


qrh 


qarahu 


qrm 


qaramu 


qm 


qaranu(m) 


qrr 


qararu(m) 


qrs 


qarasu(m) 


qsd 


qasadu(m) 


qf 


qada'um; qatu(m) II 


qtl 


qatalum 


qtn 


qatanu(m) 


qtp 


qatapu(m) 


qtr 


qataiu II 


qt' 


qatfl 


qtp 


qatapu(m) 


qw' 


qu"u(m) 


r" 


ra'u; re'u(m) 


r'b 


ra'abu(m); rabu(m); 




riabu(m) 


r'd 


radu(m) 


i'h 


riahu(m) 


r'k 


rakii 


r'm 


ramu(m) II.III; remu(m) 




ru"umu 


r'q 


requ(m); riaqu(m); 




ruaqu(m) 


r's 


rasu(m) 


r's 


rasu(m); resu(m) 


r's 


rasu(m); riasu(m) 


r't 


ratu(m) 


r'z 


ra'azu 


ib' 


rabu(m) II.III; rubbu'um 


rbb 


rababu(m) 


rbk 


rabaku(m) 


rbq 


rabaqum 


lbs 


rabasu(m) 


rbs 


rabasum 


id' 


redfl(m) I.II 


rdd 


radadu(m) 


rdm 


radamu 


rdp 


radapu 


r g' 


ruggu(m) 


rgb 


ragabu; ruggubu II 


rgg 


ragagu(m) I.II 


I'gm 


ragamu(m) 


I'gS 


ragasum 


'b' 


rehu(m) 


rhb 


ra'abu(m) 


*b 


rahahu(m) 


ihp 


ruhljupu 


rhs 


rahasu(m) I.II.III 


ihs 


rahasu(m) 


iht/t 


rahatu 


rkb 


rakabu(m) 


rkk 


rakaku 


rkn 


rakanu(m) 


rkp 


rakabu(m) 


rks/s 


rakasu(m) 



CDA 



rm' 


ramu(m) II.III 


rmk 


ramaku(m) 


rmm 


ramamu(m); ramu(m) II 


rms 


ramasu 


IP' 


rapa'um 


rpd 


rapadu(m) II 


rpq 


rapaqu(m) 


rps 


rapasu(m) 


rps 


rapasu(m) 


rpt/t 


rapatu 


rq' 


raqu(m); ruqqu 


rqb 


raqabu 


rqd 


raqadu(m) 


rqq 


ragagum II; raqaqu(m) 


rs' 


russu(m) 


rsb 


rasabu(m) 


rsn 


rasanu(m) 


rsp 


rasabu(m) 


rs' 


rasum ' 


rsd 


rasadu(m) 


rsn 


rasanu(m); rasanu(m) 


rsp 


rasapu 


rs' 


rasu(m) I.II.III 


rsb 


rasabu(m); rasabu(m) 


rsd 


rasadu 


rsk 


rasaku(m) 


rss 


rasasu 


rt' 


retu(m) II 


rth 


ruttutiu 


rtm 


ratarnu 


rtt 


ratatu 


rt' 


retu(m) II 


rtb 


ratabu(m) 


rtp 


ratapu(m) 


rz' 


razu 


rw' 


re'u(m) 


ry' 


re'u(m) 


s" 


sa'u(m); se'u 


s'b 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 


s'd 


sadu(m); sedu 


s'k 


saku(m) 


s'l 


sa'alu; salu 


s'm 


siamu(m) 


s'p 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 


s'q 


siaqu(m) 


s'r 


saru(m); seru(m) 


s's 


su"usu 


s't 


satu 


sb' 


saba'u(m); sabu(m) 


sbk 


sabaku(m); tabaku(m) 


sbl 


zabalu(m) 


sbs 


subbusu II; sabasu(m) 


sbs 


sapasu 


sdd 


sadadu(m) I.II 


sdh 


sadahum 


sdr 


sadaru(m) 


sg' 


sagu I; segu 


sb' 


sehu(m) 


sbb 


sat)at)u(m) 



sbl 


sahalu(m) 


sb,m 


sat)amu(m) 


shn 


sahanu 


sbP 


satjapu(m) 


sbr 


sabaru(m) 


shs 


sahasu(m) 


skd 


zaqadum 


skk 


sakaku(m) 


ski 


sakalu(m) I.II 


skn 


sakanu; sakanu(m) 


skp 


sakapu(m) I.II 


skr 


sekeru(m) I.II 


skt 


sakatu(m) 


si' 


salal)u(m) II; 




sala'u(m) I.II.III; 




sullu(m) I; 




salu(m) I.II.III 


sld 


salatu(m) II 


slh 


salahu(m) I.II 


sll 


salalu(m) 


slm 


salamu(m) II 


sin 


sullunu II 


slq 


salaqu I.II 


sit 


salatu(m) II 


sm' 


samu II 


smd 


samadu(m) 


smh 


samabu(m) 


smk 


samaku(m) 


smr 


samamm 


sins 


samasu(m) 


snb 


sanapu(m) 


snn 


sananu 


snp 


sanapu(m) 


snq 


sanaqu(m) I.II 


sns/s 


sanasu 


sp' 


sepu(m) II.III; suppu II 


spd 


sapadu(m) 


sph 


sapalju(m) 


spk 


sapaku 


spn 


sapanu(m) 


spq 


sapaqu 


spr 


seperu 


sqd 


zaqadum 


sql 


saqalu 


sqp 


zaqapu(m) 


sqr 


zakaru(m); zaqaru(m) 


sr' 


surruml; zaru(m) II 


srd 


saradu(m); seredu 


srh, 


sarat)u(m) 


srm 


saramu(m) 


srp 


sarapu 


srq 


saraqu(m) 


srr 


sararu(m); sarruru 


ss' 


sasu(m) 


stl 


satalu 


strj 


sadahum 


str 


sataru(m) II 


s" 


se'u; sua'u 


s'd 


sadu(m) I.II 



CDA 






xxiii 




Verbal roots 


s'b 


siahu(m) 


. s't 


setu(m) II 


smk 


samabu(m) I 


s'l" 


salu(m) 


s't 


satu I.II; setu(m); siatu 


smm 


samamu 


s'n 


sanu; senu(m) 


sb' 


sapu(m) II.IV; sebu(m) I 


smr 


samaru(m) I.II 


; ?'P 


suppu II 


sb" 


*sube"u(m) 


smt 


samatu; samatu(m) II 


s'r 


seru(m); surrum IV 


sbb 


sababu(m) I.II 


smt 


samatu(m) I.II 


; ?'y 


se'u 


sbh 


sababu I; sapabu(m); 


sn' 


sana'u; 


sb' 


saba'um; sabu(m) II; 




subbuhu 




sanu(m)III.IV.V.VI; 




sapu(m) II; subbu(m) 


sbr 


seberu(m) 




senu(m) 


sbb 


sababu 


sbs 


sabasu(m) 


snh 


sana'u 


sbl 


zabalu(m) 


sbs 


sapasu(m) 


snn 


sananu(m) 


sbr 


sabaru(m) I.II 


sbs 


sabasu(m); sabasu(m) 


snq 


sanaqu(m) I; sunnuqu 


sbt/t 


sabatu(m) 


sbt 


sapatu(m) I; subbutu 


sns 


sanasu 


sd' 


sadu(m) 


sbt 


sabatu(m) II 


sns 


sanasu 


sdr 


sadaru 


sd' 


sada IV; tuddu 


sp' 


suppu II; 


shr 


seheru(m) 


sdd 


sadadu(m) 




sapu(m) II.III.IV; 


slit 


sahatu(m) I.II 


sdb 


sadahu(m) 




sepum 


si" 


sala'u; selu(m) I.II; sullQ 


sdl 


sadalu(m) 


sp'l 


supelu(m) 


sll 


salalu(m); sullulu(m) II 


sg' 


segfl(m) II 


spb 


sapahu(m) 


slm 


salamu(m) 


sgg 


sagagu 


spk 


sapaku(m) 


sip 


salapu(m) 


sgl 


sagalu(m) 


spl 


sapalu(m) 


sm' 


samu(m) II 


sgm/n 


sagamu(m) II 


SPP 


sapapu(m) 


smd 


samadu(m) II 


sgrr 


sugarruru(m) 


spr 


saparu(m); sitpuru 


smn 


zummunu 


sgs 


sagasu(m) 


sps 


sapasu 


smr 


samaru(m); semeru(m) 


sb' 


sabfl II.III; sebu; 


sp? 


sapasu(m) 


smt 


samatu 




subbu(m) II.III.IV 


sps 


sapasum 


snh 


sanahu 


shd 


sabadum 


spt 


sapatu; sapatu(m) I.II 


sp' 


sapu(m) II 


sbb 


sababu(m) 


spt 


sapatu(m) I.II 


sph 


sappuhu 


shl 


sabalu(m) 


sq' 


saqu(m) II.III 


spn 


sapanu 


shn 


sabanu(m) 


sql 


saqalu(m) 


SPP 


sababu 


sbq 


sebequ 


sqll 


suqallulu(m) 


spr 


saparu(m) 


sbrr 


subarruru(m) II; suhruru 


sqmm 


suqammumu(m) II 


srd 


saratu(m) 


sbt 


sabatu(m) III.IV 


sqr 


saqaru 


srh 


sararju(m) I.II.III.IV; 


sbt 


sabatu(m) III.IV; 


sr' 


saru(m) II; 




surruhu II 




sabatu(m) I.II.III 




seru I.II.III.IV; 


srk 


sarakum 


sk'n 


sukenu(m) 




surru(m) II.IV 


srm 


saramu(m) 


skk 


sakaku(m) 


srb 


sarabu 


srp 


sarapu(m) I.II 


ski 


sukkulu(m) 


srbs/t 


nasarbutu(m) 


srr 


sararu(m); sararu(m) I.II 


skm 


sakamu(m) I.II; 


srd 


sitrudu 


srs 


sarasu(m) 




sakanu(m) 


srb 


sarabu(m) I.II.III 


Sll 


saratu(m) 


skn 


sakanu(m) 


srk 


saraku(m) I.II 


sw' 


sawwum 


skr 


sakaru 


srm 


saramu(m) 






sks 


sakasum 


srp 


sarapu(m) 


s" 


sa'u(m); se'u(m) I.II; 


sks 


sakasu(m) 


srq 


saraqu(m) I.II.III 




se'u(m); suhtju III; 


sks 


sagasu(m) 


srr 


sararu(m) I.II.III 




suta"um 


skt 


sakatu(m) I.II 


srs 


sarasu 


s'b 


sabu(m); siabum 


si' 


sala'um; salQ(m) I.II.III; 


srt 


saratu(m) 


s'b 


sebu; siabu(m) I 




selQ II.III 


ss' 


sasfl(m) 


s'k 


saqum II 


slg 


salagu(m) 


St' 


satu(m) II.III 


s'l 


salu(m) I.II; selu(m); 


sib 


salabu(m) I.II; salabu(m) 


sth 


satahu 




sialu(m) 


sll 


salalu(m) I.II.III 


stn 


satanu 


s'm 


samu(m); siamu(m); 


slm 


salamu(m) II 


stp 


satapu; sutattupu 




summu(m) II 


sip 


salapu(m) 


stq 


sataqu 


s'n 


senu; *sianum; sunnu(m) 


sip' 


nesalpu 


st' 


setu(m) II 


s'P 


sepu 


slq 


salaqu(m) 


stp 


satapu(m) 


s'q 


saqu(m) I.II.III.IV; 


sis 


salasu(m) 


str 


sataru(m) II 




s6qu(m) 


sit 


salatu(m) I.II 


s» 


satatu 


S'r 


sa'aru(m); saru; se'eru; 


sm' 


sawum II; semu(m) I 


sw' 


sawum II 




seru(m); surru(m); 


smd 


samadu 


swr 


suwwurum 




sus'uru 


smb 


samabu(m); 






s's 


siasum 




samabu(m) I.II 


t" 


tamu II; ta'u(m); te'u 



Verbal roots 




xxii 




CDA 


CDA 






xxiii 




Verbal roots 


qr 


qeru(m) 


rm' 


ramu(m) II.III 


shl 


sarjalu(m) 


?'b 


siahu(m) 


. s't 


setu(m) II 


smk 


samarju(m) I 


qrb 


qerebu(m) 


rmk 


ramaku(m) 


sbm 


sal)amu(m) 


s'l 


salu(m) 


s't 


satu I.II; setu(m); siatu 


smm 


samamu 


qrd 


garadum; qaradu(m) 


rmm 


ramamu(m); ramu(m) II 


shn 


sahaiiu 


s'n 


sanu; senu(m) 


sb' 


sapu(m) II.IV; sebu(m) I 


smr 


samaru(m) I.II 


qrh 


qarahu 


rms 


ramasu 


sbP 


sahapu(m) 


s'P 


suppu II 


sb" 


*sube"u(m) 


smt 


samatu; samatu(m) II 


qrm 


qaramu 


■P' 


rapa'um 


srjr 


saharu(m) 


s'r 


seru(m); surrum IV 


sbb 


sababu(m) I.II 


smt 


samatu(m) I.II 


qm 


qaranu(m) 


rpd 


rapadu(m) II 


shs 


sa(iasu(m) 


?'y 


se'u 


sbh 


sabahu I; sapahu(m); 


sn' 


Sana' u ; 


qrr 


qararu(m) 


rpq 


rapaqu(m) 


skd 


zaqadum 


sb' 


saba'um; sabu(m) II; 




subbuhii 




sanu(m) III.IV.V.VI; 


qrs 


qarasu(m) 


rps 


rapasu(m) 


skk 


sakaku(m) 




sapfl(m) II; subbu(m) 


sbr 


seberu(m) 




senu(m) 


qsd 


qasadu(m) 


rps 


rapasu(m) 


ski 


sakalu(m) I.II 


sbb 


sababu 


sbs 


sabasu(m) 


snh 


sana'u 


qf 


qada'um; qatu(m) II 


rpt/t 


rapatu 


skn 


sakanu; sakanu(m) 


sbl 


zabalu(m) 


sbs 


sapasu(m) 


snn 


sananu(m) 


qtl 


qatalum 


rq' 


raqfl(m); ruqqu 


skp 


sakapu(m) I.II 


sbr 


sabaru(m) I.II 


sbs 


sabasu(m); sabasu(m) 


snq 


sanaqu(m) I; sunnuqu 


qtn 


qatanu(m) 


rqb 


raqabu 


skr 


sekeru(m) I.II 


sbt/t 


sabatu(m) 


sbt 


sapatu(m) I; subbutu 


sns 


sanasu 


qtp 


qatapu(m) 


rqd 


raqadu(m) 


skt 


sakatu(m) 


sd' 


sadu(m) 


sbt 


sabatu(m) II 


sns 


sanasu 


qti 


qataru II 


rqq 


ragagum II; raqaqu(m) 


si' 


salahu(m) II; 


sdr 


sadaru 


sd' 


sadQ IV; tuddu 


sp' 


suppu II; 


qt' 


qatu 


rs' 


russu(m) 




safa'u(m)I.II.III; 


§b r 


seheru(m) 


sdd 


sadadu(m) 




sapu(m) II.III.IV; 


qtp 


qatapu(m) 


rsb 


rasabu(m) 




sullu(m) I; 


srjt 


sahatu(m) I.II 


sdh 


sadahu(m) 




sepum 


qw' 


qu"u(m) 


rsn 


rasanu(m) 




salu(m)I.II.III 


si' 


sala'u; selu(m) I.II; sullO 


sdl 


sadalu(m) 


sp'l 


supelu(m) 






rsp 


rasabu(m) 


sld 


salatu(m) II 


sll 


salalu(m); sullulu(m) II 


sg' 


segfl(m) II 


spb 


sapahu(m) 


r" 


ra'u; re'u(m) 


rs' 


rasum ' 


sib 


salarju(m) I.II 


slm 


salamu(m) 


sgg 


sagagu 


spk 


sapaku(m) 


r'b 


ra'abu(m); rabu(m); 


rsd 


rasadu(m) 


sll 


salalu(m) 


sip 


salapu(m) 


sgl 


sagalu(m) 


spl 


sapalu(m) 




riabu(m) 


rsn 


rasanu(m); rasanu(m) 


slm 


salamu(m) II 


sm' 


samu(m) II 


sgm/n 


sagamu(m) II 


spp 


sapapu(m) 


r'd 


radu(m) 


rsp 


rasapu 


sin 


sullunu II 


smd 


samadu(m) II 


sgrr 


sugarruru(m) 


spr 


saparu(m); sitpuru 


■'b 


riahu(m) 


rs' 


raJu(m) I.II.III 


slq 


salaqu I.II 


smn 


zummunu 


sgs 


sagasu(m) 


sps 


sapasu 


r'k 


rakii 


rsb 


rasabu(m); rasabu(m) 


sit 


salatu(m) II 


smr 


samaru(m); semeru(m) 


sb' 


sahfl II.III; sehu; 


sp? 


sapasu(m) 


r'ni 


ramu(m) II. Ill; remu(m); 


rsd 


rasadu 


sm' 


samu II 


smt 


samatu 




suhhO(m) II.III.IV 


sps 


sapasum 




ru"umu 


rsk 


rasaku(m) 


smd 


samadu(m) 


snlj 


sanahu 


sbd 


sahadum 


spt 


sapatu; sapatu(m) I.II 


i'q 


requ(m); riaqu(m); 


rss 


rasas u 


smh 


samahu(m) 


sp' 


sapu(ni) II 


sbb 


sat)abu(m) 


SP! 


sapatu(m) I.II 




ruaqu(m) 


rt' 


retu(m) II 


smk 


samaku(m) 


sph 


sappuhu 


shl 


sahalu(m) 


sq' 


saqu(m) II.III 


r's 


rasu(m) 


rth 


ruttuhii 


smr 


samarum 


spn 


sapanu 


shn 


sa(ianu(m) 


sql 


saqalu(m) 


r's 


rasu(m); resu(m) 


rtm 


ratamu 


sins 


samasu(m) 


5PP 


sababu 


sbq 


sebequ 


sqll 


suqallulu(m) 


r's 


rasu(m); riasu(m) 


rtt 


ratatu 


snb 


sanapu(m) 


spr 


saparu(m) 


srjrr 


sut)arruru(m) II; sutjruru 


sqmm 


suqammumu(m) II 


i't 


ratu(m) 


rt' 


retu(m) II 


snn 


sananu 


srd 


saratu(m) 


sbt 


sarjatu(m) III.IV 


sqr 


saqaru 


r'z 


ra'azu 


rib 


ratabu(m) 


snp 


sanapu(m) 


srh 


sarahu(m) I.II.III.IV; 


sb! 


sabatu(m) III.IV; 


sr' 


saru(m) II; 


if 


rabu(m) II. Ill; rubbu'um 


rtp 


ratapu(m) 


snq 


sanaqu(m) I.II 




surruhu II 




sahatu(m) I.II.III 




seru I.II.III.IV; 


rbb 


rababu(m) 


rz' 


razu 


sns/s 


sanasu 


srk 


sarakum 


sk'n 


sukenij(m) 




surru(m) II.IV 


rbk 


rabaku(m) 


rw' 


re'u(m) 


sp' 


sepu(m) II.III; suppu II 


srm 


saramu(m) 


skk 


sakaku(m) 


srb 


sarabu 


rbq 


rabaqum 


ry' 


re'u(m) 


spd 


sapadu(m) 


sip 


sarapu(m) I.II 


ski 


sukkulu(m) 


srbs/t 


nasarbutu(m) 


rbs 


rabasu(m) 






sph 


sapahu(m) 


srr 


sararu(m); sararu(m) I.II 


skm 


sakamu(m) I.II; 


srd 


sitrudu 


rbs 


rabasum 


s" 


sa'u(m); se'u 


spk 


sapaku 


srs 


sarasu(m) 




sakanu(m) 


sr() 


sarat)u(m) LILffl 


id' 


redu(m) I.II 


s'b 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 


spn 


sapanu(m) 


srt 


saratu(m) 


skn 


sakanu(m) 


srk 


saraku(m) I.II 


rdd 


radadu(m) 


s'd 


sadu(m); sedu 


spq 


sapaqu 


sw' 


sawwum 


skr 


sakaru 


srm 


saramu(m) 


rdm 


radamu 


s'k 


saku(m) 


spr 


seperu 






sks 


sakasum 


srp 


sarapu(m) 


rdp 


radapu 


s'l 


sa'alu; salu 


sqd 


zaqadum 


s" 


sa'u(m); se'u(m) I.II; 


sks 


sakasu(m) 


srq 


saraqu(m) I.II.III 


rg' 


ruggO(m) 


s'm 


siamu(m) 


sql 


saqalu 




se'Q(m); suhhu III; 


sks 


sagasu(m) 


srr 


sararu(m) I.II.III 


rgb 


ragabu; ruggiibii II 


s'p 


sa'abu; sabu(m) 


sqp 


zaqapu(m) 




suta"um 


skt 


sakatu(m) I.II 


srs 


sarasu 


rgg 


ragagu(m) I.II 


s'q 


siaqu(m) 


sqr 


zakaru(m); zaqaru(m) 


s'b 


sabu(m); siabum 


si' 


sala'um; salfl(m) I.II.III; 


srt 


saratu(m) 


rgm 


ragamu(m) 


s'r 


saru(m); seru(m) 


sr' 


surrum I; zaru(m) II 


s'b 


sehu; siahu(m) I 




selfl II.III 


ss' 


sasu(m) 


rgs 


ragasum 


s's 


su"usu 


srd 


saradu(m); seredu 


s'k 


saqum II 


slg 


salagu(m) 


St' 


satQ(m) II.III 


■I)' 


rerju(ni) 


s't 


sat u 


sr() 


sarat)u(m) 


s'l 


salu(m) I.II; selu(m); 


sib 


salabu(m) I.II; salajjufm) 


sth 


satarju 


rlib 


ra'abu(m) 


sb' 


saba'u(m); sabu(m) 


srm 


saramu(m) 




sialu(m) 


sll 


salalu(m) I.H.ni 


stn 


satanu 


■lib 


rahahu(m) 


sbk 


sabaku(m); tabaku(m) 


srp 


sarapu 


s'm 


samu(m); siamu(m); 


slm 


salamu(m) II 


stp 


satapu; sutattupu 


dip 


ruhhupu 


sbl 


zabalu(m) 


srq 


saraqu(m) 




summu(m) II 


sip 


salapu(m) 


stq 


sataqu 


rhs 


rahasu(m) I.II.III 


sbs 


subbusu II; sabasu(m) 


srr 


sararu(m); sarruru 


s'n 


senu; *sianum; sunnu(m) 


sip' 


nesalpu 


sf 


setu(m) II 


rhs 


rahasu(m) 


sbs 


sapasu 


ss' 


sasu(m) 


s'P 


sepu 


slq 


salaqu(m) 


stp 


satapu(m) 


rht/t 


rahatu 


sdd 


sadadu(m) I.II 


stl 


satalu 


s'q 


saqu(m) I.II.III.IV; 


sis 


salasu(m) 


str 


sataru(m) II 


rkb 


rakabu(m) 


sdh 


sadahum 


sth 


sadahum 




sequ(m) 


sit 


salatu(m) I.II 


stt 


satatu 


rkk 


rakaku 


sdr 


sadaru(m) 


str 


sataru(m) II 


s'r 


sa'aru(m); saru; se'eru; 


sm' 


sawum II; semu(m) I 


sw' 


sawQm II 


rkn 


rakanu(m) 


sg' 


sagu I; segu 








seru(m); surru(m); 


smd 


samadu 


swr 


suwwurum 


rkp 


rakabu(m) 


sb' 


sehu(m) 


s" 


se'u; sua'u 




sus'uru 


smt) 


samahu(m); 






rks/s 


rakasu(m) 


shb 


sarjarju(m) 


s'd 


sadu(m) I.II 


s's 


siasum 




samahu(m) I.II 


t" 


tamu II; ta'u(m); te'u 



Verbal roots 


t'b 


tebum 


t'l 


telu(m) 


t'm 


tu"umu II 


1'P 


tapu; tebum 


t'r 


taru(m) 


tb' 


tebu(m) 


tbk 


tabaku(m) 


tbl 


tabalu(m) 


td' 


tuddu 


tdn 


tadanu(m) 


tgn 


taqanu(m) 


thh 


tahahu 


tkk 


takaku(m) 


tkl 


takalu(m) 


tkp 


takapu(m) 


tl' 


tullu II 


tlk 


tullukum 


til 


talalu(m); tullulu 


tlm 


sutlumu(m); tullumum 


tm' 


tamu(m) II.III 


tmh/k 


tamahu(m) 


tmm 


tamamum 


trar 


temeru(m) 


tp' 


tappum II; tapu 


tpk 


tabaku(m) 


tps 


tapasum 


tqm/n 


taqanu(m) 


tr' 


taru(m) I.H 


trh 


tarahu 


trk 


taraku(m) 


tup 


tarapu 


trq 


taraqu(m) 


trr 


tararu(m) 


trs/s 


tarasu 


trs 


tarasu(m) I.H 


trs 


tarasum 


ts' 


tasu(m); tesu(m) 


tsb 


*tasabu(m) 


tw' 


tawum 


tz' 


tesu(m) 


!'b 


tiabu(m) 


t'm 


temu(m) 


!'n 


tenu(m) 


t'P 


tapu(m) 


tb' 


tebu(m) 


tbh 


tabahu(m) 



CDA 



tb' 


tebu(m) I.H 


thd 


tahadu(m) 


tlm 


tullumum 


tm' 


tawum 


tmm 


tummumu II 


tnp 


tanapu 


!P' 


tapu; tepu(m) 


!P1 


tapalu(m) 


!PP 


tapapu 


tpr 


taparu(m) 


tps 


tapasu II 


tr' 


terfl(m) 


trd 


taradu(m) 


tf 


tararu 


trs/s 


tarasu 


trs 


tarasu 


tw' 


tawum 


w" 


wu"um 


w'r 


(w)aru(m) 


w's 


wiasum 


w's 


wesum 


wb' 


(w)aba'u(m) 


wbd 


wabatum 


wbl 


wabalu(m) 


wbt/t 


wabatum 


wd' 


tuddu; *wadum 


wkl 


wakalum 


wkm 


wakamu(m) 


wl' 


ala'u 


wld 


(w)aladu(m) 


wm' 


wama'um 


wml 


(w)amalu(m) 


wn' 


wana'um 


wp' 


(w)apu(m) 


wpd 


wabatum 


wps 


(w)apasu(m) 


wpt/t 


wabatum 


wq' 


(w)aqu(m) 


wqr 


(w)aqaru(m) 


wr' 


warum II 


wrd 


(w)aradu(m) 


wrh 


aralju(m) I 


wrq 


(w)araqu(m) 


wrs 


(w)arasu(m) 


ws' 


wussum 


wsm 


(w)asamu(m) 



wsq 


asaqu 


ws' 


(w)asu(m); (w)ussu(m) 


wsb 


wasabum 


wss 


(w)ussusu(m) 


ws' 


masu(m) II 


wsb 


(w)asabu(m) 


wsm 


wasamum 


wsp 


(w)asapu(m) 


wsr 


(w)asaru(m) 


wst 


(w)asatu(m) 


wt' 


(w)atu(m) 


wtr 


(w)ataru(m) 


wzn 


wazzunum 


z" 


ze'u; zu"u 


z'b 


zabu(m) 


z'k 


saku(m) 


z'n 


za'anu(m) 


z'p 


zu"upu 


z'q 


ziaqu(m) 


z'r 


zaru I; zeru(m) 


z'z 


zazu(m) 


zbl 


zabalu(m) 


zk' 


zaku(m) II 


zkd 


zaqadum 


zkp 


sakapu(m) I; zaqapu(m) 


zkr 


zakaru(m) 


zm' 


zemu; zummu(m) II 


zmn 


zummunu 


zmr 


samarum; zamaru(m) II 


zn' 


zenu(m) II 


znd 


zanadu 


znn 


zananu(m) I.H 


znq 


zunnuqu 


zpr 


zaparu 


zqd 


zaqadum 


zqn 


zaqanu(m) 


zqp 


zaqapu(m) 


zqr 


zakaru(m); zaqaru(m) 


zqt 


zaqatu(m) I.H 


zr' 


zaru(m) I 


zrb 


zarapu 


zrbb 


nazarbubu(m) 


zrp 


zarapu 


zrq 


zaraqu(m) 



A 



a — » ana I 

-a "my" ( 1 sg. pron. suff.); -» -I 

-a — » also -am 

a "that, those; the afore-mentioned" NB, late NA 
often wr. a', 04 (-► GAG §63g); < Aram, 
emphatic state 

-a "my" (1 sg. pron. suff.) NB for -i (-» GAG 
§42j-k') 

a, a-a — » ai I.H 

a-a- -» ayya. . ., ayyi. . ., ayyu. . . 

a'dlu—te'elu 

a"dlu — » e"elu 

a'dru — » warum 

ab — » abu I 

ababdum (a civil servant) OB; < Sum. 

ababim — » abu I 3 

ababu I "forest" jB lex. 

ababu II mng. unkn. jB lex. 

abddu — > abdtu II N 

abahsinnu(m), abahsennu, ebuhusinnu, 
ubuhsinnu ~ "stalk" Bab. as edible commodity 

abahu — » appahu 

abaku(m) I "to lead away" OA, NA, M/NB 
G (a/u) OA "take (commodities) to"; + vent, 
"fetch" commodities, animals; often with 
ippdniya ("myself in person"); Bab. as OA 
"take to", + vent, "fetch" objects, animals, also 
people, NB "hale" witness, debtor; NB ana 
kaspi a. 'take away for silver' = "buy" Gt Mari 
"lead away" D Mari "dispatch, forward" goods; 
jB "push away, displace"; NA "shift" work 
onto s.o. S jB "have s.o. bring" s.o. N pass, of 
G j/NB; > abku, abkutu, abiktu, dbiku 1 



abaku(m) II "to overturn, upset" O/jB G (a/u); 
also transf., omen, divine verdict, witchcraft 
D ~ G N pass, of G; > dbiku'- 

abal "without" NB 

aballu (a vessel for water); < Sum. 

abalu — > ablu 

abalu(m) "to dry (up)" Bab., NA G (a/a) 
[pAD.A] intrans. "become dry, dry up" O/jB of 
liquid, plant, swamp; of (parts of) body Gtn 
iter, of G D trans, "dry" (up) spittle; parts of 
body; drugs; swamp, field, orchard Dt pass, of 
D S ~ D, esp. stat.; > ablu; ndbalu, ndbalis, 
nubalum; tdbalu, tdbllu; ubbulu; sdbulu 

abalu — > also apdlu I; wabdlum 

abamatu "sea" jB lex. 

abarahhum (an object) OB 

abarakkatu(m), abrakkatu - "stewardess, 
housekeeper" O/jB, NA [munus.agrig] jB 
also as divine title; < Sum. 

abarakku(m) ~ "steward, housekeeper" Bab., 
M/NA [(LU.)AGRIG; NB also IGI.2.DUB] 
administrator of temple or secular household, 
later high state official; NA a. rabu "Chief 
Steward"; also as divine title; <Sum.; 
> abarakkutu; abarakkatu; — > abarikkum; 
masennu 

ab(a)rakkutu "function of stewardess" jB 
[MUNUS.AGRIG]; < abarakku 

abar(a)sa "truly, certainly" jB 

abarikkum, abrikklqqu, agriqqu = abarakku ? 
O/jB lex.; jB(lit.) also as divine title; < Sum. 

abarnium (a kind of cloth, phps.) "from 
Abarna" OA 

abartu(m) "opposite shore, bank" OAkk, NB 
(roy. inscr.) for ebertu I; < eberu I 



abaru(m) I 



abrammu 



abaru(m) I "(the metal) lead" [A.GAR5; 1st 
millennium roy. inscr. A.BAR], MA also 
annuku abdru; (at Assur) kisal a. "Lead 
Courtyard"?; < Sum.? 

abaru(m) II, occas. apdru, ubdru 1. Bab.(lit.) (a 
kind of clamp) 2. jB transf. "embrace, physical 
strength" of god, king, in bel a., gamer a.; sa a. 
"wrestler"; > abdru III 

abaru(m) III "to embrace" O/jB G (pret. ibir) 
D 1. of magic "embrace intensely, bind" limbs, 
person; of stars 2. leg. "accuse s.o., denounce"; 
< abdru II denom.; > mubbirtu; — > ibru; Ubdru 

abdru — > also habdru II G 

abaruh (an object) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

abasigga "receding water" jB lex.; < Sum. 

abaslu — > aslu 

abasmu, amaspu, amasmu, lex. also ahasmitu 
(a stone) M/jB, NA, often mag. 

abat(ti a)gurru — > abattu 5 

abattu MA, M/NB 1. "river-gravel" 2. jB "stone 
of carob(-bean)" 3. jB "pestle"; MA as PN 
4. MB, NB (a kind of irrigation pipe) 5. jB lex. 
abat(ti a)gurru "a. of baked brick" (a kind of 
flower) 

abatu — > awdtu 

abatu(m) I "to destroy" G (a/u, O/jB also 
i'abbat, i'but (-» GAG §97h)) objects, 
buildings; living beings; OA "ruin 
(economically)" D "destroy completely" 
objects, parts of body, living beings; jB occas. 
+ eli instead of ace. Dt pass, of D [GUL.MES] 
S caus. of G OB(lit.) N pass, of G (forms -» 
GAG §97j );>atou 

abatu(m) II "to run away, flee from" G (a/u) 
OA, OB "flee from, abandon" N (ndbutu, 
na'butu, ndbudu; Hi (-» GAG §971)) Bab., 
M/NA [zAy] "to escape" of slave, conscript; of 
political refugee; in battle Ntn Bogh. iter, of N 
"run away repeatedly" of servant; > munnabtu, 
munnabtuttu, ndbutum 

abatu — > also aptu 

abatu — > abiitu; apdtu 

ahd'u — > wahd'um 

abaya (a water-fowl ) jB lex. 

abb. . . also = ana h. . . 

abbalu "very sad" NB; < Aram. 

abbasu (a textile) MA 

abbatu —* ammatu II 

ahbd'u —* ahu I 

abbu "swamp"? jB; > abbu 

abbu — > abu I 

abbu "swamp fauna"? jB lex.; < abbu + -I 

abbunnu (a kind of bird) jB lex.; — > appdnum II 



abbuttanu; f. abbuttdnltu "wearer of abbuttu 
hair-style" MB as fPN; as name of horse 

abbuttu(m) (a hair-style) O/jB, Nuzi as mark of 
slavery; a. sakdnum "to give (s.o.) an a. hair- 
style", also as punishment; a. gullubu "to shear 
the a. hair-style off"; (a part of the head, of the 
hair) jB om., of baby's abnormality, of dog 

abbuttu — > also abbutu; apputtum II 

abbutu(m), Ass. abbuttu "fatherhood", esp. 
transf. "fatherly attitude, patronage"; a. X 
sabdtu "to adopt X's cause, intercede for X"; 
Mari abbut bltim "heads of households"; 
<abu I 

abbutu — > also abu I 

abdu "servant, slave" jB; < W.Sem. 

abdu (a prof, desig.) MB 

abgallu — > apkallu 

abiheri mng. unkn. Nuzi 

abiktu, NA apiktu "defeat" M/jB, NA 
[BAD5.BAD5(- ) (— > dabdu, tahtu)] a. sakdnu 
"to inflict a defeat"; lipi a. 'fat of the defeat' (a 
plant) jB lex.; < abdku I; > abkutu 

abiku mng unkn. jB lex.; < abdku ? 

abllum — > awllu 

dbilu — > dgilu 

abi(n)gallu (a priest) jB lex.; < Sum. 

Abirtum — > Ebirtum 

abiru (or ablru) ~ "weak, poor"? jB 

abltu — > ebltu 

abiyanum "poor" Mari; < W.Sem. 

abiyaru, NA abiyuru (a plant) jB/NA lex. 

abkigu only in pi. abkigetu "cow" jB(lit.); 
<Sum. 

abkininitu (a bird) jB lex. 

abku "captive" j/NB; < abdku I 

abkutu "defeated state" MB; < abiktu 

ablu, NB also abalu "dry, dried" [pAD.A] of 
meat; wood; asphalt; pi. ablutu "hay"?; < abalu 

abnu(m) m. & f.; pi. abnu and abndtu(m) 
"stone" [NA4] 1. "stone, rock" in gener. 
2. "(semi)precious stone" 3. compounds: aban 
alddi "birth stone"; a. ere "pregnancy stone"; a. 
isdti "fire stone, flint" 4. "stone (vessel)" jB, 
NA 5. "stone (bead)"; jB lex. "amulet-stone" 
6. O/MA, OB "stone (weight)"; Nuzi "pebble, 
counter" for accounting 7. transf. jB 
"(hail)stones" also a. same "hailstones"; lex. 
"stones, kernels of fruits"; med., lex. "stones" 
in body 8. lex. "date panicle" (different 
word ?); — > gabu 

abrakkatu — > abarakkatu 

abrakkutu — > abarakkutu 

abrammu (a bird) jB lex. 



abratemum 



abutanu 



abratemum (a bird) OB lex. 

abrikku, abriqqu — > abarikkum 

abris "like a stack of wood" jB; < abru III 

abru(m) I "strong, robust"? 0/jB(lit.) as f. pi. 
abrdtu(m) "populace, humanity" 

abru(m) II, apru 1. O/jB "wing" (of bird) 
2. 0/jB(lit.) "fin" (offish); > kittabru 1 

abru(m) III "pile of brushwood" OAkk(Ur III), 
jB [IZI.HA.MUN] for fuel; > abris 

abru IV, aplu (a kind of priest) Bab. lex.; 
> abrutu 

abrummu — > amrummu 

abrutu "a/w-«-priesthood" jB lex.; < abru IV 

absahurakku, absahurum — > absahurum 

absinnu(m), absennu "furrow" O/jB [AB.SIN] 
also j/NB astr. constellation Spica, eastern part 
of Virgo [MUL.AB.SfN; NB also MUL.ABSIN]; 
< Sum. 

absahurum, absahurum, absahurakku (a fish) 
OB JB lex.; < Sum. 

absanu(m) "yoke, harness" Bab.(lit.) transf., 
humans draw/bear (sdtulwabdlum) yoke of 
gods, i.e. are submissive; — > uppasannu 

Ahsarrdni —* ahu I 7 

absennu — > absinnu 

absu I (a kind of belt)? jB lex. 

absu II, apsu; Hurr. pi. absena (a legume) 
M/NA, Nuzi, jB lex. 

abtu "destroyed" j/NB of gods, buildings; f. pi. 
"ruins" NA, NB(roy. inscr.); < abatu I 

abu(m) I "father" (st. constr. abi, occas. abu, ab; 
nom. with pron. suff. abi, M/NB, NA also 
abu(y)a; abusu etc.; pi. abbu, O/MA abbd'u, 
MB(Alal.), Am. abbutu) [AD] 1. "(natural) 
father"; rarely pi. abbu "parents" 2. "ancestor, 
forefather" often in roy. inscr. 3. ab(i) abi(m), 
OB lex. ahahim "grandfather" 4.jB abi mud 
"father-in-law" of wife 5. transf. "father" of 
gods, humans; "(one acting as) father"; OA 
"principal, boss" of a firm; "expert" craftsman 
6. compounds: a. Amurrim (— > amurru 3); a. 
aslim (— > aslu 3); Mari abu bltim "household 
head, superintendent"; abi sdbim (an official); 
ahu PIN "(tribal) chief of PIN"; OAkk a. dlim 
"father of the city" 7. in O/MA month Ah(u) 
sarrdni "Father of the kings"? 8. in PN, of 
people, gods 9. interj. "father!" ~ "think of that; 
oh dear!" 10. (part of the seed plough) jB lex. 
11. OA transf. "down-payment'; > abbutu 

Abu(m) II (5th Bab. month) OAkk, Bab. 
[ITI.NE(.NE.GAR)]; OB isin Abi "Abu festival" 
also as MN; — > eburu 

abu —* also apu I 



abu — > apu I.III 

abubanis, abiibis "like a flood" M/NB (lit.); 

< ahuhu 

abubu(m) "flood, deluge" Bab. [A.MA.RU] 

1. esp. as cosmic event "the Flood"; sa lam a. 

"antediluvian", til a. "ruin mound from the 

Rood"; "violent spate"; as divine title 2. (name 

of a monster); > abubanis 
abuddnum — > abutanu 
abuhuru (a kind of flour) MA 
abukkatu, bukkatu (a kind of rush)? jB lex., 

med. [LI.DUR; LI.TAR; occas. LI.TUR]; hll a. 

"sap of a." (a drug) 
abulilu, bulilu (the berry of the box-thorn) jB 

lex. 
abullu(m) f.; pi. abulldtu(m) "gate (of city or 

large building)" [ABUL] a. kawitum "outer 

gate"; massdr a., sa a., mar a., bel a. 

"gatekeeper"; OB a. sudum "to acquaint s.o. 

with gate", i.e. to forbid exit; a. edelulpehu "to 

shut/seal up gate"; Bab. "gate tax"; at Nuzi, as a 

public authority; transf. "entrance" to region, 

nether world, heaven etc.; OB ext., jB lex. 

(parts of the organs, esp. portal fissure of the 

liver); > abulmahhu, ahultannu 
abulmahhu "high gate" j/NB; < abullu + Sum. 

mah 
abultannu "gatekeeper" Nuzi [LU.ABUL] 

alternating with massdr abulli; < abullu + Hurr. 

suff. 
dhulu — > dgilu 
abunikltu mng. unkn. MB 
abunnatu(m) "umbilical cord, navel" Bab. 

[LI.DUR] also transf. "centre", "central point" of 

land, army; "socket" of chariot, spade 
aburrisanu, Bogh. burrisdnu mng. unkn. M/jB 

lex. 
aburris "in a green pasture" M/jB(lit.); mostly 

transf. ref. to human prosperity, a. 

rabdsulasdbu "to lie/dwell in a green meadow"; 

< aburru 

aburru(m) "water-meadow, pasture" O/jB 

transf. ref. to situation of contented populace; 

> aburris 
aburru — > also amurru 
abusatu pi. tant. "forelock" jB; abusdt siri (a 

deformity) 
abusin —* abusim 
abusu(m), abussu(m); pi. f., NA also ubsatu 

"storehouse; stable" O/jB; Ug. bit a.; Ass. bit 

abusdtelu (also in Assur temple) 
abusim, abuslsin mng. unci. jB 
abutanu, abuddnum, abuttdnu (a fish) O/jB 

lex.; < abiitu + -an + -i 



abutu(m) 

dbuttum — » apputtum II 

akutu — » awdtum 

abutu(m); pi. abatum (a fish) O/jB; > abutdnu 

ad — » a<# 

adaburtu (a bird) jB lex. 

ad(' )a(d)du — » ad'attu 

adadu (a loincloth or kilt ?) jB lex. 

adagu(r)ru, adakurru (a vessel for libations) 

M/NB, Nuzi [DUG.A.DA.GUR5; DUG.A.DA. 

GUR4; DUG.A.DA.KUR]; < Sum. 
adaha (a garment) Am.; < Eg. 
adakanni — » akanni 
adakurru — » adagurru 
adallu ~ "strong" jB lex.; < Hurr.? 
adamatu I, adanatu '(red blood)' (a dark- 
coloured bodily discharge) jB lex., med. 

[ADAMA]; < adammu 
adamatu(m) II, adamutu, adu/imatu O/jB 1. (a 

plant (with red blossoms?)) 2. pi. (dark red 

earth used as dye); < adammu ? 
adamdunu "Adamdun vessel"; < PIN 
ada(m)mu, adumu "red" OAkk, M/jB; Bogh. 

"red (blood)"; "red (garment)"; lex., syn. for 

"important person"; > adamatu I, II?, adantu 
adammu "conflict, battle" M/jB lex., lit.; mag., 

desig. of mythical being; < Sum. 
adammumu, admumu; NA pi. f. "wasp" jB, NA 
adamtu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
adamu — » adammu 
adamum, Mari edemum "to be engaged in" OA, 

Mari G stat., activity, business matter D ~ G ?; 

> admutum 
adamukku — » edamukku 
adamutu — » adamatu II 
adanatu — » adamatu I 
adannis, addannis "very much, greatly" NA; 

< ana I + dannis 
adannu — ► addnum 

adantu "(reddish 7 species of) shrew" jB; 

< adammu 

adanuin, haddnum (OB often wr. hal'a^-da- 
num etc.), adannu, adidnu; pi. f. "fixed date, 
time limit" Bab. (Ass. -» edanu) [UD.DUG4.GA; 
U4.SUR] urn a. "fixed day"; jB ina Id a. "at the 
wrong time"; astr. "period"; eqel a. "objective" 

adappu, dappu "horizontal crossbeam" j/NB in 
buildings, of timber; for door, of metal; also 
"board"? 

adappu — » also atappu 

adapu 1 1. jB lex. (a musical instrument) 2. jB (a 
kind of Sum. hymn accompanied by that 
instrument); < Sum. 



adi 



adapu II; pi. f. (a type of bandage) jB lex.; — ► 
edappdtu 

adapu III "wise" jB lex. 

addqu — » edequ 

adaranu (a plant) jB lex. 

adartu — » atartu 

adaru I (a vessel) NB of silver 

adaru II (an animal or insect) jB lex. 

adaru(m) I, haddru "to be dark, gloomy" 
G {alu) j/NB [KAXGI6]; of day; of gods, 
people; of heavenly bodies "become obscured"; 
of plants ? D O/jB "darken", esp. stat. with 
pdnu/i "look gloomy" Dt jB, NA "become 
gloomy" S "darken" j/NB, NA N "become 
dark"; astr. "become eclipsed" [KAXGI6] OB, 
j/NB Ntn iter, of N jB; > adru I, adds, 
adirtu I; addiru; ndduru; tddirtu; udduru 

adaru(m) II "to be afraid (of), fear" G {alu) NB 
ene a. 'fear the eyes' = "with an eye to, in 
consideration of D "frighten" OA, jB Stn iter, 
of S O/jB St pass, of § N "become restless, 
worry about" OA, OB, jB Ntn iter, of N OA, 
OB, jB; > adirtu II, idirtu; adiru, adiris; adiru; 
musddiru 

adaru(m) III (or atdru(m)l), atdru (a tree) Bab., 
MA [GlS.ILDAG ('-» also ildakku)] 

adashu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

ada(s)su — » adussu 

adattu "succulent part of reed" jB [GI.UR]; -* 
adndtu 

ad(')a(t)tu (or at(')a(t)tu, ad(')a(d)du) (an 
ornament) Qatna of gold, precious stone 

adbaru — ► atbaru 

add. . . also = ana d. . . 

adda "daddy"? OB 

addahsum — » andahsu 

addannis — ► adannis 

addar — » ddru I 

A(d)daru ( 1 2th Bab. month) [ITI.SE(.kin.TAR)]; 
A. mahrU "first A"; arhu atru sa A. 
[ITI.DIRIG.SE(.KIN.TAR)] "intercalary A.", NB 
also A. arku 

adddt — » ddt 

addatum (a wooden tool) OB 

adda'u (a dwelling) jB lex. 

addiru "very dark" jB; < adaru I 

addu ~ "throwstick" M/jB 

addu — » adii III 

addundnum — » andundnu 

addurdrum — ► andurdru 

adi, OAkk, OA also adum, NA often adu, also 
ad "until, as far as" [EN] 1. prep, of time "till", 
"within", "during, in the course of, also adilu 



adilu 



agakkum 



lihhi; ad(i) mad; adi inanna; ad(i/un)akanni, 
adikanna "until now" (-+ akanna II); of space 
"up to, as far as", also adi mahar; of amount of 
silver, degree of hunger; adi ulla "for ever" (— » 
ulla II); adi sari "for all time; everywhere" (-» 
sdr); "including, together with" M/NB, NA for 
qadum; before numerals "times, multiplied by" 
[A.RA], adi salasisu "three times" (— ► GAG 
§7 la; OA -» anal 15); OA "concerning, on 
the subject of; OAkk adi dannis "very much"; 
jB adi surris "instantly" 2. conj. (— » GAG 
§§1 16c, 173a-g) with pres. "until"; Mari "as 
soon as"; MA "while"; NB Id adi in oath — » 
kI4; with pret. "until; not before, as soon as"; 
OA "concerning the fact that"; with stat. "as 
long as, while" 3. adi Id prep, "before, in 
advance of; conj. with pres. or pret. "before; as 
long as ... not" 4. adi muhhi NB, occas. NA 
for adi, prep, of time, space; conj.; mostly adi 
muhhi sa with pres. or perf. 5. aduli bit NA for 
adi, as conj. with pres. "until", with la "before" 
6. Am., Bogh. adv. ~ "indeed, truly" 7. with 
pron. suff. only in — » adini, adisu 

adianni — > adu I 

adidnu — ► addnum 

adikanna — » akanni 

adilu; NB pi. adilanu (part of a ceremonial 
garment) M/NB 

adimatu — » adamatu II; mad 

adinakanni — » akanni 

adini, Mari also adinu, M/jB mostly adina, once 
adinnu 'up to us' = "hitherto, till now" OA, 
O/jB; of time, OA "so far, till now"; otherwise 
neg. a. ul/ld "not yet" with stat., pres., pret., OB 
perf.; < adi + -ni; M/NA — » udini 

adiptu — ► ediptu 

adlris "fearfully" jB; < adiru 

adirtu I "gloominess" Bab. transf. "sorrow"; 

< adaru I 

adirtu II "fear, apprehension" O/jB esp. pi.; 

< adaru II 
adirtu — ► also atartu 

adiru "fear" M/jB; < adaru II; > adiris 

adiru "full of awe" jB; la a. "fearless, impudent" 

j/NB (MB/MA -» ladiru);< adaru II 
adissu (an object) jB mag. 
adisu "till then" OB, Mari; < adi + -su 
adiu — > adu I 
admanu — > watmanum 
admumu — » adammumu 
admutum "contributed share" OA; < adamum 
adnatu pi. tant. "world, people" jB 
adnu — » atnu 



adris "dimly, faintly visible" jB of celestial 

bodies; "darkly, unhappily" of people; < adru I 
adru I "dark, gloomy" jB of mood; NA of textile; 

< adaru I 
adru(m) II, MA gen. also idri , f.; pi. adratu and 

adru "threshing floor" Ass. as topog. feature; 

payment ina adr(dt)i "at threshing time"; NA 

also "courtyard"? 
adru "ibex-like" jB desig. of sheep; < Sum. 
adu — ► adi 
adu I, Ass. adiu; pi. adii, ade "(treaty-)oath; 

supernatural power of an oath" M/NA, M/NB 

a. sakdnu/tamu/nasdru "to establish/swear/keep 

a treaty"; NA a. sa sarri "(loyalty) oath to 

king"; j/NB, NA bel a. "vassal" 
adu II "now" NB; also enna a. "now then" 
adu(m) III, addu "a (day's) work, stint" O/jB 

sdbu a. "daily workers"; transf. sun's, moon's 

"tasks"; < Sum. 
adu IV (a kind of headgear)? jB lex. 
adu V "leader" jB lex. 
adu VI mng. unkn. jB lex. 
adu — » also adussu; edu I 
adu "to take notice of MB G (pres. i' ad, pret. 

i'ld) S "notify, inform" s.o.; — ► na adu 
adudi(l)lu, aduda'ilu "praying mantis" jB 
adugu, atugu "oven" jB; < Sum. 
adugu(l), aduku(l) ~ "indeed" Bogh. (in texts 

from Eg.) 
adum — » adi 
adumatu — » adamatu II 
adumu — » adammu 
adunakanni — » akanni 
adupi mng. unkn. jB lex. 
adurtu "village" jB lex.; < adurii 
aduru "mirror"? jB lex. 
aduru(m), eduru, aturu, uduru 1 - "village, 

farmstead" Bab. [E.DURU5]; < Sum.; > adurtu 
adussu, ada(s)su(m), adii ~ "enclosure wall" 

O/jB 
ae'u — ► ya'u 
aga, agdi(a) m. & f. sg. & pi.; f. rarely agatali 

"this" NB; < Aram.?; — » agannu; inga 
agabbu — ► akabbu 
agadibbu, gadibbu "hand seeder-plough" jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
agagu(m) "to be(come) furious" Bab. G (alu; 

stat. agug) of god, human Gtn "be steadfastly 

angry"? D stat. only "is very angry" S caus. of 

G N "get angry"; > aggu, aggis, aggagu; uggu, 

uggatu, uggugum 
agdi(a) -» aga 
agakkum "whey" OB lex.; < Sum. 



agalapu 

agalapu in me a. (a kind of impure water) jB 

med. 
agalu(m) I, agallu "donkey" Bab., NA(lit.) 

[DUSU] 
agalu II (a temple employee) jB lex. 
agami "today" Am.; < W.Sem. 
agammu "marsh(es), lagoon" jB 
agamu "to be furious" Bab. G lex. only D MB in 

stat. "is infuriated"; > tegimtu; igimtu 
agamu -* also akdmu I 
agana "well now, come on!" OB, Mari before 

prec., imper.; < a + gana (-* GAG §124b) 
aganatallu -* agannutillu 
agannu, NB aggannu; pi. usu. f. "bowl, 

cauldron" Qatna, M/NA, M/NB, Am., Nuzi for 

liquids; of copper, stone, clay 
agannu; mostly m. pi. agannutu; f. pi. aganndleti 

"these" NB; < aga + annu I 
aga(n)nutillu, aganatallu "dropsy" M/NB 

[A.GA.NU.TIL- ]; < Sum. 
agappu(m), NA also aqappu "wing" Bab., NA 

"wing" of bird, also as joint of meat; a. ene 

"eye-lashes"; OB lex. "wing" of door; -♦ 

kappu I 
agappu -* also akabbu 
agargaritu (a mineral) jB [A.GAR.GAR. d lD] 
agargaru (kind of fish(-spawn)) Bab.; < Sum. 
agargarutu "fish resources" jB [A.GAR.GAR. 

KU6]; < Sum. 
agarimuri (a food) MA 
agarinnu(m), garinnu O/jB 1. "womb" or transf. 

"mother" 2. in metallurgy "basin, crucible" 

3. "(first) beer mash" [AGARIN4/5; AMA.TUN]; 

<Sum. 
agarrutu -* agru 
agaru(m) "to hire, rent" G (a/u) person, animal, 

ship, cart, house D OA = G N pass, of G, of 

person; > agru, agirtum, agrutu; agirum, 

dgirtu; igru; munnagru; ndgurtu 
ag(a)runnu "cella" jB; < Sum. 
agasalakku(m), agasalilikku(m) (a kind of axe) 

O/jB [AGA.SILIG]; < Sum.; -♦ agu I 
agasgu "youngest son; junior, novice" jB, NA of 

scribe, physician etc. 
agasu; f. agdsiya; pi. agdsunu "that (one), those 

(ones)" NB; < aga + su, si,sunu 
agdta/i -* aga 
agatukullu "butt end of a weapon" jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
agdum -* agu I 
agbaru -* akbaru 
agg. . . also = ana g. . . 
aggagu "furious" jB; < agdgu 



aha 

aggannu — » agannu; akkannu 

aggis "furiously" Bab., NA; < aggu 

aggu(m) "furious" Bab. mostly with libbu 

("heart"); < agdgu; > aggis; — » akku 
aggullu -* akkullu 
agiddu — » agittu 
agilu, dbi/ulu, jB also agillu ? "towman" of boat 

O/jB lex. 
agirtum "hired maid-servant" O/jB; < agdru 
agirtu "(female) hirer, mistress" jB; < agdru 
agirum "hirer" OB [LU.tfUN]; < agdru 
agittu, agiddu, egiddd "headband; bandage" jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
agium -* agu I 
agriqqu -* abarikkum 
agru(m); pi. OB agru, NA, NB agrutu, NB also 

agarrutu "hireling; hired man" [LU.yUN.GA; 

OB also ERlN.yUN.GA; NB also LU.A.GAR]; 

Bab., NA astr. "Aries" (constellation) [MUL. 

(LU.)tJUN(.GA)]; < agdru; > agrutu 
agrunnu -* agarunnu; garunnu 
agrutu "hire (contract)" M/NB; Am. "wages"; 

< agru 
agu(m) I, OAkk agdlium "tiara, crown" [AGA] 

symbol of rule of god, king; transf. jB "corona" 

of planet, star, sun; OB om. "circle" of oil, 

incense; jB lex. "ring, band" round axe; < Sum.; 

-♦ agasalakku 
agu(m) II, egu "wave, flood" Bab. [A.GI6.A; 

A.GU4; A.GA] of river etc.; transf. ref. to wrath 

of gods, demons; < Sum.; — » binutu 
agu III (a garment) jB lex. 
agu -* also egu 
agubbu, egubbti "holy water vessel" jB 

[(dug.)a.gOb.ba]; < Sum. 
agugillu ~ "sorcerer" jB; < Sum.; > agugiltu 
agugiltu ~ "sorceress" jB; < agugillu 
*agugu unattested; mng. unkn. 
agugutu "status of agilgu" jB 
aguhhu(m); OAkk Hurr. pi. aguhhena "sash, 

belt" OAkk, O/jB 
agunu "tiara" jB lex. 
agurrutu — » gurrutu 
agurrum m. & f. 1. "baked brick" Bab., M/NA 

[SIG4.AL.OR.RA; OB math. SIG4.AL.UR5.RA]; 

often coll.; O/MB also as unit of measurement; 

a. uqnl elleti "blue-glazed brick", a. esmare 

"yellow-glazed brick"; a. sa atbarilpele 

pese/aXnugalli "building block of basalt/white 

limestone/alabaster"; a. kaspi ebbi "slab of pure 

silver" 2. (an impost) NB 
agusigu -* hu,sigu 
aba in aha aha "one by one"? OA; < ahu II 



ahia 



aha'is, ahdyis "each other, one another" Ass. as 
obj., NA a. sabdtu "to join forces"; istulitti a. 
"together"; urki a. "one after the other"; ana a. 
"one another, together"; < ahu I; > ahis; — » 
ahdmis 

ahamis, Am., Bogh. ha(m)mis, NB also 
ahame(s)su "each other, one another" M/NB, 
occas. NA as obj.; as gen., NB put a. nasu 
"they stand security mutually"; ki a. "together, 
at the same time"; itti a. "together"; malla a. "all 
together"; arki a. "one after the other"; ana 
(muhhi) a. "together"; ana pdnil tarsi a. "face to 
face"; mehreta. "in the same way"; < ahu I; -♦ 
aha' is 

ahamma, jB also ahammu "apart, separately" 
OA, occas. Bab., NA; < ahu II 

ahanna "on this bank" j/NB of river, marsh etc.; 
< ahu II + annu I 

ahannumma -* ahennd 

ahanu I "to another place" NB leg., divert 
property "elsewhere"; < ahu II + -dnu 

ahanum II (a type of worker) Mari 

aharatum "on the far bank" Mari; opp. -♦ 
aqdamdtum; < W.Sem.; — » ahdru 

aharris "in future" jB; < ahdru 

aharrum "later, thereafter" OB; opp. — » pdndnu; 
< ahdru 

ahartis "for the future" MB; < ahdru 

aharu(m) "to be behind" G Am. stat. only "is 
late, delayed" D trans, "hold back, delay" s.th.; 
intrans. "stay behind, delay, be in default"; stat. 
"is outstanding, overdue"; OB of days "are left, 
remain"; OA "set aside" statue? S OAkk, jB ? 
"make s.o./s.th. late"?; >ahritu, ahrd, ahrutu, 
ahratas, ahrltis; ahartis, ahertum; aharrum, 
aharris, haramma; ahurru; uhhuru, uhhurtu; 
uhrd; uhurrd'um; tehirtu; -* aharatum 

ahata, ahdti/u "in equal shares" NB; < ahu I 

ahatatum "little sister" OB; < ahdtu I 

ahatu(m) I, NB ahattu; pi. OA ahudtum, OB 
ahhdtu "sister" [NIN] "(natural) sister"; transf. 
OA as complimentary term; OB of f. subst.s 
a. ...a. "the one... the other"; <ahul; 
> ahdtutu, ahhutu II, ahatatum 

ahatu II 1. "bank" NA(roy. inscr.) of river, sea 
2. MA pi. "sleeves" of garment 3. jB transf. ref. 
to moral transgression "limit"?; < ahu II 

ahdtu -* also ahata; ahu II 3 

ahdtu -* ahitu; ahu I 

ahatutu "sisterhood" Nuzi; < ahdtu I 

ahazu(m) "to take; marry; learn" G (a/u) 1. of 
demons, diseases "seize, grasp" 2. of husband, 
also father-in-law "take (a woman in marriage), 



marry" 3. "take notice of, learn" 4. "make s.th. 
o.'s own, acquire" Z.puzram a., marqitu a. 
"take refuge", harrdnam a. "take to road" 
6. j/NB din PN a. "take PN to law" 7. OB 
"take" troops (into battle), OA rdbisam a. "take 
on as agent" 8. occas. ~ D "inlay" with metal 
Gt "be connected with; well versed in" D (OA 
infin. also ehhuzum) "mount, plate, inlay" with 
metal, stone (< ihzu denom.) [GAR(.RA)]; 
"marry" pi. Dt pass, of D S 1. "make s.o. take 
s.th." 2. "make s.o. marry" 3. "make s.o. learn", 
"instruct, incite" s.o., "point out, indicate to" 
s.o. 4. OAkk "make s.th. available" 5. -* G 5 
with puzru etc. "hide" s.th., s.o. 6. leg., dinam 
s. "institute proceedings against s.o." 7. "ignite, 
set fire to" 8. stat. "has a right to, is entitled to" 
real estate 9. "have an object mounted in 
precious metal" Stn "instruct, inform s.o. 
repeatedly"; OB of disease "infect repeatedly" 
St 1 OB "be instructed, incited"? St 2 lex. 
"ignite" fire, "make" fire "catch" N pass, of G 2 
"marry each other"; of fire etc. "catch, spread"; 

> ahiztu, ahzutu; ihzu I, ihzetu; dhizum, 
dhizdnu; ahhdzu; ahuzzatu; tdhdzu, tdhdzis; 
tdhizu; uhhuzu; mdhdzu, mdhdzis; musdhizu, 
mustahhizum; nanhuzu 

ahe "separately, by itself O/jB, Bogh., NA; 

> ahennd; -* ahu II 
ahe' is -» ahis 

ahenna, ahennu, Mari ahannumma "each by 
it/himself, apart, separately" O/jB of persons, 
ingredients; jB of hair "in strands"; < ahe + 
annu I 

ahertum, NB ahistu "remainder" OB math., NB; 

< ahdru 

ahh. . . also = ana h. . . 

ahhdtu -* ahdtu I 

ahhazu 'the seizer' (a demon) jB 
[ d DlM.ME.LAGAB] 1. as demon often in 
incantations after Lamastu and Labasu 
2. "jaundice" (the disease caused by the a. 
demon); < ahdzu 

ahhu "dry wood" jB lex. 

ahhu -* ahu I 

ahhur -* hurri 

ahhutu(m) I "brotherhood" [SES(.MES)- ; in 
PNs PAP.MES] "(adopted) brotherhood"; 
"brotherly relations"; < ahu I 

ahhutu(m) II "sisterhood" OB(Susa); < ahdtu I 

ahi — » ahu I.II 

ahia "outside" j/NB; ahia ahia "each side" of; 

< ahu II 

ahidtum -* ahitu; ahu I 



ahis 

ahirtum — ♦ ahertum 

ahis "on o.'s own" jB "alone"? of planet; 

< ahu II ? 

ahis, ahe'is, ahise, ahiydsi "each other, one 
another" NA; (ki) a. "together"; issi a. -* 
issahis; ana a. "one another"; ina muhhi a. 
"one after the other"; < aha' is 

ahistu — » ahertum 

ahitu(m) 1. "side"; also ace. ahitam(ma), ahita 
as adv. "aside, on one side" 2. "surroundings, 
environment" NA pi. ahitdte; esp. pi. 
"entourage, associates" 3. pi. OB ~ "extra 
shares"; "(strange, i.e.) unfortunate, adverse" 
events, omen(s) 4. sg. jB as subst. 
"misfortune", "defamation" 5. OB "additional 
payment" of dues or perquisites; < ahu I 

ahiu — ♦ ahu I 

ahiydsi — » ahis 

ahizanu(m), dhizidnu "(the) one who marries/d" 
OB, MA; < dhizu + -an 

ahiztu "married woman"? jB; < ahdzu 

ahizum "informed person"? Mari; < ahdzu 

ahlamatti "in Aramaic" NB; < ahlamu 

ahlamu (desig. for Aramaeans) M/NA, MB; OB 
as PN ?; lex. "Aramaic" language; > ahlamatti 

ahmaham, ahmahim "one another" OB(Susa); 

< aham + ahu I; > ahmdmu 

ahmamu "one another" OB(Susa); also 
ahmdmis; ana a. "against each other", also eli 
a.; mala a. "together, equally"; < ahmaham 

ahnu — » uhnu 

ahra — ♦ ahritu 

ahratas "for ever after" j/NB(lit.); a. nisi, a. umi 
"for posterity"; < ahritu 

ahratu. ahridtum — » ahritu 

ahritis, ahridtis "for the future" O/jB in ahritis 
umi "in future days"; < ahritu 

ahritu f.; mostly pi. OB ahridtum, M/NB ahratu 
"later time" Bab. ahrdt umi "later days"; (nisi) 
ahrdti "posterity"; MB ana ahrd(ti) adv. "for 
the future"; < ahdru; > ahratas, ahritis, ahrutu 

ahrushu (a vessel) 0/MB(Alal.), Bogh. for 
liquids, solids; < Hurr. 

ahrutu "descendants" jB lex.; < ahritu abstr. 

ahsad(a)rapannu "satrap (of the Persian 
empire)" NB; < OPers. 

ahu(m) I "brother" (st. constr. ahi, OA ahulu; 
nom. with pron. suff. ahunilka; ahi, alula "my 
brother", M/NB ahuya; ace. ahdka; st. abs. ah 
OAkk, OA in PN; du. ahd OB; pi. ahhd, 
W.Sem. ahdte, OB after numerals ahdnu; st. 
constr. ahhi OB all cases; with pron. suff. 
ahhuka) [SES; OB also SES.A.NI; PAP in later 



ahum 

PNs, NA] 1. "(natural) brother"; a. rabulsehru 
"older/younger brother"; a. abim "father's 
brother, uncle" 2. transf. (address for people of 
equal rank); "colleague"; "fellow tribesman"; a. 
rabu "deputy teacher" 3. ahum aham "one 
another, mutually", also a. ana a., a. mala a., a. 
kima a.; > ahhutu I; ahdtu I etc.; ahdta; ahdmis, 
aha is, ahis, ahmaham, ahmdmu; ahu II; 
— » athu 

ahu(m) II "arm, side" (st. constr. ah(i)) 1. "arm", 
a. nadu "to 'drop o.'s arm', i.e. be lazy, 
negligent", j/NB nade a. rasu "to become 
negligent"; uppi a. "armpit"; bird a. "chest"?; 
transf. "arm, handle" of an instrument; OB du. 
transf. "strength, ability" 2. "side"; Bab. [GU] 
"shore" of sea, "bank" of river; "edge" of town, 
field; "wing" of army; "flank" of animal; of 
object, part of liver, other parts of body; a. 
sattim "turn, beginning of (financial) year"; a. 
ana a. "side by side"; (ina) a. jB as prep, 
"beside, at" 3. NB "part, share", "one-half; pi. 
f. ahdtu "partner, joint proprietor" 4. pi. m. 
ahdnu "arm fetters"? NB; "wings"? of a 
building jB 5. "sleeve (flap)" of garment 
M/NA, MB, Nuzi; > ahu I, ahif, ahia, aha, 
ahitu; ahamma; ahdtu II, ahdnu I, ahannd, 
ahulld; — ♦ ahe; ahum; ahune 

ahu(m) I, Ass. ahiu "outside(r), strange" [BAR] 
of person, also as subst. "stranger"; (desig. of 
planet =) Mars; of appearance "abnormal"; of 
textual passage "non-canonical, extraneous" [pi. 
also BAR.BAR]; < ahu II + -/; > ahitu 

*ahu(m) II G not attested Gt OA, Am. "to 
fraternize, become brothers" St "pair off with", 
M/jB of stars, features in extispicy "stand 
opposite each other"; of enemies "join forces, 
conspire" N MB(Alal.) "fraternize"; <ahu\ 
denom.; > athu, athutu; sutdhu 

ahu — » also hahu 

ahula, ahulamma "alas!" NA, also in PNs 

ahulab — » ahulap 

ahulabakku "lamentation with ahulap- 
exclamations" jB lex.; < ahulap + -akku 

ahulamma — » ahula 

ahulap (or ahulab), OB also ahulup, OB lex. 
ahulapum "(it is) enough!" OAkk, Bab.; as 
declaration of clemency by god, as petition for 
clemency by worshipper; jB Sam a. (a plant 
name); > ahulabakku 

ahulla, ahullu, NB ahullua "on the other bank; 
on the other side, beyond" j/NB, occas. NA; 
< ahu II + ullii I 

ahulup — » ahulap 

ahum "separately, besides" OA; — » ahu II 



ahune 



aki 



ahune "separately, individually" OB; > ahunes; 

— » ahu II 
ahunes "individually" Man; < ahune + -is 
aliurru "junior" jB 1. "social inferior" 

2. "younger child"; < ahdru 
ahussu — ♦ uhultu 
ahushu (a wooden object) MB(Alal.), Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
ahussu — ♦ amussu 

ahus'u (a poet, epith. of copper) jB lex. 
ahuzzatu "marriage gift; marriage-like 

protection" MA, MB; < ahdzu 
ahzutu "mounting(s)" of metal objects M/NB; 

< ahdzu 

ai I, e (before consonant), a, ya "not" 1. OAkk, 
OA, O/jB vetitive ptcl. before pret. "may (you, 
he etc.) not..." (-» GAG §§81i, k, 154c); OA 
before perf., stat.; jB in denial ai addin "I 
certainly did not give" 2. OA double neg. e la 
with 2 pers. pret. = strong pos. exhortation 
"definitely" 3. "no!" O/jB usu. before a voc.; 
Am. before proh. 

ai II, a, ayyi, ayyalu "alas!" Bab. 

ai III "where?" OAkk in PNs; OB lex.; > em; -» 
ayyikiam etc. 

aigalluhu (a homed animal)? Am., Nuzi 

a'ilu — ♦ awilu 

a'iluttu — ♦ awilutum 

ainibu — » ydnibu 

aiwa (a cereal foodstuff) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

aka adv. mng. unkn. Bogh. 

akabbu (or akappu, agabblppu) (a tree) Nuzi 

aka(k)ku in a. ndri (a plant name) jB lex. 

akalu(m), aklu(m) [NINDA; NB also NTNDA.p.A, 
NINDA.MES] 1. "bread, loaf; food" [-* also 
kusdpu 2]; a. harrdni "journey bread", a. gine 
"offering bread"; a. tumri "charcoal baked 
bread"; jB bel a. "guest" (or read kusdpul) 
2. NB (a small unit of capacity) [for NINDA as 
length measure — » ginindanakku ?] 3. MB 
"expenditure"?; < akdlu 

akalu(m) "to eat" G (a/u) [GU7] 1. of men, 
animals "eat, feed (on)"; of baby tuldsa a. "feed 
(from) her breast"; "bite" o.'s lips 2. transf. of 
fire, god causing disease, pest, enemy 
"consume, devastate"; of pain, grief "consume; 
irritate, hurt" part of body 3. "soak up" liquid, 
"absorb" fat 4. "use up, spend" money 5. "have 
usufruct of, enjoy" field, agricultural product, 
share, booty 6. in idioms — ♦ asakku II, ikkibu, 
karsu; OB math, of wall etc. "decrease in 
width" Gtn iter, of G [GU7.GU7] Gt of lands 
"ravage each other"; of stars "cover, absorb 



each other" S caus. of G [GU7] "make" men, 
animals, fire "eat, feed on, consume" food, 
medication, goods, booty, lands; "steep" an 
object in liquid; OA "satisfy" a claimant; jB stat. 
"is infected" with a disease St [GU7] OB math, 
"multiply together", freq. "square" measured 
lengths N pass, of G [GU7]; > akalu; aklu; 
dkilu, dkiltum, akkilu; akiltu; iklu II, ikiltu; 
akussu, ukultu, uklu II; ukullu I; mdkalum, 
mdkaltu, mdkdlu; tdkaltu 1 -; tdkultu; sukulu, 
siikultu; musdkilu, musdkilutum; — ♦ musakkiltu 

akalutu(m) ~ "tree" O/jB; — » kalutu II 

aka(m)mu "granary"? jB lex. 

akamu I, agdmu "dust-cloud, mist" jB; 

< akamu II 

akamu II mng. uncert. jB G stat. only, of moon; 

> akamu I; D — » wakdmum 
akamu — » also akammu 

akanna I, kannald, ekannam "so, thus" MA, 

M/NB, Am., Bogh., Ug., introducing dir. 

speech; k.-ma "just so, similarly"; <aki/ki + 

anna 
akanna II, akannuli "here" M/NB, jB; an(a) a. 

"hither"; MB with adi — » akanni; < Aram.; 

> akannaka 

akannaka, akannaku(nu) "there" NB; 

< akanna II + -kal-kunu 

akannama, kannama "similarly, likewise" Am., 
Bogh., Ug. 

akanni "now" M/NA; MA anakanni, NA also 
adilu(n)akanni, MB adikanna "till now, so far" 

akanni — » also akanna II 

akannu — ♦ akanna II 

akdnu — ♦ akkannu 

akanu "hither, this way" MB; < aki + -dnu 

akappu — ♦ akabbu 

akaru mng. unkn. jB lex. 

akasu(m) "to walk, go" Bab., O/MA G (u/u) 
[DU] of messenger, person, snake Gt "go 
away" D "drive away, expel" person, disease, 
demon; ~ "press, push away" part of liver; OA 
stat. of tablet "is mislaid"? Dtn iter, of D 
Dt pass, of D "be expelled, driven off; 

> ukkusu 

akatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

akawa "on (this) side" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

akayu — ♦ kayyu 

akbaru(m), akkabaru, agbaru "jerboa"? Bab., 
NA as food; as fPN, also Akbartum 

ake — » ke 

aki, akki "as" NA, NB 1. prep, (alternating with 
— » ki) "like, in accordance with; (in sub- 
stitution) for"; aki arhi "per month" 2. conj. of 



ukia 



10 



alaktu(m) 



time "as soon as, when"; akl sa "just as, in the 
way that"; < ana I + kl; > akdnu; — ► akanna I 

akia "in the following way" M/NA, Bogh.; — » 
klam 

akiltu "expended goods, consumption" NA; 

< akdlu; — ► aklu 

akiltum f. 'that eats' OB om. mng. unci, of pest; 

< akalu 

akilu(m) "that eats, eating; eater, devourer" 
I. Man rit. (a cultic performer) 2.jB of lion, 
desig. of the jackal 3. O/jB "caterpillar"; < akdlu 
akltu(m); pi. akidtu/i, NB akdte (a cultic festival) 
OAkk, Bab., NA [A.KI.IT; A.KI.TU; A.KI.TUM] 
MB onwards freq. celebrated at the New Year; 
umlisin aklti "akltu day/festival"; also in PN; jB, 
NA (bit) a. "akltu festival building"; a. seri "a. 
in the countryside"; bob a. "akltu gate" 
akk. . . also = ana k. . . 
akkabaru — » akbaru 
akkadattu "in Akkadian" NB 
akkadiya "cock, rooster"; <Akkade (Aram. 

form) 
akkadu(m), OA gen. akkidlye; f. akkadltu(m) 
"from Akkade, made in Akkade, Akkadian" 
[URI(.KI)] of language; furniture, boats, cloth; 
jB lex. (a breed of sheep); < Akkade + -I 
akka'i, akkdya "how?" (interrog. ptcl.) j/NB; NB 

a. kl (conj.) 1. "how" 2. "as soon as, when" 
akka'iki"how much, how many?" NB; < akka'i 

+ kl 
akkamdas, akkandas, anakandas "spoke (of a 

wheel)" MB; < Kass. 
akkannu, a(k)kdnu 1. "wild ass" M/jB 2. (a 

breed of horses) Nuzi 3. (a bird) jB 
akkdya — ► akka'i 
akke — ► ke 
akkl — ► akl 
akklam — ► klam 
akkidlye — » akkadd 
akkilu(m) "eater" O/jB of lion "(man) eating"; 

< akdlu 
akklma — ► klma 9 

akku "furious" NA; < Aram.; — ► aggu 
akku — ► kum 

akku, aku "owl" jB lex., NA 
akkullakku (or aqqullakku) (a vegetable) jB 

lex.; < akkullu 
akkullanu (or aqqulldnu) (a copper object)? jB 

lex.; NA as PN 
akkullatu pi. tant. "clods"? of field NB 
akkullu (or aqqullu), aggullu; pi. f., occas. m. 
"hatchet, pick(axe), adze" Bab., NA 
[(GlS.)NfG.GUL]; < Sum.; > akkullakku 



akla "apart from" (prep.) jB erron.? 

aklabu (a plant) jB lex. 

aklu(m) "eaten, consumed" O/MB; OB aklam 

isatim "consumed by fire"; MB "expended" 

commodities; < akdlu; -* akiltu 
aklu — ► also akalu; waklum 
akmu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
aksuppu — ► askuppu 
aksu, eksu, arch, waksum ~ "brazen, dangerous" 

O/jB of enemies, mountains, illness; < ekesu ?; 

> eksis 

aktam, atkam (a medicinal plant) jB lex., med.; 

zer a. "seed of a." 
aku I "weak, powerless, humble" M/NB, jB; 

> akiitu I; — ► maku I ? 

aku(m) II "cripple" Bab.; > akiitu U 

aku IE ~ "mooring pole"? jB lex. 

akft — » also akku 

akukarumma in a. epesu "to redeem" Nuzi; 
<Hurr. 

akukia in a. ...a. "so much ... so much" MA 
(-» GAG §II7e appendix) 

akukutu; jB obi. pi. akukdti "firebrand" Bogh., 
jB; astr. "red glow in sky" (freq. wr. #A-#A- 
#A-tum = ' at-kub-kus-tum) 

akullu in bit a. (part of an elaborate house) NA 

akullH — » ukullA I 

akunu (a vessel for liquids) Am.; < Eg. 

akussu — ► ukultu 

akusimu, (a)kuslmdnu, kurslmatu (a plant) O/jB 
lex., med. 

akuttu (a part of a waggon) jB lex.; < Sum. 

akiitu I "powerlessness"; < aku I abstr. 

akiitu II "disablement" jB; a. aldkum "to become 
crippled"; < aku II abstr. 

al — ► ali I; alia I ; eli 

aladiru, ladiru (a plant) jB lex., med. 

aladlammu "human-headed bull-colossus" 
M/jB(Ass.), NA [ d ALAD. d LAMMA]; < Sum. 

alddu — » walddum 

alahhinu(m), alhenu, NA lahhinu "miller"? 
Ass.; NA (an official in temple service); OA 
rabi a. (an official); > alahfyinutum; lahhinatu 

alahhinutum (office of the a.) OA 

alahittu mng. unkn. jB 

alaknu (a kind of rush) jB lex. 

alaktu(m), alkatu; pi. -» alkakdtu "way, course" 
[A.rA] 1. "gait" of man, animal; "route, 
journey" of gods, people, a. pardsu "to 
break/interrupt s.o.'s course"; "course" of stars, 
water; of illness, fire 2. OA, jB transf. "way of 
life, behaviour", a. se'A(m) "to look after s.o." 
3. Bab., NA "business trip, caravan"; < aldku 



alaku(m) 



II 



alayfl 



alaku(m) "to go" G (illak, illik; perf. ittalak (— ► 
GAG §97n)) [DU] 1. of person, animal; + vent, 
"come", jB imper. alka "well, now then!"; + 
ana "go to" somewhere, + dat. pron. suff. "to" 
s.o.; "move along, walk"; ana slmtilslmdti a. 
"go to o.'s destiny, die"; OB a. epesum 
"travel"; MA (of horses) "trot"?; warki/ana 
pi ... a. "follow, serve" s.o.; — » dindnu; as ptcp. 
alik mahri 'who walks in front' = 
"predecessor" [IGI.DU]; alik pdnim 'who" walks 
before' = "leader, predecessor" (— ► dlik- 
pdniitu); alik arki "successor" 2. of letters, 
tablets etc. "arrive"; of military campaign, 
vehicles, celestial bodies "move"; of wind 
"blow"; of rain "fall"; of incense, radiance 
"spread"; of skin, flesh etc. "flake off; of 
liquids "flow"; of time "pass" 3. with internal 
objects: + idu "go at s.o.'s side" = "come to 
s.o.'s aid"; "go on, along" a way, path, road, 
"pass through" the desert; siddam putam a. 'go 
length and width' of an area = "survey" a field 
4. ilka a. "perform (military) service"; dikutu a. 
"report for call-up"; NB naspartu a. "fulfil an 
order, manage/run a business" 5. with abstr. 
noun ending in -utu and before adv. "become" 
6. misc.: of price "be current, in force", of 
commodity "be worth, fetch"; of interest 
"accumulate"; of (ominous) signs "appear"; "be 
appropriate, possible, available"; of greed "aim 
at" silver, ana panlsulsa a. "advance, grow 
larger"; NB math. X GAM/A.RA/ana Y a. 
"multiply X by Y" 7. NA with ellipsis of 
qabd'u freq. before dir. speech Gtn [DU.DU] 
"go, come repeatedly; roam about, wander", 
muttallik musi [LU.GE6.A.DU.DU; (LU.)GE<s.DU. 
DU] 'who walks around during the nignt' = 
"night-watchman"; OB of leg muscles "twitch 
persistently" Gt "go off, away" (— ► GAG 
§92e) differentiation between pret. of Gt and 
perf. of G difficult S caus. of G [DU] with abstr. 
noun ending in -utu or adv. "make s.o./s.th. 
(become)" s.th.; stat. "is appropriate, suitable" 
[TUM.MA]; > alaktu, alkakdtu, ilkakdtu; ilku I, 
alku I; dliku, dliktu, dlikutu, dlikdnum, dlik- 
pdnutu; allaku, alldku; mdlaku I; muttalliku; 
muttalliktu; suluku; tdluku; tallaktu, tallakku 

aldlali —* aldlu I 

alallu(m), elallu (a stone) Bab. mag., also used 
in building 

alallu I, elallu "drain, pipe" O/jB [ALAL]; — ► 
alulW 

alallu II, alii, elu (device for hoisting water) 
O/jB; < Sum. 

alallu III (a plant) jB 



alalu I, aldlali, allli (a work cry), "work song" 
M/NB, NA esp. a. slsasu "to sing a work 
song"; > aldlu III ? 

alalu(m) II, haldlum "to hang up, suspend" Bab. 
G (a/u, pres. OB fallal, jB illal) "hang (up)" 
people as punishment, "hang up, suspend" 
objects; stat. OB ext. "is 'hanging'" (wr. halil 
etc.) Gt "be tangled; be allied with" also in PNs 
OAkk, OB D stat. only ext. "is hung (about) 
with" s.th. Dt pass, of D S jB in qdta sululu 
"stay o.'s hand" N of objects "be hung up"; of 
lamentation "hang (in the air)"?; > mdlaltu; 
ma'lalunO 

alalu III O/jB G not attested Gt "to sing a joyful 
song; boast" S "exult, celebrate" Stn iter, of S; 

< aldlu I denom.?; > elelu I, eleldnd; alllu; 
illatu II; musahlilu 

alamattu -* almattu 

alamdimmu —* alandimmu 

alamgatu f. pi. "sculptures" MA; < Sum.? 

alamgu "seal-cutter" jB lex.; < Sum. 

alamittu, elamittu, hulamelltu, MA alamutu (a 

wild species of date palm) MA, j/NB 
alamu (an aquatic plant)? M/NA, jB as drug 
alamutu -* alamittu 
alandimmu (or alamdimmu) "physique, form" 

jB [ALAN.DIM(.A/MA)] esp. in physiognomic 

omens; < Sum. 
alanu -* alidnu 
alanu(m); f. dldnltu "living in a (foreign) place, 

abroad, exile" O/jB, Mari, MA in fPN; < dlu I 

+ -an + -/ 
alappanu, labblppanu 1. O/jB lex. "sweet 

pomegranate" 2. O/jB, Mari, NA (a sweet beer) 

in (sikar) I.; Mari sa a. "(female) brewer" 
alapii, j/NB, NA also el(a)pu, elappu, anapu (an 

aquatic plant, phps.) "seaweed; algae" Bab., 

NA 
alapu(m) G mng. unci. jB St OB "to make 

immovable, paralyse" part of body; > alpu II; 

nelepW- 
aldpu — ► also elepu 
alasu "Cypriot" Mari; < Alasia 
alatu(m) (var. of la'dtu) "to swallow (up)" Bab. 

G (u/u) ext., transf. of parts of the body or 

foetus "absorb" D ~ G, jB also transf. 

"suppress" revolt; > ma'ldtu; —* haldtum 
alatu (a social class, palace dependant ?) Nuzi 
ala'u ~ "to lick" G jB lex. St —* sutelu'u 
alayii "citizen, (dependent) villager" O/jB, MA; 

< dlu I + -ay; > dldyutu; — ► dllum 
dldyu — ► also allfayya 



alayutu 



12 



allu(m) I 



alayutu "status of dependent villager" MA; 

< dldyu 

aldu — ► waldum 

aldu(m) "(grain) quota" O/jB; [AL.DU] esp. for 

sowing; < Sum. 
ale — ► ali I 
algamisu, algamesu, algamisu (a kind of stone) 

jB [NA4.ALGAMES]; -► gamesu 
algarsurru "drumstick"? OB lex.; < Sum. 
algumes (or alguritl) (a piece of jewellery)? 

jB/NA 
alhenu —* alahhinu 
ali I, ale, al, NB alu "where?" OAkk, Ass., O/jB 

1. "where?" 2. conj. "where(ever)" OA, 

OB(Iit.) 3. prep, "at the place of OA before 

infin.; > alumma 
ali II ~ "surely" Mart 
alianu, aldnu (a tree) O/jB lex. 
alidanu "progenitor" MA; < walddum 
alidni, aridni (a plant) jB lex. 
dlidu — ► wdlidum 

alidutu in Id alidutu "sterility" jB; < wdlidum 
alikanum "traveller" OB;< dlikum + -an 
alik-panutu "going in front, leadership" NB; 

< dlikpdni abstr. (—> aldku G I ) 

aliktum 'going; goer' f. 1. Mari ~ "flying 
column" 2. jB lex. (a kind of bow) 3. (a kind of 
metal weapon); < dliku 

aliku(m) 'going; goer' 1. adj. jB, NA "moving, 
walking"; "falling out" of hair; "alight" of stove; 
Mari "appropriate" 2. subst. OA, O/jB 
"traveller; messenger" 3. Nuzi, jB — ► sent 4; 

< aldku ptcp. 

alikutu subst. 'going' = "philandering" jB; dlikut 

mahri "precedence"; < dliku abstr. 
alilanu (a tree) jB lex. 
alili — ► aldlu I 
alTlu(m), elllu (or d/elilu ?); f. aleliltu ~ 

"powerful" Bab., NA as epith. of deities, kings, 

warriors; < aldlu III 
aliinbu (a (mythical 7 ) bovid) jB lex.; < Sum. 
alimu ~ "honoured, of high rank"jB; < Sum. 
allq pi —* liqu I 
dli(s)su —* wdlidum 
alisam "village by village" OB, Mari; <dlu\ + 

-isam 
alittis in Id alittis "like a barren woman" jB; 

< wdlittum 
dlittu —* wdlittum 
allium — ► elitu 
alium — ► elu II 

alium "citizen, local" OA, in pi.; < alu I; — ► dldyu 



alkakatu(m) pi. "ways of life; actions, 
behaviour" Bab.(Iit.) of gods, demons, people; 

< alaktu irreg. pi.; -♦ ilkakdtu I 
alkanniwe (part of a vehicle) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
alkatu — ► alaktu 

alku I "state service" NA(Iit.); < aldku 

alku II "course" of canal, "region along the bank" 
NB; < Aram. 

all. . . also = ana I. . . 

alia "beyond; apart from" j/NB 1. prep, (also wr. 
al) "beyond, past; more than; apart from"; in 
comparative clauses instead of eli 2. before 
prep.: alia ana, alia ina "beyond, past; apart 
from" 3. adv. "instead, rather"; < ana I + la; — ► 
alldnum 

allaharum — ► annuharu 

allak "hub (of a wheel)" M/jB lex. 

allakkdnis — ► alldnu I 

allaku "always moving" M/jB; < aldku 

allaku "traveller, messenger; agent" j/NB; 

< aldku 
allalluI(akindofbird)jB 

allallull, allaM ~ "powerful" j/NB epith. of 

gods 
allalu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
alldmi — ► allu U. 
alldn — ► alldnum 
Allanatum (an Ass. month name) O/MA, jB 

lex. 
allanu(m) I "oak; acorn" [GIS/U.AL.LA.AN]; jB as 

drug; OA pi. alldnu "oak-resin"?; med. 

[NAGAR(- ); GlS.LAM.MAR] "(suppository 

shaped like) acorn"; a. Kanis, allakkdnis 

"Kanis-oak" (a tree) 
alianu II (a garment) MA 
alianu III (a prof.)? M/NB also as PN 
alianu IV pi.? (a small measured amount) NB 
allanum, alldn adv. "from there" OA, also 

alldnumma; as prep. + subst. or, also NB, pron. 

suff. "beyond, over and above, apart from"; 

< allu I + -dnwn; — ► alia; elldn ? 
allapak conj. "when"? jB lex. 
allatturum (a small pipe) OB; < Sum. 
allatu — » illatu I 

allemi — ► allu II 

alli'ayya, jB dldyu "driveller" O/jB lex. 
allikamma "somewhere else" Nuzi; < allu I 
allitis "the day after tomorrow" OA; < allti I; -♦ 

lidis; ullitis 
allu(m) I "hoe, pickaxe" OAkk, OA, Bab. 

[GIS.AL] as agricultural and building tool; a. 

nasu "to bear the hoe", a. sutruku "to make the 



alium II 



13 



hoe ring out"; as symbol of Ninurta, also Eg. 

royal emblem; sa a. "labourer" OB lex.; < Sum. 
alium II (a type of coefficient) OB math. 
allu(m) — ► also ellu I; ullumma 
allu(m) I "that (one)" Nuzi, Ug., jB (= ullu. I); 

> alldnum, allitis; allikamma, allukd 

allu II, allumi, allemi, alldmi, illumi ~ "certainly; 

furthermore" Am.; < W.Sem. 
alludanu (a meteor, phenomenon) jB om. 
alluhappu "(a kind of) hunting net; (a net-like 

sack)" jB [SA.AL.tfAB]; d a. (a demon); < Sum. 
alluharum — ► annuharu 
alluka "there" Nuzi; < allu I 
allumi — ► allu II 
allumzali — ► alluzu 
allundtu — ► alluttu 
alluru (a ceremonial dress) MB(Alal.), Nuzi, jB 

lex.: < Hurr.? 
alluttu(m), lex. also allu'u; pi. allundtu(m) 

"crab" j/NB; as animal; as figurine etc.; astr. 

"(constellation) Cancer", also another star 

[MUL.AL.LUL; MUL.NAGAR]; OA pi. "tongs, 

pincers"?; < Sum.; — ► kusu 
allu'tu, aliitu (a plant) jB lex. 
allu'u — ► alluttu 
alluzu, allumzali (a spiny plant) M/jB lex., med.; 

root, seed as drug 
almanu(m) "widower" Mari; jB d A. as DN 

(name of star); > almdnutu, almattu 
almanutu "widow(er)hood" jB in a. aldku "to 

enter a."; Nuzi "widow's allowance"; 

< almattu, almdnu abstr. 

almattu(m), NB also alamattu; pi. almandtu(m) 
"widow" Bab., MA [NU.MU.SU; MUNUS.NU. 
KUS.U; MA munuS.NU.kOS.KU]; astr. (a star); 

> almdnutu 

almln "without number, innumerable" j/NB(lit.); 

<al (-* eli ?) + minu II 
almu mng. unkn. jB lex.; epith. of deity 
alningu, alnikkum (a spice) OAkk, OB; also a 

mineral ? 
alpu(m) I "bull, ox" [GU4; coll. pi. GU4.P.A; NA 

usu. GU4.(NITA.)ME§]; a. mi, a. ndri "water, 

river ox"; a. kisi "water buffalo"? jB; a. sade (a 

wild animal) Am.; a. epinnim "plough ox"; a. 

warkatim [GU4.(A.)UR.RA] "rear ox (of team)"; 

math, put alpim 'ox's forehead', i.e. "trapezoid" 

[SAG.KI.GU4]; -♦ re'i-alputu 
alpu II ~ "threatening" jB lex.; < aldpu 
alsudilu (a primitive farming tool) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

altalu ~ "forest" jB lex. 
altammu — ► astammu 



alta(p)pipu (a box or chest) Am.; < Hurr.? 

altaputu — ► iltappu 

altarru I "strong, heroic" jB lex. 

alta(r)ru(m) II "assigned work" O/jB; < Sum. 

alti "well, now then!" jB; < Sum. 

alti -* also assatu 

altikkarum mng. unkn. OB lex. 

altu -* wastum 

alu — ► ali I 

alu I, eld "bull of heaven" jB myth, figure; astr. 
sign of the zodiac, constellation "Taurus" 
[MUL.GU4.AN.NA] 

alu II (an evil demon) M/jB, Bogh., NA [A.LA; 
occas. U18.LU]; < Sum. 

alu(m) III (a kind of drum) Bab. [GIS.A.LA]; 
<Sum. 

alu IV, elu ~ "pipe" Bab. "(clay) pipe, drain 7 "; 
lex. "wind-pipe"; < Sum.; — ► alallu I 

alu — ► also alallu II; elu Il.in 

alu(m) I m., Am. occas. f.; pi. alii, aldnu, OB 
freq. aldnu "village, town, city" [URU(.KI); pi. 
OB occas. URU.DIDLI.BI.KIl later freq. 
URU.MES; also URU.URU; URU.DIDLI] "city" 
opp. to country (seru); OB sa lihh-dlim "town- 
dweller"; a. beluti, a. sarruti etc. "capital, royal 
city"; of sectors a. elu "upper city", (al) lihh(i) 
ali "inner city", esp. of Assur; "municipality, 
city authorities", a. u rabidnum/sibutum "city 
and mayor/elders"; OA alum "the City" = 
Assur; > alu, alium, dldyu, alayutu, aldnu, 
alisam; sa-muhhi-dlutu 

alu(m) II, elu "ram" OAkk, Mari, Qatna, MA, 
M/jB, Am., Bogh. [(UDU.)a.LU(m)] also as 
ornament 

alu(m); pi. dliutum "townsman" OA; < alu I 

alu ~ "to cut"? jB lex. 

a'lu ~ "tribe, confederation"? jB(Ass.) [GIS.DA]; 
< W.Sem.? 

alulutum, jB lulutu (a kind of mineral)? OB 
math.,jB 

alumma "wherever"? jB; < ali I 

alupathi (a topog. desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

alutu (a kind of soup) jB lex. 

aliitu — ► also allu'tu 

alutu — ► sa-muhhi-dlutu 

aluzinnu 1. ~ "buffoon, clown" Bab. 2. (a plant) 
Bogh.; > lezenu ? 

alzibadar (colour desig. for horses) MB, also 
name of horse; < Kass. 

-am, -a 1. "to me" ( 1 sg. dat. suff.) 2. vent, affix 
(-♦GAGp.251);-*-w'm 

amadenum —* amandenum 

ama'erru ~ "female mourner" jB lex.; < Sum. 



amagallu 



14 



amiku 



amagallu "forest" jB lex.; < Sum. 

amahhu, amuhhu "enceinte, city-wall" jB; 

<Sum. 
amalis "like an a. tree"; < amalu 
amalitu, amalutum, amalu (a cultic functionary) 

desig. of a goddess O/jB; < Sum. 
amalu (a conifer) jB; > amalis 
amalu — ► also amalitu 
amalu — ► wamdlum 
amalubukku (a reed shelter) jB lex. 
amaluktu, maluktu, maruktu (a cultic 

functionary) desig. of a goddess jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
amalutum — ► amalitu 
amamu (an eye cosmetic) jB lex. 
ama(n)denum (a farm tool) OB; sa a. 

"(worker) with a." 
amanitu, amannum (a vegetable) O/jB, Ug. 
amanu in tdbat a. (a reddish salt) j/NB lex., 

med.; < Mt. Amanus ? 
amanu "talker, chatterbox" jB; < awum ptcp. ? + 

-an + -J 
amardtu — ► amru 

amar(girim)hilibu (a stone); < Sum.; -» hilibu 
amaridu (a spiny plant) jB lex. 
amaris (strange) "to look at" O/jB; < amdru I + 

-is 
amarsdnu -* amursanu 
amartu(m) I, NB also amastu "partition wall" 

Bab., Am.; between houses; "side" of a bed, 

chest; "arm-rest" of a chair; < amaru U 
amartu II; pi. amrdtu (a measure)? jB glass- 
making text 
amaru(m) I, emerum; NB pi. amardnu "pile of 

bricks" Bab., OA [SIG4.ANSE]; Nuzi in 

amarwumma epesu; > amdrum II 
amaru II; pi. f. "side wall" jB, NA; of bed; 

> amartu I 
amaru(m) I "to see" G (a/u) [IGI; IGI.DUg] 

1. "see" s.th., s.o.; "dream" a dream; "look at; 
inspect, examine"; "read" tablet etc.; pan X a. 
"see face of X", "see X in person", NA/NB 
"get audience"; OAkk, Ass. en(e) X a. "visit 
X"; "experience, get to know"; "examine, 
inspect, keep an eye on"; "look after, look with 
favour on" persons; "be shown" brotherhood, 
patronage; "suffer" punishment, loss; "see", i.e. 
"make, profit"; ina qdti(m) a. "learn from s.o." 

2. ingress, "see, catch sight of; "find", "locate, 
discover, trace (out)"; "establish" the results of 
a calculation 3. act. stat. "recognizes; comes to 
know"; NB/NA ina/ana muhhi X a. "is devoted 
to X", NB also "is keen on" s.th. R Mari Gtn 



iter, of G; Mari stat. "has learnt thoroughly" 
Gt jB "see from now on"?, mng. unci. D rare; 
OA "examine" metal; -» mummertu S caus. of 
G St "make s.o. meet" s.o. N pass, of G [IGI; 
IGI.LA] 1. of animals, tablets etc. "be seen", of 
heavenly bodies "become visible, appear"; "be 
found"; "be checked, inspected" 2. recipr. "meet 
with (= itti), happen upon" s.o.; astr., of 
heavenly bodies "be opposite" Ntn iter, of N 1; 
> amaris; amru; amertu I.II; dmeru, dmertu, 
dmerdnu; ammdru; atmartu?; imru; 
mummertu; ndmaru, ndmartu; ndmurtu; 
tdmartu; nanmurtu; — ► kalldmdre 
amaru m II "to pile up bricks" G (Hi) OA; 

< amaru I denom. 
amarwumma — ► amaru I 
amdsu — ► amdsu 
amasiru mng. unkn. jB 

amasu (or amdsu) mng. unkn. jB D; = 

hamdsu ?; > ansu'-, atmdsu^ 
amasmu, amaspu — ► abasmu 
amastu — ► amartu I 
amasu ~ "to be paralysed"? jB G lex., med., of 

hands etc.; > dmisu*; ansiitu; imsu; umsu; 

imistu 
amat-sarrutu — ► amtu 
amatu (desig. of terrain) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
amdtu — » amtu; amu; awdtu 
amayu (an aquatic plant) jB lex. 
ambassu, anba(s)su "(game-)park"? j/NB, NA; 

< Hurr.? 
ameharu — ► awiharu 
amelis — ► awilis 
ameltu — ► awiltum 
amelu — ► awilu 
amelutu — ► awilutum 
amerdnu — ► awirdnum 

ameranu "eye-witness" MA, M/jB; < dmeru + 

-an 
amertu(m) I, ime/irtu(m), iwirtum "view, 

opinion" O/jB; esp. "preference, choice" of 

land; < amdru I; — ► imirtu 
amertu II, amestu "inspection, review" NB of 

soldiers, grain etc.; < amru 
amertu f. "that sees" jB; < dmeru 
ameru(m), dmirum "that sees, reads" etc.; of 

murderer amir dami "shedder of blood"; 

< amdru I ptcp.; > dmerdnu, dmertu 
amestu — ► amertu II 

amhara (a medicinal plant) O/jB 
amiharu — ► awiharu 
amiku (a tree)? NA 



amilanu 



15 



amtu(m) 



amilanu (a medicinal plant) jB [tJ.LVJ.U1g/19.LU; 

LU-a-nu, NA-a-nu]; < awilu 
amilis — ► awilis 
amiltu — ► awiltum 
amilu — » awilu 
amilutu — ► awilutum 
amiranis "like a deaf man"? jB; < amiru 
amirdnu — ^ awirdnum 
amiru "obstruction of the ear (through ear-wax)" 

jB; also "deaf?; > amiranis 
dmirum — > dmeru 

amisu (or amisu) ~ "enemy" jB lex.; < amdsu ? 
amkamannu (desig. of horses) Nuzi 
amm. . . also = ana m. . . 
amma "look!; lo!" OA before nominal and vb. 

sentence, for emphasis; > ammdmin; ammaka, 

ammdnum, ammisa; ammiu 
ammaka(m), ammak, NA also ma(k)ka "there" 

Ass.; NA issu (am)ma(k)ka "from there"; 

< amma + -ka(m) 

ammaki/u conj. "instead of jB + subjunct.; 

< ana I + maku II ? 

ammal "as much, as many as" MB(Ass.); — ► 

ammar; mala I 
ammamin "would that, if only" OA + pret.; 

< amma + -min 

ammammu I, ammu (a large beer jar) jB lex.; 
<Sum. 

ammammu II (a bird) jB lex. 

ammanna "anybody"? MB 

ammanum "from there" OA; < amma + -drum 

ammar, NA also mar "as much as" M/NA; prep. 
a. ubdni "a finger's breadth"; rel. pron. + 
subjunct. a. imhuriini "as much as he received"; 

< OA ana I + mala I ?; — ► ammal; rutu 
ammarkarra, ammari/uakal, hammardkdra; pi. 

ammariakalldnu "accountant" NB; < OPers. 
ammarsigu — ► amursiggu 
ammartu "overseer"? of people jB, desig. of 

goddess; < ammdru f.? 
ammartu "eaglet" Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 
ammaru mng. unkn. Nuzi 
ammaru; pi. ammdrdni "overseer" NB; 

< amdru I; > ammartu 
ammaruakal — » ammarkarra 
ammasabbu (a container) jB lex. 
ammastakal —* mastakal 
ammati — » mati 

ammatis — » ammatu II 

ammatu(m) I "forearm; cubit" [KUS]; kisir a. 

"elbow"; as linear measure "cubit", st. abs. 

ammat [l.KUS]; NB as area measure, also a. 

sehertu "small cubit"; NB as vol. measure a. 



qaqqari; X ina ammati "X cubits (long)"; a. 

rabitu "big cubit"; a. sarri "royal cubit"; NB 

astr. (a measurement of angle); jB transf. 

"strength"?; lex. "cubit-measure" of wood 7 
ammatu II, abbatu 'strong, stable', syn. for 

"earth" jB; also term.-adv. ammatis 
ammatu III (syn. for mother) jB lex. 
ammatu IV mng. unkn. Ug. leg. 
ammi "there" OA; — ► ammiu 
ammidakkum "lye"? Mari, in metal treatment 
amminanna "why now?" M/jB; < ammini + 

inanna 
ammini(m), ammin "why?"; < ana I + minu I; 

— ► missum 
ammisa(m) "there, thither" OA, NA; < amma + 

-isam 
ammiu(m); f. ammitu(m); pi. m. NA ammute, f. 

OA ammidtum, M/NA ammdte "that" Ass., 

Am.; > ammuri; — > ammi; annu I 
ammu(m) I, hammum "people" OB, jB lex.; 

<W.Sem. 
ammu II (a name of the Tigris) jB lex. 
ammu — > also ammammu I; emmu; hammu II 
ammute — ► ammiu 
ammuri ~ "at that time" NA/jB; < ammiu + 

-ri(g); — ^ annurig 
ammusmu in bit a. (a storehouse)? jB rit. 
amnakku (a kind of white sand) jB/NA for 

manufacture of glass; < Sum.?; — > immanakku ? 
ampannu (a kind of wood) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
ampannuhlu "an ampannu-wood worker" Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
amrimmum — » amrummu 
amru(m) "seen, chosen" by DN etc.; "inspected" 

of troops Bab., NA; jB Id a., also pi. Id 

am(a)rdtu '"not seen', unseemly"; < amdru I 
amru(m) "beam, timber" OB, Nuzi, in 

construction of house, ship 
amrummu(m), amrimmum, abrummu "outlet, 

water-gate" O/jB; < Sum.? 
amsaii(m), amsdla, once amsat "yesterday" 

Bab.; samsdli, sansdla (< sa a.) "the day 

before yesterday"; > amsdlum; — ► timdli 
amsalum "of yesterday" OB; < amsdli + -i 
amsum "palm fibre" OB 
amtu(m), NB also andu; pi. amdtu(m) "maid, 

female slave" [GEME; OB freq. SAG.GEME; 

Am., Nuzi also MUNUS.GEME, MUNUS.IR] of 

social class; OA, of Anatolian spouse; also 

desig. of o.s. in letters addressed to persons of 

higher rank; a. DN "servant of DN"; a. 

ekalli(m) "slave of the palace", NA "royal 

concubine"; NB a. sarri "royal slave"; 



amtuttu(m) 



16 



anafcu(m) I 



a.-sarrutu "position as a royal slave"; 

> amutu I; amtuttu; — ♦ qinnatu 
amtuttu(m) "status of a female slave" OA, Nuzi 

for amutu I 
amu(m); pi. f. "raft" Bab., usu. of reed; -» hdmu 
amu I "one-handed"? OB, jB lex. 
amu II (a spiny plant) jB lex. 
amu III ~ "palate" jB lex.; < Sum. 
amu IV ~ "list of reciprocals" NB 
amum V vb. mng. unkn. OAkk in PNs, e.g. Imi- 

ilum 
amu — » also awum Gt; hammu II 
amuastu — ♦ amumestu 
amudaya, amudu (a wooden part of the harness) 

M/jB; — » mudayu 
amuhhu — ♦ amahhu 
amultu (a plant) jB lex. 
amumestu, amumistu, amuastu (a spiny plant) 

jB lex. 
amumihhuri ~ "substitute, proxy" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
amumu (desig. of beer) NA 
amumunna "city gate" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
amiiqu — ♦ emuqu 
amurdinnu, murdinnu "bramble"? M/jB 

[GIS.GESTIN.GIR]; also a disease 
amurranu "western" Nuzi; < amurru + -arm 
amurranu —* also murrdnu 1 
amurriqdnu — * awurriqdnum 
amurru(m), Nuzi also aburru "Amurru" 

1. (divine name) [ d MAR.TU] 2. toponym for 

Syria and the West 3. OAkk, OB "Amorite(s)" 

(-» amurru) [mostly MAR.TU]; OB abi a. 

[AD.DA.MAR.TU] "prince, sheikh"; Mari rabi a. 

(a high-ranking officer), tupsar a. "Amorite 

scribe" 4. Bab., NA "west wind; the West" 

[IM.MAR.TU; NB also IM.KUR.MAR; also astr., 

NA, NB IM.4] 5. jB (western star = Perseus) 

[MUL.MAR.TU]; > amurru, amurranu 
amurru(m) "of, from Amurru" OA, O/jB 

[MAR.TU]; "Amorite" people; jB lex. amurrltu 

f. (a kind of wool); < amurru + -i 
amursanu, amursdnu, amarsdnu "wild pigeon" 

jB; — » arassannu; ursdnu II 
amursiggu, amursikku, ammarsigu (a bird) jB 
amursdnu — » amursdnu 
amussu, aftussu, a'ussu, arusu (a bulbous 

vegetable) M/jB 
amuttu — ♦ amutu LIII 
amutu(m) I, MA amuttu "status of a maid, 

female slave" M/NB [GEME- ; Nuzi also 

GEME.MES]; < amtu abstr. 



amutu(m) II; pi. OB amuwdtum "liver" OAkk, 
Bab. [BA] of a sacrificial sheep; ext. "findings 
on a sheep's liver, liver omen" 

amutu(m) III, OA amuttum (a precious metal, 
phps.) "meteoric iron" OA, Am. [KUG.AN] 

amuzi(n)nu(m) (a plant, drug) Mari, jB 

an — ♦ ana I 

-an (ending) — » GAG p.305 

ana I, an (as-s... etc.) "to, for" (freq. abbr. an, 
with assimilation of n to following consonant 
(OA often wr. a)) (prep., governs subst. in 
gen., pers. pron. in dat.) [from MB onwards 
DlS; O/MB occas. NAM; M/jB SE] 1. of space 
etc.: move, go, come "to, towards", bring, send, 
give, speak, write "to", also ana ser(i), ana 
mufthi; sit down "near, beside"; lay, put, throw 
down "onto"; substitute, compensate "for"; 
weigh "for"; sacrifice "to"; wait "for"; look "at"; 
submit "to"; set "against"; grow angry "at" 2. of 
time: "for", ad-ddr "forever"; "within" 3. of 
purpose, intention: "for" marriage, work, 
journey; give "for" o.'s life; before infin. "(in 
order) to" 4. "for, in favour of s.o. 
5. "towards, against" 6. "in view of, in the light 
of s.th., ana sudti "thereupon" 7. "by order of, 
on behalf of 8. buy, sell, exchange s.th. "(in 
return) for" 9. distrib.: "by", satta ana satti 
"year by year", idi ana idi "on all sides" 
10. "per, for each" NA, NB ana umu "per 
diem" 11. causal and sim.: "about, concerning" 
house, field; weep, rejoice "over" s.th. 12. NB 
comm., of noun "(derived) from, belonging to" 
vb. 13. NB ana Id — ► alia, NB analdnussu 
"without him" 14. NA, NB as nota accusativi 
(-» GAG §1 14e) 15. modal: ana pi "according 
to"; OA, OB ana gamrim, jB, NA ana 
gimirtisu "completely"; — » sihirtu3, qdtul\, 
zlmu; OA ana salslsu "three times" (Bab. — ► 
adi 1 ); NA ana esrdte "ten times", "by" one- 
third, a quarter etc. 16. pleonastic before term.- 
adv.: e.g. ana ma' dis "to a great degree" 

17. before prep., adv. — » mahru II, pdnu I 8 etc. 

18. "as for, with respect to", OA, OB ana sa 
"with respect to the fact that, with respect to that 
which"; NB — ► assa 

ana II "I" OB(lit.), by-form of andku 

anabu (or anapu) (a loincloth or kilt ?) jB lex. 

anadaru "bearded" jB lex. 

anagmahhu (a drinking vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 

anahu(m) I "to be(come) tired" G (a/a) stat. 
"becomes tired", "makes an effort, strives"; of 
buildings etc. "become dilapidated" Gtn iter, of 
G jB med., of limbs, person D OA "tire (s.o.), 



anahu II 



17 



oppress" S Bab. "trouble, exert, strain" s.o.; 
stat. "is very wearied" St "make an effort", 
"weary o.s., be depressed"; astr. "endure" 
N OB "become tired", "struggle, suffer hard- 
ship, be exhausted"; > anhu; ariihu; anhutu; 
inhu I; mdnahu; mdnahtu; sunuhu, sunuhis; 
tdnehu, tdnehtu; tdnuhis 

anahu II "to perform an inhu song" O/jB 
G (pres. innih) esp. rit., infta a. D ~ G rit., of 
assinnu; < inhu II denom. 

ana' mi — * rniinu I 

anaka -* andku; annaka 

anakandas — » akkamdas 

anakanni — ♦ akanni 

anakannu — ♦ akanna II 

anakku — ♦ anaqqu 

anaku, NA also annuku, NB also anaka "I; me" 
[Bogh. GA.E] as pred. freq. andkuma; OB sa 
andku "as for me"; NB also ace. (to stress a 
pron. suff.), dat.; -» ana II; anuki 

analdnussu — ♦ ana I 1 3 

anama "as soon as" OA; — » anndma 

anameru (a plant) jB; as drug; zer a. "seed of 
a." 

anamu — * anmu 

ananihu, nanalihu (a garden herb, phps.) "mint" 
j/NB 

ana(n)nu (a syn. of copper) jB lex. 

anantu(m); pi. an(a)ndtu "battle, strife" 
Bab.(lit); — ♦ anuntu 

andnu — ♦ enenu I 

anapu — ♦ anabu 

anapu — ♦ alapu 

anapum "to rage" OB G (i/i) 

anaqate f. pi. "she-camels" NA; < Arab. 

anaqqu (or anakku) (a drinking vessel) jB lex.; 
<Sum. 

anarhallum (desig. of child) OA 

anatu (a ring) jB lex. 

anaummis -* annummis 

anba(s)su — » ambassu 

anbu (or anpu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 

andahsu(m), andasu, OA addahsum (an 
alliaceous plant) 

andakullum (a corvee worker)? OB; also as PN 

andandnu — ♦ andundnu 

andararum — ♦ andurdru 

andas "king" jB lex.; < Kass. 

andasu — ♦ andahsu 

andesu "inspection, review" NB; < OPers. 

andillu — ♦ andullu 

andu — ♦ amtu 



andugu (a meteor, term)? jB lex.; < Sum.? 
anduhallatu, antuhallatu, imlndltuhallatu "(a 

kind" of) lizard" M/jB [KUN.DAR.GURUN.NA; 

EME.SID.ZI.DA; NIR.GAL.BUR] 
andullu(m), M/jB(Ass.) andillu "shelter, 

canopy" Bab. [AN.DUL; AN.DUL7]; transf. 

"(royal, divine) protection, aegis", also in PNs; 

< Sum.; — » sululu 

andunanu, addundnum, andandnu "substitute" 

O/jB; NA — » dundnu; — > also ardandnu; 

dindnu 
anduraru(m), addurdrum, andararum, NA, 

NB du/ardru "freedom, exemption" [AMA.AR. 

GI] of edict; release from (debt) slavery; 

cancelling debts; a. sakdnu "promulgate a. 

edict"; < dardru I 
anduru "(a kind of) door" jB lex. 
anenu — ♦ aninu 
angallu ~ "wise" M/jB 
angasu, angdsu* "plum (tree)" NA 
angillu "lament" M/jB; var. of ikkillu 
angubbu(m) ~ 'standing in the sky' O/jB 

[AN.GUB.BA] 1. "tutelary deity" 2. astr. (desig. 

of certain stars) 3. (a class of priests); also as 

desig. of deities; < Sum. 
angurinnu (a metal object) MA, Am.; -» 

ingurenu 
anhu(m) "tired" O/jB of people, animals; M/NB 

of buildings "dilapidated"; < anahu I; > anhutu 
anhullime — * imhur-llmi 
anhullu — > imhullu 
anhullu/u? (a plant) jB lex., mag. [wr. 

U.AN.yUL(.LA/LU)]; < Sum.? 
anhurasru — ♦ imhur-esrd 
anhutu "tiredness; dilapidation" j/NB, NA of 

people; buildings, divine images etc.; < anhu 
anlhu(m) "tired, weary" O/jB; Id a., NB lanihu 

"indefatigable"; < anahu I 
ani(m)mu ~ "kindness, peace" jB lex. 
anina 1. "now" NA, NB also anin 2. "earlier" 

Nuzi, Bogh. 3. "where?" Nuzi 4. mng unci. 

Am. 
aninu, anini, anenu "we" NA, NB; NB also gen. 

and dat.; < Aram.; — » ninu 
aniu, aniteu (syn.s of copper) jB lex. 
ankibitu "of heaven and earth" jB epith. of Istar; 

< Sum. 

ankinutu (a plant) jB lex., med. as drug 
ankunnu (a heavy bronze object)? MB(Alal.) 
anmu, anamu "this" O/MB, 0/MB(Alal.), 

Bogh., Ug. 
ann. . . also = ana n. . . 



18 



anta(l)lu(m) 



anna, anni, annu "yes, certainly" O/jB, Nuzi; 
> annu, anndma; inanna; annanna; — » 
akanna I; annu I; eni 
annabu — ♦ arnabu 

annaka(m), Ug. also annakdnu, NA also 
hannak(a), nak(a) "here" Ass., analadilissu a. 
"to/as far as/from here"; < annu I + -kam 
annaku(m) "tin; lead" [AN.NA]; MA a. pasiu 

'white lead', i.e. "tin", a. abdru "lead" 
annama OA, O/jB "there; thus 1 , in this way"; jB, 
N A ~ "in the same way"; OB lex. + pron. suff. 
annamasu "there he is"; < anna + -ma 
annamru; pi. annamrdni (a copper object) NA 
annania ~ "such-and-such" MA; <ann(iu) + 

anniu ? 
annanna; f. annannitu "NN, so-and-so, such- 
and-such" O/jB [NENNI; f. (MUNUS.)NENNI 
(-turn) etc.]; Nuzi (a class of women)?; < anna 
+ anna 
annanum "here; from here" OA, O/jB, Am., 

Bogh.; < annu I + -dnum 
anneklam — » annikiam 
annettdn — » annittan 
anni 1 "now" OAkk, OA; < annu I 
anni II (a desig. of textiles) Nuzi 
anni -* also anna 

annikiam, anneklam, annike(m), annikd(m), Ug. 
annikdnu "here, hither" O/MB; < anni(u) + 
-klam 
anni(m)inis "no sooner than" jB (-♦ GAG 

§§1 16c, 174g); <annimmu 
annimmu(m), annummu(m), annimmamum, 
OB (Esn.) unummlum "this one here" O/jB 
(ace. annammiam, annimmiam; f. OB 
annummltum, anni(m)mltum; du. obi. annim= 
mutin; pi. m. annummuttum, annummutum, jB 
lex. annimmamutum; f. OB anniamdtum'); 
MB, Bogh. "this"; > annimmis, annummis; 
annummanum; -* annu I; unummium 
anninati(m) invariable "this" MB(Alal.); -* 

annu I 
anninum "here" OB(N.Mes.); <ann& I + 

-dnum 
annis "here, hither" O/jB; also ana a. "hither", 

istu a. "hence"; < annu I 
annisa(m), NA also hannisa "here, hither" Ass., 

Mari; < annu I + -isam 
annittan, annettdn "this then" OB, often 

interrog.; < annu I f. du. as adv.? 
annltu, anniu -* annu I 

annu(in) "(word of) consent, assent, approval" 
Bab. of omen, a. klnu "authentic consent", a. 
apdlu "to say yes"; < anna 



annu -* also Anu I; arnu 

annii(m) I, anniu(m), NA also hanniu, hannu, 
OB occas. with nunation "this, those" [j/NB NE; 
SES (for m. pi. annuti)]; OB f. sg. annitum 
"this matter"; annltam la annltam 'this one, not 
this one', "one way or another"; a. ii a. 
"various"; NA a(n)nute . . . a(n)nute . . . "some 
..., others ..."; (a)kl (h)anni(ma) "thus, in the 
same way"; > anni I; annania" 1 ; annanum, 
anninum; annikiam, annaka; annis, annisa, 
annittan, annurig; anumma; agannu, ahanna, 
ahenna; -* ammiu; anna; annimmu; anninati 

annu II "look!" Am.; < W.Sem. 

annu -* also anna 

annuharu(m), allaluharum, Mari also 
innuharum f. (a mineral) O/jB [IM.SAHAR. 
BABBAR.KUR.RA] sim. to alum, as drug 

annuka mng. unkn. NB 

annuka, annukanna "here" Elam, Nuzi 

annuku -* andku; annaku; annuqum 

annumma -* anumma 

a(n)nummanum "here" Mari; ~< annummu + 
-dnum 

annummis, anaummis "here, hither" O/jB; 

< annummu 
annummu — ♦ annimmu 
A(n)nunitu(m) OAkk, Bab. 1. (a goddess) 2. (a 

constellation, north-east part of Pisces) 
annuqum (a type of jewellery, phps.) "ring"? 

OA; — ♦ unqu I 
annuri(g) "at this moment, now" NA; < annil I + 

-i'Hg)\ — » ammuri 
annus ~ "look!" Am. 
anpatu (a bird) jB 
anpu -* anbu 
anqullu, aqqullu (an atmospheric phenomenon; a 

fiery glow) Bab., NA [izi.an.NE(=BIRci ? )]; jB 

"feverish heat"; NA aban a. "meteor"? 
ansammum -* assammu 
ansamullu (a class of person) jB lex. 
ansabtu(m), insabtu(m), issabtum; pi. 

ilansabdtuli; also du. OA issabtdn "ring, 

earring" Bab., OA 
ansu "obstinate"? jB lex.; <amasu ? 
ansamu mng. unkn. jB f. ansamitu as epith. of 

door 
ansanum 'of Ansan' OB as desig. of a bow 
ansu — ♦ ensu 

ansutu "paralysis" jB; < amdsu 
ansutu — ♦ also ensutu 
anta(l)lu(m), attalu "eclipse" Bab., NA [AN.GE6; 

AN.TA.LU] of sun, moon, planet, star, Bogh. 



antasurru 



19 



aparu(m) 



transf. of king, jB of lands; <Sum.; -♦ 

namtallum 
antasurru (or antasurru) (a precious stone or 

metal) jB; astr. (a star or constellation); < Sum. 
antasu (ascribe) jB 
antasurru -* antasurru 
antu I "ear of barley" jB lex., NA 
antu(m) II mng. unkn. O/jB 
antuhallatu — ♦ anduhallatu 
antupsalli -* antuwasalli 
antusu 'sitting in the sky' (a constellation) jB 

[(MUL.)AN.TUS.A.MES (always pi.)]; < Sum. 
antuwasalli, antupsalli (a high Hitt. court 

official) Bogh., Ug.; < Hitt. 
Anu(m) I, OB usu. Annum "An(um)" (the god 

of heaven) OAkk, Bab. [AN; NB d 60]; of Istar 

andtima "you are supreme deity"; < Sum.; 

> Anutu 
anu(m) II (a metal) O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
anu III "(the cuneiform sign) AN" M/jB [AN] 
anu IV (a syn. for wood or tree) jB lex. 
anuki "I" Am.; < W.Sem.; -+ andku 
Anukku — » Anunnakku 
anumisu "then, at that time" OB istu a., warka a. 

"since, after that time"; < ana I + umu I + -su 
anumma, annumma, anummu, OB(Esn.) 

unumma "now", esp. of messages "herewith" 

OB, Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug., jB lex. [Ug. UD- 

ma\; < annu I loc.-adv. + -ma 
anummame, anummS "here is" Ug.; < anumma 
anummdnum -* annummanum 
anumme -* anummame' 
anummike "there" Bogh. lex.; < anumma 
anummu -* anumma 
Anunitu -* Annunitu 
Anunnakku, occas. Anukku, Enunnakku "(the) 

gods" [ d A.NUN.NA(.KE 4 .NE)] 1. OB, M/jB the 

gods as a whole 2. M/NB the gods of the earth 

and netherworld; < Sum. 
anuntu; pi. anundtu "fight, combat" jB, NA; -+ 

anantu 
anunu "fear, dread"? jB; < Sum. 
anunutu, (e)nunutu (a plant) M/jB lex., med.; 

also (an insect)? 
anussannu (a metal object) Qatna; < Hurr.? 
anussu (a leather object) jB lex. 
Anutu "position of An; divinity" j/NB [ d 60- ; 

d AN- ]; <Anu I 
anutu -* also unutu 
anzahhu (a kind of glass) Qatna, M/jB, Bogh., 

NA [AN.ZAH]; < Sum. 
anzalilu, jB anzariinu; f. anzaliltu "matchmaker, 

pimp"? M/jB 



anzamatum pi. mng. unkn. OAkk; desig. of 
field 

anzananzu — ♦ anzanunzu 

anzaninu — ♦ anzalilu 

anzanis "like Anzu" jB(Ass.); < Anzu 

anzannu mng. unci. Nuzi, desig. of 
commodities, fields; < Hurr. 

anzannu -* also arzdnu 

anzanu(n)zu, anzananzu "water-table, 

subterranean waters" jB; < Sum. 

anzillu(m), anzullu "taboo; abomination" O/jB; 
a. kabdsu, a. kubbusu "to infringe a taboo"; 
anzillasu "s.th. (to be) avoided by s.o." 

Anzu "Anzu; lion-headed eagle" [ANZU.MUSEN]; 
also astr., desig. of star(s); > anzanis 

anzuzu (a type of spider) jB [SE.GUR4] 

apadu "small" jB lex. 

apalu(m) I, OB also abdlum "to pay; answer" 
G (a/u; NB pres. once ihappal ?) 1. "pay" s.o. 
s.th. (= 2 ace), "repay" s.th., "settle" claim; 
"pay off, satisfy" s.o.; M/NA "make in full" 
sacrificial offering; Bab. math., astr., of solution 
"give the result" 2. "answer" s.o. (= ace); ext. 
"correspond to" another feature 3. OA, OB 
"answer to", "be answerable to" s.o. (=acc), 
"justify o.s. before" 4. with idu, kum "stand in 
for, represent", freq. in PN Gtn iter, "pay", 
"stand in for" on separate occasions Gt 
"answer one another, have discussion", "stand 
in for permanently" D "satisfy" s.o; "pay off' 
an obligation; "pay" a debt; NA "make 
answerable" Dt(t) "be held responsible" 
S "make s.o. answer" N "be paid off, become 
satisfied"; > dpilu, dpiltum, dpildnu; iplu; 
mutaplu; ndpaltu; napalu; tdpalu; tdpiltum, 
tdpultum 

apalu(m) II "to be (too) late" G jB of star "be 
late" D OA stat. of birth "is retarded"; jB of 
Adad (= thunderstorm) "come later than 
expected" Dt "be delayed"; > aplu I, apiltu I; 
tdpaldtu; upletum; uppulu I, uppultu; -* aplu II 
and derivatives; uppulu II 

apalwalihurra (a prof, desig.) Nuzi 

apanis "through the window(s)" jB; <aptu + 
-an + -is 

apapu(m) mng. unci. Mari G unattested N (or 
napdpum ?) ~ "infiltrate" 

apara(k)ku mng. unkn. NA lex. in subdt a. "a. 
garment" 

aparu (a loincloth) jB lex. 

aparu(m), occas. eperu "to cover the head" Bab., 
M/NA G (e/e, OB a/u) "put" crown, helmet 
etc. "on the head of s.o. (= ace), stat. "wears"; 



apatu 20_ 

transf. of moon, star, king "be decked with" 
halo, radiance etc.; OB stat. of sheep's tongue 
"be covered, capped" ext. Gtn iter, of G, MA 
"constantly crown" king Gt stat. "is decked 
with" D "put headgear (= acc f ) on head of s.o. 
(=acc.) N "be crowned, covered"; > apru; 
itpuru; upru I; upurtu 
aparu — » also abdru II 
apasu — » wapdsum 
apdtu -» appatu II; aptu 

apatu, abdtu, epdtu, OB a/epidtum, Bogh. 
apietum f. pi. "numerous, teeming", epith. of 
nisu, also absol., "humanity" 
apdtu — » also apu I 
apellu mng. unkn. Nuzi; desig. of arrows; 

< Hurr. 
apidtum. apietum — » apdtu 
apiktu — » abiktu 

apilanu 'the answerer' (a bird) jB; < apdlu I 
apilha mng. unkn. jB lex. 
apillu (a cultic performer) jB [A.BIL] 
apiltu(m) I 1. M/NB "remainder; remaining 
debts" 2. OAkk (a vessel) 3. jB (a part of the 
year); < aplu I; -» a. II 
apiltu(m) II "heiress" O/jB; < aplu II; = a. I ?; -» 

aplatu 
apilu(m); f. dpiltum 'answerer' 1. Man, jB, also 
aplum (a kind of prophet) 2. MB dpil hdhi (a 
doorkeeper) 3. Nuzi (a prof.); < apdlu I 
apisamus (a type of bow)? Am.; < Hurr. 
apisasi? (a tree)? NA 
apislat (an illness) jB; -» apisalu 
apis "like reed-beds" jB; < apu I 
apisalu (a cripple)? jB; < PIN Apisal; -» apislat 
apitas mng. unkn. jB 
apitu(m) (a kind of fallow land) O/jB 
apkallatu f. "wise one" jB [ABGAL], also as PN; 

< apkallu 
apkallu, abgallu "wise man, expert" Bab., NA 
[ABGAL] epith. of gods; of Adapa etc.; pi. "the 
(seven) sages": a. samni "oil (divination) 
expert"; < Sum.; > apkallatu 
apkisu "furrow" jB; < Sum. 
aplatu "heiress" jB lex. (= apiltu II); <aplu II 
aplu(m) I; f. apiltu "late" OB; < apdlu II; 

> apiltu I; — » a. II 
aplu(m) II; st. constr. apil, apal "heir, son" 
[IBILA; j/NB, NA freq. A; NB PN occas. 
EDURU; NA PN also d IBILA] a. reM, a. 
asaredu "prime heir", a. kinu "legitimate heir"; 
apil erseti 'son of the earth', desig. of date 
palm; > apiltu II, aplatu; aplutu; = a. I ? 
aplu -» also abru IV 



appu(m) 



aplum — » dpilu 1 

apluhtu(m) "armour" O/jB 

aplutu(m) "status of heir; inheritance, estate" 

O/jB [IBILA]; < aplu II 
app. . . also = ana p. . . 

appadan "pillared hall, apadana" NB; < OPers. 
appadetu — » uppadetu 
appahu, a(b)bahu ~ "branches" jB lex. 
appan in PN for ana pan (-» pdnu I) 
appanannu (a metal object) Am.(Mit); < Hurr. 
appdni -» appatu II 
appannu (a part of a building, portico) Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; -» appatu 
appanum I (a pulse, phps.) "chick-pea" Mart 
appanum II (a bird) Bogh.; -» abbunnu 
apparritu; pi. apparrdtu "tufted hair, strand of 

hair" jB; -» apparrU 
apparru, happarrd; f. apparritu "with tufted 

hair" O/jB; MB as PN; (desig. of pig, sheep); 

— » apparritu 
apparu(m), jB also ippdru: pi. m. & f. "reed-bed, 

marsh" [AMBAR], NA also "reed(s)"; qan a. 

"reed"; fish, birds simat a. "belonging to the 

marshes" [ME.TE AMBAR.RA]; NB rah a. 

"marsh overseer"; < Sum. 
appatdn — » appatu 11 
appatis "as with a bridle" jB: < appatu II 
appatu(m) I "tip" NB (of metal implements); 

<appu 
appatu(m) II; NA pi. once appdni "bridle, rein" 

Bab., M/NA [NA (KUS.)PA; AB] j/NB, NA 

mukil appdti 'bridlc-liolder', "chariot driver"; 

also jB lex. appatdn (hi. (a wooden object)?; 

> appatii 
appatu in bit a. "portico" jB (= bit hildni); 

< Akkadi/utiou of appannu ? 
appatu — ► aho appatu l.II; appu 
appis conj. "since, given that" OA, OB, jB lex.; 

< appu 
appfta I', dii. "nostrils"? jB of ape's snout; 

< appu 
appitti "likewise; just as" NB, also ana appittu; 

< ana 1 f pitti 
appu(m) I. "nose" Bab., M/NA [KIR4] 1. liter.: 

"nose", nlso dn., of person, animal; "beak" of 
bird: rti u. "tip of the nose"; hehen a., nurub a. 
"soft pints of the nose"; nahlr a., pilis a. 
"nostril"; lihhi a. "nasal cavity"; birit a. "nasal 
scptniu"?: di'ir a. '"wall of the nose', cheek"; 
luisarti a. "nasal mucus"; sdr a. "breath" 
2. idioms: lahan a. (a gesture of prostration); a. 
qadMulqwldudu (a gesture of grief); Mari a. 
mfi(iil$um (11 gesture of distress); OB a.-su 



appuna 



21 



arahu(m) I 



kasddum "to defeat" s.o.; sibit a. "moment" 
3. transf.: "tip" of tongue, finger, penis, beard; 
"extremity" of shapes, objects etc.; "rim" of 
vessel; "crown" of tree; "fringe" of garment; 
"point" of land, "causeway, bund"; MB 
wooden "stake"; > appis; appatu I; appitd 

appudetu — » uppadetu 

appultu — » uppultu 

appuna, jB also appunndma, Bogh., Am. also 
appundna "moreover" OAkk, OA, O/jB 

apputtu(m) I, apputum ~ "please; it is urgent" 
(interj.) O/MA, OB, jB lex.; -► a, II ? 

a(p)puttum II (or abbuttum, dblputtum) ~ 
"difficult situation" OA; = a. I ? 

apru(m) in aprussa "with head covered" OB of 
woman; < aparu 

apru — » also abru II 

aprusu (a plant) jB, NA as drug; oil, seed, flour 
of a. 

apsammilakku — » apusammikku 

apsasu(m); f. apsasd/itu(m) 1. (an exotic bovid) 
2. (a myth, animal with the body of a cow), 
"sphinx" OAkk, O/jB as figurine; jB(Ass.) of 
bull-colossus; [(MUNUS.)AB.ZA.ZA]; < Sum. 

apsu(m) "(cosmic) underground water" Bab., 
NA [ABZU(=ZU.AB)] 1. lit., as home of fish, 
location of foundations; kdr a. "quay of the a." 
(a ritual place) 2. "(deities of) the apsu" 3. (a 
primeval deity) 4. NA ? , NB (a water tank in 
temple) 5. j/NB bit a. (a part of the temple) 
[E/ES.ABZU]; < Sum. 

apsitum "agreed allocation" OB of division of 
land, "contingent" of troops; < Sum. 

apsu — » ahsu II 

aptu(m); pi. apdtu "window, window opening" 
Ass., O/jB [AB] in house, NB in sluice; OB ina 
pi a. naddnum, madddum "to pay in the house 
of the recipient"; DN d Kilili sa apdti, abdti; 
"niche of dovecot"?; a. uzni "ear-hole" O/jB; 
< Sum.; > apdnis 

apu(m) I, ahu "reed-bed; reeds (coll.)" Ass., 
O/jB [GIS.GI]; apukka "to your reed-bed"; qan 
a. "marsh-reed"; sah a. "wild boar" (— » 
sahapu); hashur a. (a plant); > apis 

apu II "hole, opening" in the ground NA rit. 

apu III (a leather object)? jB 

apu I, abu "veiled" Bab. of eyes; < apA III 

apu II (a spiny plant) jB 

apu III, abu "to become veiled, cloudy" jB med. 
G of eyes; > apu I; ipitu 1 -; upu I 

apu — » also wapum 

apuhhu ~ "fear" jB 

apurugis mng. unkn. NB 



ap(u)sammikku(m), apsammakku (a geomet- 
rical shape) O/jB [AB.ZA.Ml]; < Sum. 
aputtum — » apputtum II 
aputu(m) (a plant) jB 
aqappu — » agappu 
aqarhu (a piece of jewellery) Am.(Mit.) of 

coloured stones; < Hurr. 
aqartu — » waqrum 
aqdru — » waqdrum 
aqdamatum "near bank" Mari of a river; 

< W.Sem.; opp. — » ahardtum 
aqdamum "former time" OB; < W.Sem.; — » 

qadmu 
aqqabu; pi. aqqabdni "remainder"? NA of 

textiles; < Aram. 
aqqullakku — » akkullakku 
aqqulldnu — » akkulldnu 
aqqullu — » akkullu; anqullu 
aqrabu "scorpion" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 
aqru — » waqrum 
aqupu — > uqupu 
ar ~ "forest" jB lex. 
ara "earth, land" NB lex.; < Aram. 
arabanu, ar(i)bdnu (a bird) jB; = arabu ? 
arabu, arabua 1. (an edible water-fowl) 

[ARA4.BU.MUSEN] (-» arabanu) 2. (a plant) 

jB; < Sum.? 
ar'abu (or ar'ibu) (a plant) jB lex. 
arabua — » arabu 

araddu, arant/du "wild ass" jB; < W.Sem. 
ar(a)d-ekallutu "palace service" NB [LU.IR.E. 

GAL- ]; < wardum + ekallutu 
arad-sarrutu "royal service" NB [LU.IR. 

LUGAL- ]; < wardum + sarrutu 
aradu — » wardum 
aradu "to serve" Am. (Syria) G "be servant of 

king D ~ G; < wardum denom. 
aradu — » also warddum 
aragubbu (a mathematical term) OB lex.; 

<Sum. 
arahhu(m) I, arhu "storehouse, granary" OB 

lex., jB; < Sum. 
arahhu II (a genre of Sum. songs) jB; < Sum. 
Arahsamna/u (8th Bab. month) j/NB 

[ITI.APIN(.DU8.A)]; < warhum + samnu I 
Arahtu (major canal in northern Babylonia) 

j/NB; < urhu I ? 
arahum ~ "fixed metrological ratio"? OB math. 

[A.RA.yi]; < Sum. 
arahu(m) I, occas. wardhum "to hasten" O/jB 

G (pret. irah; stat. aruh) "be urgent, hurry"; 

vent, "come quickly" D "speed up, send 

speedily"; "scare away"; in hendiad. urruhu + 



apatu 20_ 

transf. of moon, star, king "be decked with" 
halo, radiance etc.; OB stat. of sheep's tongue 
"be covered, capped" ext. Gtn iter, of G, MA 
"constantly crown" king Gt stat. "is decked 
with" D "put headgear (= acc r ) on head of s.o. 
(=acc.) N "be crowned, covered"; > apru; 
itpuru; upru 1; upurtu 
aparu —* also abdru II 
apdsu —* wapdsum 
apatu — » appatu II; aptu 

apatu. abdtu, epdtu, OB alepiatum, Bogh. 
apietum f. pi. "numerous, teeming", epith. of 
nisii, also absol., "humanity" 
apatu — > also apu I 
apellu mng. unkn. Nuzi; desig. of arrows; 

< Hurr. 
apidtum. apietum —* apatu 
apiktu —» abiktu 

apilanu 'the answerer' (a bird) jB; < apdlu I 
apilha mng. unkn. jB lex. 
apillu (a cultic performer) jB [a.BIL] 
apiltu(m) 1 1. M/NB "remainder; remaining 
debts" 2. OAkk (a vessel) 3. jB (a part of the 
year); < aplu 1; -» a. II 
apiltu(m) 11 "heiress" O/jB; < aplu II; = a. 1 ?; -» 

aplatu 
apilu(m); f. dpiltum 'answerer' 1. Mari, jB, also 
aplum (a kind of prophet) 2. MB apil bdbi (a 
doorkeeper) 3. Nuzi (a prof.); < apdlu I 
apisamus (a type of bow)? Am.; < Hurr. 
apisasi? (a tree)? NA 
apislat (an illness) jB; — ► apisalu 
apis "like reed-beds" jB; < apu 1 
apisalu (a cripple)? jB; < PIN Apisal; -» apislat 
apitas mng. unkn. jB 
apitu(m) (a kind of fallow land) O/jB 
apkallatu f. "wise one" jB [ABGAL], also as PN; 

< apkallu 
apkallu, abgallu "wise man, expert" Bab., NA 
[ABGAL] epith. of gods; of Adapa etc.; pi. "the 
(seven) sages"; a. samni "oil (divination) 
expert"; < Sum.; > apkallatu 
apklsu "furrow" jB; < Sum. 
aplatu "heiress" jB lex. (= apiltu II); < aplu II 
aplu(m) I; f. apiltu "late" OB; < apdlu II; 

> apiltu I; — ► a. II 
aplu(m) II; st. constr. apil, apal "heir, son" 
[IBILA; j/NB, NA freq. A; NB PN occas. 
EDURU; NA PN also d IBILA] a. restu, a. 
asaredu "prime heir", a. kinu "legitimate heir"; 
apil er.seti 'son of the earth', desig. of date 
palm; > apiltu II, aplatu; aplutu; = a. I ? 
aplu — ► also abru IV 



appu(m) 



aplum —* dpilu 1 

apluhtu(m) "armour" O/jB 

aplutu(m) "status of heir; inheritance, estate" 

O/jB [IBILA]; < aplu II 
app. . . also = ana p. . . 

appadan "pillared hall, apadana" NB; < OPers. 
appadetu — ► uppadetu 
appahu, a(b)bahu - "branches" jB lex. 
appan in PN for ana pan (— » pdnu I) 
appanannu (a metal object) Am.(Mit.); < Hurr. 
appdni —* appatu II 
appannu (a part of a building, portico) Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; — ► appatu 
appanum I (a pulse, phps.) "chick-pea" Mari 
appanum II (a bird) Bogh.; -» abbunnu 
apparritu; pi. apparrdtu "tufted hair, strand of 

hair" jB; — ► apparru 
apparru, happarru; f. apparritu "with tufted 

hair" O/jB; MB as PN; (desig. of pig, sheep); 

— ► apparritu 
apparu(m), jB also ippdru; pi. m. & f. "reed-bed, 

marsh" [AMBAR], NA also "reed(s)"; qan a. 

"reed"; fish, birds simat a. "belonging to the 

marshes" [ME.TE AMBAR.RA]; NB rab a. 

"marsh overseer"; < Sum. 
appatdn — ► appatu II 
appatis "as with a bridle" jB; < appatu II 
appatu(m) 1 "tip" NB (of metal implements); 

<appu 
appatu(m) II; NA pi. once appdni "bridle, rein" 

Bab., M/NA [NA (KUS.)PA; AB] j/NB, NA 

mukil appdti 'bridle-holder', "chariot driver"; 

also jB lex. appatdn du. (a wooden object)?; 

> appatis 
appatu in bit a. "portico" jB (= bit hildni); 

< Akkadization of appannu ? 
appatu —» also appatu l.II; appu 
appis conj. "since, given that" OA, OB, jB lex.; 

<appu 
applta f. du. "nostrils"? jB of ape's snout; 

<appu 
appitti "likewise; just as" NB, also ana appittu; 

< ana I + pitti 
appu(m) f. "nose" Bab., M/NA [KIR4] 1. liter.: 

"nose", also du., of person, animal; "beak" of 
bird; res a. "tip of the nose"; hehen a., numb a. 
"soft parts of the nose"; nahlr a., pilis a. 
"nostril"; libbi a. "nasal cavity"; birit a. "nasal 
septum"?; dur a. '"wall of the nose', cheek"; 
hasarti a. "nasal mucus"; sdr a. "breath" 
2. idioms: labdn a. (a gesture of prostration); a. 
qadddulquddudu (a gesture of grief); Mari a. 
mahdsum (a gesture of distress); OB a.-su 



appuna 



21 



arahu(m) I 



kasddum "to defeat" s.o.; sibit a. "moment" 
3. transf.: "tip" of tongue, finger, penis, beard; 
"extremity" of shapes, objects etc.; "rim" of 
vessel; "crown" of tree; "fringe" of garment; 
"point" of land, "causeway, bund"; MB 
wooden "stake"; > appis; appatu I; appitd 

appudetu —» uppadetu 

appultu — ► uppultu 

appuna, jB also appunndma, Bogh., Am. also 
appundna "moreover" OAkk, OA, O/jB 

apputtu(m) I, apputum ~ "please; it is urgent" 
(interj.) O/MA, OB, jB lex.; -► a. II ? 

a(p)puttum II (or abbuttum, dblputtum) ~ 
"difficult situation" OA; = a. I ? 

apru(m) in aprussa "with head covered" OB of 
woman; < aparu 

apru —» also abru II 

aprusu (a plant) jB, NA as drug; oil, seed, flour 
of a. 

apsammilakku —* apusammikku 

apsasu(m); f. apsasdiitu(m) 1. (an exotic bovid) 
2. (a myth, animal with the body of a cow), 
"sphinx" OAkk, O/jB as figurine; jB(Ass.) of 
bull-colossus; [(MUNUS.)AB.ZA.ZA]; < Sum. 

apsu(m) "(cosmic) underground water" Bab., 
NA [ABZU(=ZU.AB)] 1. lit., as home of fish, 
location of foundations; kdr a. "quay of the a." 
(a ritual place) 2. "(deities of) the apsu" 3. (a 
primeval deity) 4. NA ? , NB (a water tank in 
temple) 5. j/NB bit a. (a part of the temple) 
[E/eS.abzu]; < Sum. 

apsitum "agreed allocation" OB of division of 
land, "contingent" of troops; < Sum. 

apsu —» absu II 

aptu(m); pi. apatu "window, window opening" 
Ass., O/jB [AB] in house, NB in sluice; OB ina 
pi a. naddnum, madddum "to pay in the house 
of the recipient"; DN d Kilili sa apdti, abdti; 
"niche of dovecot"?; a. uzni "ear-hole" O/jB; 
< Sum.; > apdnis 

apu(m) 1, abu "reed-bed; reeds (coll.)" Ass., 
O/jB [GlS.GI]; apukka "to your reed-bed"; qan 
a. "marsh-reed"; sah a. "wild boar" (— ► 
sahapu); hashur a. (a plant); > apis 

apu II "hole, opening" in the ground NA rit. 

apu III (a leather object)? jB 

apu 1, abu "veiled" Bab. of eyes; < apu III 

apu II (a spiny plant) jB 

apu III, abu "to become veiled, cloudy" jB med. 
G of eyes; > apu 1; ipitu 1 ; upu I 

apu — ► also wapum 

apuhhu ~ "fear" jB 

apurugis mng. unkn. NB 



ap(u)sammikku(m), apsammakku (a geomet- 
rical shape) O/jB [AB.ZA.MI]; < Sum. 
dputtum —» apputtum II 
apfltu(m) (a plant) jB 
aqappu —* agappu 
aqarhu (a piece of jewellery) Am.(Mit.) of 

coloured stones; < Hurr. 
aqartu — ► waqrum 
aqdru — ► waqdrum 
aqdamatum "near bank" Mari of a river; 

< W.Sem.; opp. — ► ahardtum 
aqdamum "former time" OB; < W.Sem.; — ► 

qadmu 
aqqabu; pi. aqqabdni "remainder"? NA of 

textiles; < Aram. 
aqqullakku — ► akkullakku 
aqqulldnu — ► akkulldnu 
aqqullu — ► akkullu; anqullu 
aqrabu "scorpion" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 
aqru —» waqrum 
aqupu — ► uqupu 
ar~ "forest" jB lex. 
ara "earth, land" NB lex.; < Aram. 
arabanu, ar(i)bdnu (a bird) jB; = arabu ? 
arabu, arabua 1. (an edible water-fowl) 

[ARA4.BU.MUSEN] (-► arabanu) 2. (a plant) 

jB; < Sum.? 
ar'abu (or ar'ibu) (a plant) jB lex. 
arabua —» arabu 

araddu, arantldu "wild ass" jB; < W.Sem. 
ar(a)d-ekallutu "palace service" NB [LU.lR.E. 

GAL- ]; < wardum + ekallutu 
arad-sarrutu "royal service" NB [LU.lR. 

LUGAL- ]; < wardum + sarriitu 
aradu —* wardum 
aradu "to serve" Am.( Syria) G "be servant of 

king D ~ G; < wardum denom. 
aradu —» also warddum 
aragubbu (a mathematical term) OB lex.; 

<Sum. 
arahl)u(m) I, arhu "storehouse, granary" OB 

lex., jB; < Sum. 
arahhu II (a genre of Sum. songs) jB; < Sum. 
Arahsamna/u (8th Bab. month) j/NB 

[ITI.APIN(.DUg.A)]; < warhum + samnu I 
Arahtu (major canal in northern Babylonia) 

j/NB; < urhu I ? 
arahum ~ "fixed metrological ratio"? OB math. 

[A.RA.yi]; < Sum. 
arahu(m) I, occas. wardhum "to hasten" O/jB 

G (pret. irah; stat. aruh) "be urgent, hurry"; 

vent, "come quickly" D "speed up, send 

speedily"; "scare away"; in hendiad. urruhu + 



ara|iu(m) II 



22 



arba'u(m) 



vb. "do X quickly" Stn iter, "hurry (s.o./th.) 

very much"; > arhu I, arhis; urruhis; murrihu; 

— » erehu 
arahu(m) II ~ "to devour, destroy" O/jB G (a/u) 

of fire, dog "consume" opponent, life S caus. of 

G; — » erehu 
arakarum ~ "factor"? OB math, [a.rA.kAra]; 

<Sum. 
araku(m) "to be long" [GID(.DA)] G (;'/;') of 

distance; transf. in PN of arm (idum); of time, 

patience, life, reign "be long, last long; drag on; 

be too long" D of space, time "make long, 

lengthen; be overdue"; in hendiad. urruku + vb. 

"do X at length" Dt "be protracted" S "prolong, 

extend" time; > arku, ariktu; arraku; urku; 

niuraku, mdraku; urdku 
aralas (a plant) jB lex.; < Kass.? 
arallu(m), arallu "netherworld" O/jB 

[ARALI(=E.KUR.BAD)] jB sad a. "mountain of 

the netherworld", also desig. of temple; < Sum. 
aramanatu f. pi. ~ "lairs"? jB of wild animals 
aramanitum; pi. aramanidtum - "constant in an 

equation"? OB math.; < Sum.? 
arammu(m) ■» "causeway" Bab. "ramp" (for 

siege); "embankment, bund" of canal; — ► 

armu III 
aramu, jB also eremu "to cover" Bogh., jB 

G (///) "cover s.th. with s.th." (= 2 ace), drum 

with skin, object with gold; "place (tablet) in a 

(clay) case"; ext., bodily parts; of cloud "cover" 

moon, planet; of smoke "veil" face; transf. 

"cover" s.o.'s face etc. with radiance, gloom etc. 

D "cover up"; > armu I; ndramu; ermu; 

erimtu II, urindu; tdrimu; OA, OB — » 

haramum 1 
arandu — » araddu; arantu 
aranis "like eagles" jB [Tlg.MUSEN]; < eru I + 

-an + -is 
aranmt — » ardnu I 
arantu, arandu ( a kind of grass) jB 
arantu — » also araddu 
aranu I, NB also aranmt, arranu f. "chest, 

cashbox, coffin" j/NB of wood, stone 
aranu(m) II "to be guilty" G Am. stat. only 

D Mari "blame"; < arnu denom.? 
arapsannu (a precious object)? Am.(Mit.); 

<Hurr.? 
arapu — » erepu 
ardeju — » wardqum 
arararu — » araru I 
ararathu (a tree) jB lex.; < Hurr.? 
ararihuru (a functionary) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arari(y)anu (a plant) M/jB med. 



ararratu "female miller, grinder" MB 
[MUNUS.AR.AR (-► te'ittu)]; < aranu 

ararru(m) "miller, grinder" Bab. [(lO.)Ar.Ar 
(-* te'inu)]; OB bit a. "mill"; < Sum.; 
> ararratu, ararrutu, driru 

ararrutu "work of a miller" jB; < aranu 

araru I, araru, arararu (a plant) jB lex., med. 

araru II (a word for granary) jB lex. 

araru III (a male prostitute)? jB lex. 

araru I subst. "curse" jB, NA; < araru II infin. 

araru(m) II "to curse; insult" OAkk, Bab., 
M/NA G (a/u) "curse" s.o./s.th., enetaml 
arratam a. "curse s.o. with a curse"; > arru I, 
ariru 1 ; arratu, erretu I; araru I; erreru 

araru(m) III, hardru "to be convulsed" Bab. 
G (ulu, pres. also i'arru/ar) [UR4] of human 
beings, demons, animals, earth(quake) 
"tremble, shake", lit. "suffer cramp, be 
convulsed"?; med., of parts of body (freq. 
hardru, different word ?); of sea, rivers "be 
rough, muddy" Gtn iter. D ~ "stir up, frighten"; 
om., med. in stat. of parts of body "suffers 
cramp, convulses" Dt ~ "be stirred up, 
convulsed" N ingress, "begin to convulse"? 
Ntn iter, of N and G [UR4.UR4]; > ariru 3; 
arurtu; tdruriP; the verbs araru III, ereru and 
hardru cannot yet be differentiated in every 
case; — ► also tardru 

araru — ► also arard 1 

arasu(m) 1. OB (a container for salt)? 2. NA 
mng. unkn. 

arasiyannu (a functionary) Alal. 

arassannu (a bird) Am.(Mit.); = amursdnu ? 

arasu — » warium 

ardsu — ► ereiu 1; wardsum 

arathu (a tree) jB lex.; < Hurr.? 

arattu; f. arattltu "excellent", liter, '(coming) 
from Aratta' j/NB of seats, daises, land; of a 
mark on the exta; < PIN + -1 

arazallu — » arzallu 

arazapanatasu (a functionary) NB; < OPers.? 

araziqqu (part of a waggon) jB lex. 

arbd -* erhd 

arballu "sieve" NB; < Aram. 

arbanu (a plant) jB lex. 

arbdnfl — ► arabdnu 

arbasitu (a type of pot) MB 

arba'u(m); f. arbattu "four" after kibrdtu(m) 
"the edges" (of the world) OAkk; also 
0/jB(lil.) arch, for erbu, f. erbettu [LIMMU]; -► 
erhe 

arhe, arbvt — » erbe 

arbiHu — ► erbesu 



arbu(m) I 



23 



arkanis 



arbltum, arbium -* anvium 
arbu(m) I, OB phps. warbum "waste, uncul- 
tivated" Bab., of meadow (ugdru); = harbu I ?; 

> arbutu I 

arbu II "fugitive, runaway" Nuzi, jB; < nerubu; 

> arbutu II 

arbu —* arwium; erbu 

arbutis "into barren land" jB; < arbutu I 

arbutu I "desolation" M/jB [(MUNUS.)KAR- ] in 

a. suluku "to make desolate, lay waste"; < arbu 

I > arbutis 
arbutu (m) II "flight, rout" O/jB, of army, person 

in a. aldku "to take flight"; status of a fugitive; 

< arbu II 

ardabu (a measure of capacity, ~ 56 litres) NB; 

< Aram, or OPers.? 

ardadillu, artatillu, astatillu (a plant) M/jB lex., 

med. [u.aS.tal.tAl] 
ardadu~ "thief jB 
ardananu ~ "phantom, double" of a dead person 

M/jB med.; —* andundnu 
ardat lilt —> lilium 
ardatu —* wardatum 
ardis — ► artis 
ardu —* wardum 
ardutu —* wardutum 
arebu —* erebu II 
argabu, arkabu, erkabu (a bird) jB lex. 

[argab.MuSen]; < Sum. 
argamannu "purple" j/NB, NA [SIK.ZA.GIN. 

SA5], of textiles; Bogh. "tribute" 
arganum, argannu, hargdnum (a conifer, its 

resin) O/jB esp. med.; — ► margdnum 
argibillu (a wooden structure)? jB lex.; < Sum. 
arginnum (a commodity) OAkk(Susa) 
argukkum, argugu (an agricultural implement, 

phps.) "roller" O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
arha "every month" NB [iti(.a)(.Ta)(.am/a')]; 

< warhum 
arhdlum —* warhdlum 

arhanu, erhdnu 'monthly ...'? jB lex. 1. "green, 
unripe date" 2. (an intestinal disorder); 

< warhum + -an + -i ? 

arhis, urhis, OB occas. warftis "quickly, hastily" 

Ass., O/jB; < arhu I 
arhisam(ma) — * warhisamma 
arhitum — ► warhitum 
arhu(m) I; f. aruhtu "fast, quick" O/jB, NA; in 

OB ext. epith. of kakkum; jB(Ass.), NA of 

copper, bronze; < ardhu I; > arhis 
arhu(m) II f. "cow" O/jB [(gu 4 .)Ab]; -» a. Ill 
arhu(m)III f. "half-brick" O/jB [SIG 4 .Ab]; = 

a. II? 



arhu — * also arahhu I; urhu I; warhum 
arhussu "every month, monthly" j/NB [m- ]; 

< warhum + -ut + -su 
aria — ► erium; iria 
aribdnu —* arabdnu 
aribanu (a plant) jB lex. 
aribls -* eribis 

aribu (a garment) MB 

aribH —> also erbu 

ar'ibu —> arabu 

aridni -* alidni 

aridu 1. "perpendicular"? of marks on exta jB; 

< warddum 2. mng. unkn. NB 
arihu, aruhu (a plant) jB lex., med. 

ariktu 1. (a kind of spear) jB [Gl5.GJD.DA]; pi. 

arkdtu 2. "length" jB ext., comm. 3. (a wind 

instrument) jB; < arku 
arimanu (a kind of axe)? jB lex. 
arinnu "well" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
aripse (an agricultural implement) Nuzi; <Hurr. 
ariru (or ariru, ariru) 1. (a priest uttering 

curses)? NB; < araru II 2. (an epith. of fire) jB 

3. (a weapon) jB; < araru III 
ariru "miller" Bogh. lex.; < aranu 
arisutu "agricultural tenancy" NA; < eresu I 

Ass. 
drittu — ► wdrittum 
aritu(m) I, eritu "pregnant (woman)" Bab., NA 

[MUNUS.PES4] also of animal; a. samni 

"pregnant with oil" (a plant); < aru IV 
aritu(m) II 1. Ass., M/NB "shield"; of leather, 

wood, metal; NA LU (=sal) a. "shield- 
bearer"; on chariot 2.jB (syn. of door) 3.JB 

(desig. of planet Venus) 
aritu III (a knife, dagger) jB lex. 
ariydtu — ► eriydtu 
arka —> warka; warki 
arka ~ "henceforth" MB; < warkum ? 
arkabinnu(m) 1. Bab. (kind of door, phps.) 

"half-door", also dalat a. 2. Nuzi (a festival; a 

month); < Hurr.? 
arkabu (a type of decoration) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arkabu — ► also argabu 
arkana — ► warkdnum 
arkanis, arkdnuS adv. "back; later, subsequently" 

j/NB a. tdru "to return"; < wark(a) + -an + -is 
arkdnu —> warkdnum 
arkdnus — ► arkanis 
arkat — * warkat 
Arkattu —* Urkitum 
arkaldtu —* warkatum; ariktu 1 
arkdtu —* warkitum B 



arkilla 



24 



arsuzuzil 



arkdtu — > warkltum B 
ArkayTtu — > Urkltum 
arki — > viwte; warfc/ 
arkilla (an animal figure)? jB lex. 
arkinisu "afterwards" NB; < warki 
arkis adv. "back" jB in a. tdru "to return"; 
"behind" in pdnis u arkis; < warkum; Ass. — > 

arkisi "thereafter" NB for arklsu; < warki 
arkita — > warkitam 
arkitu — > warkltum 

arku(m), NB also oste "long" [GID(.Da)], of 
objects, time; "tall" of people; jwzm arfcwft< "long 
life"; MB ana a. nadu "to put off; < ardku; 
> arraku, ariktu 
arku — > also warte; wart; 
ar&w — > viw&wm 

Arkuzzi (a month) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arma(h)hu — » marmahhu 
arma(n)nis "like an apricot?" jB(lit.); < armannu 
armannu(m), armanu, ramannu, OB also 
arwdnum "apricot 7 (tree)" O/jB [GIS-HASyUR. 
KUR.RA]; jB, branch used as drug, kernel used 
as perfume 
armarru — > azmaru 
armasitu (a pottery vessel) MB 
armatum (metal sheeting or plating) of copper 

on door OAkk(Sum.); of gold, as decoration 

MB 
armaya, *armu\ f. armltu "Aramaic" NA of 

scribe, document etc. 
armedu (a plant) jB lex. 
armltu — > armaya; arwium 
armu I "covered" jB of weapon; of tablet 

"enclosed" in envelope (-» hardmum I); 

< ardmu 
armu II ~ "mountain goat" M/NA, M/jB hunted; 

as decoration; NA kaqqad a. "goat's head 

(situla)" 
armu III jB lex. = arammu ? 
armu — > armaya; arwium 
armutu "desolation" jB lex. 
arnabtu(m) "female hare" O/jB; OB Arnabatum 

as fPN; < arnabu 
arnabu(m), annabu; pi. f. "hare" OAkk, O/jB; 

NA as PN; > amabtu 
arnu(m), O/jB also annu "guilt, fault; penalty" 

[NAM.TAG.GA] 1. (secular) "fault", (religious) 

"sin"; a. patdru, a. pasdru "to undo, forgive 

sins"; bel a., sa a. "culprit, sinner"; Am. awll a. 

"evil-doer" 2. "penalty, punishment", a. 

emedulnasu "to impose/suffer punishment"; 

OA ana a. nltaddnum "to subject s.o. to 



punishment" 3. Mari a. turrum "transfer 
responsibility" onto s.o.; > ardnu II 
arnurheli (a prof.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
arpa(n)nu (a kind of house)? Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
arpu — > erpu 
arqu — > warqum 
arqutu "greenness, freshness" Bogh., M/jB 

[SIG7]; < warqum 
arr... also = ana r... 

arrabu(m), arrabur, arrapu; f. arrabtu ~ 
"dormouse"? Bab. [PES.(gis.)ur.ra]; rit., skin 
of dormouse 
arraku(m) "very long, tall" Bab., O/MA; used as 

pi. of — > arku 
arrdnu — > ardnu I 
arrapsatum f. pi. (a social class of women)? 

Mari 
arrapu — > arrabu 

arraqu "very green" jB; < wardqum 
arrasabattu — > arsabu 
arrdsum — > erresu 

arratu(m) "curse" OAkk, OA, M/jB [AS] a. 

ardru "to curse s.o. (with a curse)"; a. Id 

napsuri "unliftable curse"; NB a. Hani "one 

cursed by the gods"; < ardru II; -» erretu I 

arratu pi. tant. "brand mark" on the hands of 

temple slaves NB 
arra'u "on the ground"? NB of goose 
arriatum in sa a. mng. unkn. OB lex. 
arris (a bird) jB om. 
arru I "cursed" jB lex.; < ardru II 
arm II (desig. of sheep) jB lex. 
arru(m) III "decoy bird" M/NB; > arkitu 
arru(m) IV (a weapon) OB, jB lex. 
arrurum (a textile or garment) OB; -» fiarlru ? 
arrutu "role as decoy" NB; < arru in 
arsannu, arsdnu — > arzdnu 
arsasu(m) (a mountain bird) OB 
arsikku (a kind of millet)? jB lex.; < Sum.? 
arsu ~ arzdnu NA lex. 

arsuppu, ersuppu 1. "carp" M/jB [GU4.UD.KU6]; 
qulipti a. "carp scales"; mlli a. "carp flood" 
2. (a cereal, phps.) "einkorn" M/jB, NA 
[SE.ESTUB]; miris a. "einkorn broth" 3. (a kind 
of apple)? jB lex. 
arsabu, arrasabattu; pi. f. (an agricultural 

implement)? NB 
arsatum — > ersetu 

arsammaya (a group or organization) NB 
arsatum f. pi. 'what is cultivated', "barley" OA 

[GIG]; < ersu II Ass. 
arsu — > arsatum; ersu II; warsum 
arsuzuzil (a drug) MB; -» zuzillu 



artama 



25 



asatu(m) 



artama (or artdwa) "blessed state" NB; 
< OPers. 

artamasse mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

artartena (a type of textile) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

artartennutu (a special treatment of textiles) 
Nuzi; < Hurr. 

artatillu — > ardadillu 

artdwa — > artama 

artltu — > hartltum 

artu, astu "branches, foliage" j/NB; < aru I 

artu — > also uptu 

artis (or ardis) adv. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

aru(m) I, eru(m), harum "branch, frond" O/jB 
[PA] of date palm, tamarisk, trees; "stalk" of 
plant; > artu 

aru II (a type of wool) jB lex. 

aru III "hide" of ox O A 

aru(m) I "result" Bab. math. [a.RA] 1. "product" 
of multiplication 2. "factor, multiplier" (-» 
aldku G 6) 3. "ready reckoner, numerical table, 
astronomical ephemeris"; < Sum. 

aru II "granary, storehouse" OA, jB lex. 

aru(m) III "to vomit" O/jB G (pres. i'arru) 
[BURU8(=HAL)] Gtn iter, of G S med. "make 
vomit" with feather 

aru(m) IV, eru "to be(come) pregnant, conceive" 
Bab., NA G (('/(') [PES4] of animal, human; with 
child (= ace.) D "make pregnant" jB S caus. of 
G "impregnate" N Ug. = G ?; > arltu I; mem; 
erutu II; uru VI; aru I 

aru V "hungry" jB lex. 

aru VI, eru "to cut off Bab. G (ulu ?) NB 
"prune, lop" date palm D (urru(m), j/NB 
murru) 1. OB of goddess "sever" (the 
umbilical cord)? of king 2. jB of meteor "cut 
short, stop" luminous display 3.JB of enemy, 
flood "ruin" harvest 4. NB ~ G Dt pass, of D 4; 
> urru I, uru II, muwarrltum; tdrltu II 

aru — > also erru II 2; eru I-HI; warum II 

aru I, mdru "fish spawn" jB lex.; < am IV 

aru(m) II "warrior" jB lex.; -» ayyaru II 

aru — > warum 

arugimanum "legal claim" OAkk, OB usu. pi.; 
< ragdmu 

aruhu — > arihu 

arullu (an ornament) Qatna, in necklace 

arullu — > also urullu I.II 

arunu (a plant) jB lex. 

aruppu "armpit" jB; -» uruppum 

aruratu — > yaruru 

arurtu, jB also arustu ~ "famine, hunger" O/jB 
of land, of individuals; < ardru III 



arum ~ "outlet of a canal" jB 

arurutu — > yarurutu 

arustu — > arurtu; warsum 

arusu — > amussu 

aruthu — > uruthu 

arutu ~ "mountain" jB lex.s 

arutu(m), erutu "(clay) pipe" O/jB for libations, 

over grave 
arutu — > erutu I 
arwdnum — > armannu 

arwium, arwdm, armA "male gazelle" OAkk, 
O/jB; OAkk, OB as PN; OB also fPN 
Arwlmltum; OAkk also Arbium, Arbum, 
Arbltum 
arzallu(m), arazallu l.jB (a plant) 2. j/NB (a 
stone) as jewellery; in mag. 3. OA (an 
implement) 
arzanikkatu (a plant) jB 

arzanu, later arsdnu, NB arsannu, Nuzi 
arlnzannu "barley-groats" [AR.ZA.NA]; — > arsu 
arzatu I (a container) Nuzi 
arzatu II, arzazu (a plant) jB lex. 
asa'Hu, asa'ittu, NA alisltu; pi. asdydtu, NA 
asi'dtu, asdtu, esdydtu, alisitdte "tower" M/NA 
of fortification wall; "pyramid" of bodies or 
heads on the battlefield; — > isittu I 
asakkis, asakkis "like s.th. tabooed" jB; 

< asakku II 
asakku(m) I, asakku (an evil demon) O/jB 
[Azag(=A.PA)]; (also disease caused by a. 
demon); < Sum. 
asakku(m) II "taboo" OA, O/jB 

[AZAG(=KU.AN)] esp. a. akdlu "to break a 
taboo"; (s.th. reserved for a god or king); M/jB 
bit a. "forbidden building, sanctum"; < Sum.; 
> asakkis 
asallu(m) f. 1. (a copper vessel) O/jB, M/NA 

2. (a stone) jB lex. 
asdmu — > wasdmum 
asanitu; pi. asanidtu (an oleiferous plant) MA in 

perfume recipes 
asanum "bear-like"? OA, OB as PN; < asu II 
asaqu ~ "to strengthen" or "raise up"? jB G (('/(') 
asarru I (an archit. feature) NB, bearing 

inscription; — > a. II 
asarru II, asarru (a type of lit. document) NA; 

= a. I? 
asarum (a class of person) Mari 
asdru — ► eseru II 
asatum — > asu II 
asatu(m) "female doctor" O/jB [Mari 

MUNUS.A.ZU]; < asu I; -» asltu 
asdtu — > also asdtu 



asfoar 



26 



asutum 



H 

V 



^ 



ashar, ashar (a kind of stone) jB lex., med. 

[SIM.BI.SIG7.SIG7] as drug; Bogh. -♦ ishar 
asidu "heel" jB of human, also du.; "heel" of 

shoe; astr. 'heel' (lowest part) of constellation 
asikilla "holy water" jB lex.; < Sum. 
asiqatu mng. unci. NB lex. 
asirtu "female captive" jB, also OB fPN 

Aslratum; < aslru I 
asiru(m) I; pi. aslru "captive, prisoner of war" 
O/MB, MB(Alal.), Am., Ug.; as PN, also MA; 
OB bit a. "prison"; < esiru II; > asirtu; asirutu 
asirum II (or azlrum) (an object) OA 
asirutu "captivity" j/NB in a. aldku "to go into 

captivity"; < aslru I 
asisu (a word for copper) jB lex. 
asltu "female physician" NB in PN; -♦ asdtu 
asltu -♦ also asa'ltu 
askdru -♦ uskaru 

askuppu(m), askuppatu(m), NA aksuppu; pi. m. 
& f. "(threshold) slab" Bab., NA [NA4.I.DIB] 
usu. of stone; transf. part of a chariot; part of 
irrigation device; part of the lung 
askuttu -♦ askuttu 
aslis "like sheep" jB; < aslu I 
aslu I "ram; sheep" jB as sacrifice; > aslis 
aslu II f. (a special cubit measure) jB, NA; ubdn 

a. "finger (i.e. subdivision) of a. cubit" 
asmatu pi. tant. (a type of horse trappings)? jB 
asmfdu (a garden plant) j/NB 
asmis "in a fitting manner" j/NB, a. suluku "to 

make suitable, adorn"; < wasmum 
asmu -♦ wasmum 
asnan -♦ asnan 

asnu, assa(n)nti, NB also issanu "(date) from 
Dilmun" j/NB [TILMUN(=NI.TUK).KI]; lex. also 
"(copper) from Dilmun" 
aspastu; pi. asupasdtu ? "lucerne" NB; < Iran. 
aspastua "fodderer" NB; < Iran. 
aspatu in bit a. mng. unkn. NB 
aspu — » waspum 
asqdru -* uskaru 
asqiqu (a bird) jB lex. 
asqiqu -♦ asgigti 

asqubbitu(m), asqumbittu, asqubbittu, 

islsqubbltu "hump" Bab., of cattle, camels; jB 
om. of deformed foetus 
asqudu, asqudu(m) OAkk, O/jB, NA [PES.TUM. 
TUM.ME] 1. (a rodent); as PN 2. (a kind of 
snake); > asquddnum 
asqumbittu -♦ asqubbltu 
asru mng. uncert. NB 
ass. . . also = ana s. . . 



assammu(m), ansammum, assammu; pi. m. & f. 

"goblet, drinking vessel" OAkk, Bab. 
[AN.ZA.AM] of copper, silver, cedarwood; 

< Sum. 
assannu — » asnCt; assinnu 
assanu — » asnu 
assaru ~ "charioteer" jB 
assastaranni (cloth streamers on fly- whisk) 

Am.; < Hum 
assinnu(m), isinnu/H, Bogh. assannti 1 , lex. also 

assinnatu ~ (male cultic prostitute) O/jB, Alal., 

Nuzi, NA [(LU.)UR.MUNUS; SAG.UR.SAG] 
assinnutum (role of assinnum) OB in a. 

epesum "to act as an assinnum" 
assu -♦ asu I 

assukku "sling-stone" Susa, jB 
assurri, OB also ussurre(ma), assurri, Am. 

assurri "(if) perchance" (of undesirable 

eventuality), "hopefully ... not ..." OA, OB, 

Am.; before neg. or proh. "on no account 

should ...";< ana I + surri 
asu(m) I, OA also asum, Bogh. assu "myrtle" 

[(GIS/SIM.)AZ; Man also GIS.A.AZ, GIS.A.ZU; 

j/NB, NA SIM.GIR] for incense; saman a. "oil 

of myrtle" as drug 
asu(m) II; pi. f. "bear" O/jB [az]; as PN, also f. 

Asatum; < Sum.; > asdnum 
asu(m) I "physician" [(lu.)a.ZU; OAkk in PN 

also A.zUg] of humans, animals; for eyes; MA 

a. sa betdnu (a kind of superintendent); NB ~ 

"expert"; < Sum.; > asdtu; asutu; -♦ azugallatu; 

azugallu; azugallutu 
asu(m) II, esu 1. (a wooden part of the loom) 

OAkk, O/jB, Nuzi 2. (part of a door) jB lex. 
asu -* also azd I 

asumatanu (a bird) jB; < asumatu + -an ? 
asiimatu (a part of the plough) jB lex.; 

> asumatanu? 
asumittu(m), NA also usumittu, usmittu; pi. 

asuminitu(m) "inscribed slab" Bab., NA of 

stone, metal; carved relief; as boundary stone, 

stele, foundation document 
asumu(m) "stele"? NA; Mari as DN ? 
asupasdtu — » aspastu 
asuppu; pi. f. ~ "out-building, annexe" M/NB; 

also bit a.; -♦ asuptu 
asuptu = asuppu ? NB 
asurrakku "subterranean waters" jB; transf. of 

deeply laid water conduit; < Sum. 
asurru(m) "lower course, footing" of wall Bab.; 

plastered, lined with slabs, repaired; transf. (a 

part of the exta); < Sum. 
asutum (a kind of cloth)? OB 



asutu(m) 



27 



asgigu 



asutu(m) "profession of physician; medical skill" 

Bab., NA; < asu I 
asabu -♦ wasabum 
asappu "pack animal" NA 
asdpu — ♦ wasabum 
asarru(m) (or azarru(m)) (a kind of clock)? jB 

lex. 
asdru — ♦ usdru 
asltu -♦ wdsltum 
aspu — ♦ waspum 
ass... also = ana s... 
asser — ♦ seru 2 
assurri — ♦ assurri 
asu -♦ wasum 
asu — ♦ wasum 
asudu; pi. f. (a dish of food) NA; < Aram.?; -♦ 

kallasudi 
asulimtu (a kind of bitumen)? jB lex. 
asupatu pi. ~ (reed mats) NB; <Aram.; -♦ 

suppatu II 
asuru — ♦ azuru 
asusi(m)tu, asusetu, asusu(m)tu, susimtu (a 

medicinal plant) jB; = sasumtu 
alasutu — ♦ wdsutum 
asabu — ♦ wasabum 
asagu(m), esegu (a common spiny plant, phps.) 

"camelthom" Bab., Bogh. [(GIS.)KiSli6]; issur 

a. (a small bird) 
asahhu(m) "granary, storehouse" O/jB; also bit 

a~p\. f. 
asakkis -♦ asakkis 
asakku — ♦ asakku I 
asalallu -♦ asilalfim 
asamsanis "like a dust storm" jB; < asams(utu) 

+ -an + -is 
asamsutu(m), OB also asamtutum; pi. also 

aSansatu "dust storm" O/jB [DAL.yA.MUN; 

DALHAMUN]; transf. jB medical condition, 

"storm" in the abdomen; > asamsanis 
asannu — ♦ sanannu 
asdpu — ♦ wasdpum 
asar, alisarma "straightaway" OB lex. 
asar — ♦ also asru III 
asardnum — ♦ asrdnu 
asaredu; f. asarettu, NA also (a)saressu "first 

and foremost, pre-eminent" OAkk, Bab., NA 

[SAG.KAL; once SAG.ZI; in PN also SAG, MAS] 

of god, king, official, warrior; NA of objects 

"first-class"; < asar + wedum; > asaredutu, 

asarettu 
asaredutu "pre-eminence" O/jB, NA [SAG. 

KAL- ] a. aldku "to take first place"; < asaredu 



asarettu, (a)saressu "crack troops" NA [SAG 
(.KAL)- ]; < asaredu 

asari "at the same place" OB, also asarima; 
< asru III 

asariklam — ♦ asraklam 

asarima -♦ asari 

asar is, jB also asris "there, thither" O/jB; OB 
istu a. "from there"; < asru III 

asarma — ♦ asar 

asarmadu -♦ sarmadu 

asarru — » asarru II 

asarsani, asarsana, asarsanilumma, MB also 
atarsani "elsewhere, to another place" Bab., 
OA; < asru III + sanu II 

asartu "waste land" jB; also atartu in sir a. (a 
type of snake); < asru III 

asaru — » asru III 

asaru(m) "to muster, review" G (alu) "check, 
take stock of animals, equipment etc.; "take 
care of; check up on" people Gtn iter, of G jB 
St jB ~ "be gathered, mustered"; > asirtu I; 
dsiru, asirtu; asru I; assaru; mdsartu; tdsertum 

asdru — ♦ also wasdrum 

asasu(m) I (a type of nest made by water fowl) 
O/jB lex. 

asasu II (a kind of moth) jB lex. 

asasu(m) III "to be distressed" OA, O/jB G (ulu; 
stat. also asus) [ZI.IR] "be aggrieved, angry"; jB 
once trans, "distress" s.o. Gtn iter, of G O/jB 
Gt ~ G OA D "grieve, distress" s.o., "torture, 
maltreat" s.o. Dtn iter, of D Dt "become 
distressed" St ~ "grieve about s.th., pine away" 
Ntn "constantly become distressed"; > aSsisu 1 -; 
asustu; ussatu; ussusu I, ussusis 

asasu IV, esesu, hasdsu "to catch" jB G (alu) 
esp. birds; "encompass" learning ?; of flood 
"engulf? Gtn iter, of G; > dsiSu 

asatu, NA also asdtu pi. tant. 1. "reins" M/jB, 
NA of horses; mukll a. "charioteer" NA 2. jB 
lex. (a headdress); < asltu II or asutu pi.? 

asdtu — ♦ also asltu I; esltu; esu I 

asdtu — ♦ wasdtum 

asbatum (or aspatum) (an object) OAkk(Sum.) 

asbu (a tree or shrub) jB 

asbu — » also wasbum 

asbutu -♦ asubbatu 

asdanu (a medicinal plant) jB 

asdihu -♦ isdihu II 

aseratum (a type of garment) Mari 

asertu — ♦ asirtu; esertu I 

asgagu, asgugu "fight" M/jB 

asgigu, asglkiku, as/sqiqu, atgigu j/NB, NA 1. (a 
mineral, phps.) "arsenic" 2. (a plant) 



asha(l)lum 



28 



asqudanum 



asgugu — ► asgagu 

asha(l)lum, NA ashulu (a container) of metal, 

wood or reed OAkk(Sum.), OB, MB(Alal.), 

NA 
ashappum — ► ishappu 
ashar — ► ashar 
ashaussuhhu — ► asushu 
ashulu — ► ashallum 
ashushu — ► asusfru 
asiannu — ► assiyannu 
asiarra, asiare (a class of servants) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

asibu — ► yasibum 
asibu — ► wdsibum 
as(i)lalum, asalallu; pi. asalalldtu - "decorative 

fancy work" as gift O/MB; O/jB lex. 
asiptu "sorceress, female magician" jB of witch, 

goddess; < wdsipum 
dsipu — ► wdsipum 
asiputu "exorcism" M/NB, NA [MAS.MAS- ] 

1. action, ritual of dsipu 2. desig. of prof. 

literature of dsipu; < wdsipum 
asiri, usu. Ug. pi. asiriluma (persons of a special 

status) Am., Ug. etc.; < W.Sem. 
asirtu(m) I 1. "check, inspection"; "advice"? jB, 

NA [NA.RI] 2. (a type of religious offering) 

OB; < asdru 
asirtum II "tithe" OB(N.Mes.); < eser 
asirtu — ► also asm I; esertu I 
asirtu "(female) inspector, organizer" jB; < dsiru 
asiru(m) "inspector, checker" OA, jB; < asdru 
asiruma — ► asiri 
asis (part of a chariot) OA 
asisu ~ "miserable, wretched" jB lex. 
asisu "encompassing, wise; engulfing" jB; 

< asdsu IV 

asitu I; pi. asatu "chaos, confusion in battle" jB; 

< esu I 

asltu(m) II "metal band, strap" O/MB; of door 

(pi. — ► asatu) 
asitu III ~ "midday" jB lex. 
asium "(meteoric) iron"? OA; — ► usu 
askadu, maskadu (a spiny plant) jB lex. 
Aska'ltu — ► Urkitum 
askapu(m) "leatherworker" [(LU.)ASGAB]; 

< Sum. 

askaputu(m) "leatherwork; craft of the 
leatherworker" Bab. [LU.ASGAB- ]; < askdpu 

askdru — ► uskdru 

Askayltu — ► Urkitum 

askikitu, OB basgigltum, Bogh. masgikldu (a 
bird) O/jB 

askiku — ► asgigu 



askirushu (a utensil used in pairs) Alal., Am.; 

<Hurr. 
asku — ► arku 
askuppu — ► atkuppu 
askuttu(m), askuttu [(GIS.)ASKUD(=A.SUH)] 

Bab. 1. "locking bar" for barring a door; om., 

math, "wedge-shape" 2. (an earth structure in 

fields and houses); < Sum. 
aslaktum "washerwoman" OAkk (presumed 

rdg. of [MUNUS.LU.AZLAG]); < asldku 
aslaku(m), Nuzi also aslasku "washerman; 

fuller" [OAkk, O/MB, MA LU.AZLAG; j/NB, 

NA LU.AZLAG]; < Sum.; > aslaktum, asldkutu 
aslakutu "craft of the washerman, fuller" O/jB; 

< asldku 
aslalum — ► asilaliim 
aslasku — ► asldku 

aslu(m) "rush; rope" 1. j/NB [U.NINNI5] har- 
vested; as drug; bed of rushes 2. O/jB, NA; pi. 
f. "tow rope; mooring rope" of a ship 3. Bab., 
MA "measuring line"; OB abi aslim, NB 
abaslu "surveyor"; "survey team (of 8-12 
men)" 4. Bab. (a linear measure of ~ 60 
metres), st. abs. asal "1 rope( -length)" 5. Nuzi 
~ "field" 

aslu (a garment) Nuzi 

asluhhe; pi. asluhhena adj. mng. unkn. Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

aslukatu (a kind of rush) jB lex. 
aslu(k)katu(m), asru(k)katu ~ "storeroom" Bab. 

[E.US.GID.DA] for grain; "lobby, hallway" in 

temple 
aslukku "storeroom" jB 
asmaru — ► esmaru 
asmetu ~ "dust storm" jB lex. 
asnan, asnan "grain, cereals" O/jB [ d §E.TIR] as 

generic term; also as DN 
asni adv. mng. unkn. Am.; < Hurr.? 
asnu(m) (a bowl) OB(N.Mes.); jB in asni ini 

"eye socket" 
asnugallu(m), isnugallu(m), gisnugallu(m) ~ 

"alabaster" Bab., M/NA [NA4.GIS.NUn(/NU 

occas.).GAL] as raw material; for building; for 

sculpted items^'in mag. 
asnugallum — ► also assunugallum 
aspaltu "social inferior" jB; < sapdlu 
aspatum — ► asbatum 
aspu — ► yaspu 
asqaru — ► uskdru 
asqiqu — ► asgiku 
asqudanum "like an a. (rodent)" OB as PN 

only; < asqudu 
asqudu — ► asqudu 



asqulalu(m) 



29 



astikittisu 



asqulalu(m), isquldlu 1. O/jB (a weapon, phps.) 

"lasso" 2. O/jB "whirlwind" 3. jB (a marine 

plant) [U.AN.KI.NU.SA; U.LAL]; <suqallulu 
asrd — ► esrd 
asraklam, asarikiam, OA asrakam "there, in 

that very place" OA, OB; < asm III + -kiam 
asranu(m), asardnum "there, that very place" 

OB, Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug., jB also 

analistulina a.; < asm III + -dnum 
asratu "heaven" jB; < asm III 
asrdtu — ► esertu I 
asris I "humbly" M/jB; < wasrum 
asris II M/jB 1. adv. "to that place, there" 2. prep. 

"to, towards", a. dini "to the place of 

judgement"; < asm HI 
asris — ► also asaris 
asru(m) I; f. asirtum "taken care of OB in PN; 

< asdru 

asm II (a disease of the head) Bogh., jB; 

< Sum.? 

asru(m) III; OA gen. with pron. suff. isri-\ pi. m. 
& f., OAkk asaru, Am. asrdni "place, site" [KI] 

1. ana asrisu tdrulturru "to return 
(intrans./trans.) to his/its (former) place" = "be 
restored, restore"; "place, abode"; pi. "(holy) 
places, (divine) abodes"; "region"; "building 
site, land"; "the earth"; Bogh. in Hitt. rit. "part" 

2. st. abs. OA, OB asar isten "in a single 
place"; Bab. asar . . . asar . . . "here and there, in 
one place ... in another ..." (— ► asarsani) 3. in 
st. constr. as prep, with infin. "where it is 
possible/suitable/necessary" to do s.th.; Nuzi 
"from, with, to" (s.o.) 4. as conj. with subjunct. 
"where, where ... to"; OB also occas. "as soon 
as"?; OA "provided that" 5. OB in sar inanna 
"right now"; > asari, asaris, asris II; asrdnu; 
asartu, asratu; asraklam; asarsani; asaredu 

asm — ► also wasrum 

asru(k)katu — ► aslukkatu 

ass. . . also = ana s. . . 

assa, assu conj. "because, inasmuch as, seeing 

that" NB; < an(a) I + sa; as prep. — ► assum 
assdbu — ► wassdbum 
assdbutu — ► wassdbutum 
assalluhlu (a functionary)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
assanu — ► assunu 

assaru ~ "expert" jB, epith. of temu; < asdru 
assattali — ► satti 
assatu(m); st. constr. O/jB also asti, j/NB freq. 

alti "wife" [DAM]; occas. also of second "wife"; 

a. ahdzu/ezebu "to marry/divorce a wife"; 

> assutu 
assidti — ► sidti 



assisu in Id a. ~ "unruly, disordered"? jB lex.; 

< asdsu III ? 

assiyannu (desig. of garment) MA, Am., Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; = massiyannu ? 
assu — ► assa; assum 

assultu (a plant) jB lex., equated with sulutu, 
ussultu 

assum, Bab. also assu, OA assumi, NB occas. 
assa, assut "because (of)" Bab., O/MA 
1. prep.: "because of, for the sake of s.o., s.th.; 
OA, O/jB assum(i) klam "therefore"; O/jB a. 
mlni(m) "why?"; Bab. + infin. "so that, in order 
to"; "as for, concerning"; in comm. ~ "related 
to; derived from" [MU]; NB a. sa "because of 
the fact that" 2. conj. + subjunct.: Bab. "because 
(of the fact that)"; Mari, OA + pres. "with a 
view to, in order to"; OB occas. in reported 
speech "that"; < ana I + sumu 

assunu, NA assanu "they" (3 m. pi. pron.) 
MA(Bogh.), NA; — ► sunu 

as(su)nugallum (desig. of snake) OB mag. 

assurayitu f. adj. "Assyrian" MA desig. of 
language 

assuru; f. assurltu(m) "Assyrian" Ass., M/jB; in 
f.: 1. DN "the Assyrian Istar" 2. jB lex. "ship 
from Assur" 3. OA as PN 

assut — ► assum 

assutu(m), Ass. assuttu "marriage, status of a 
wife" Bab., MA [DAM-,] OB ana a. ahdzum, 
Nuzi ana a. lequ, NB ana a. rasu "to take as 
wife"; ana a. naddnum "to give (a woman) in 
marriage"; < assatu abstr. 

astabarru, astebarru "lance-bearer" NB; < Iran. 

astablru — ► astaplru 

astakissu, astalikisslssu (a rodent) jB lex. 

astalu(m), lex. also estalu (a type of singer) 
O/jB; Mari pi. f. astaletum; < Sum. 

astammu, altammu "tavern, hostel" Bab., MA 
[ES.DAM]; < Sum. 

astammuni; f. astammltum "belonging to the 
tavern" OB of woman 

Astapi (a month)? Alal.; < Hurr. 

astapiru(m), astablru, OA astiplrum "slaves, 
servants, domestic staff Bab., OA 
[SAG.GEME.ARAD; OB also GEME.(SAG.) 
ARAD] 

astaru "goddess" jB; < W.Sem. 

astatillu — ► ardadillu 

aste — ► lift' 

astebarru — ► astabarru 

asti — ► assatu; isti 

astikissu — ► astakissu 

astikittisu (desig. of a horse) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 



astu 



30 



attamannu 



astipirum — ♦ astapiru 

astu (a word for woman) jB lex.; < Hurr. 

astu — ♦ also artu; assatu 

astu "throne" jB; < Sum. 

asturru "gnat" jB lex. 

astuzzu, astuttu (desig. of garments) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

astu — ♦ wastum 

astutu(m) "obduracy, stiffness" OB, jB lex.; 

< wastum 
asum — ♦ asu I 

asu(m) I (a disease of the head) Bab.; sam(ml) a. 

"plant(s) for a. disease" (name of a plant); — » 

rasasim 
asu II ~ "living creatures" O/jB 
asu III (a kind of field)? MB 
asu(m) IV ~ "distinguished, noble" OA, jB 
asu — ♦ also asium; esu I. IV; hasu III; usu; 

wasa urn 
asu ~ "to retch" G (pres. i'ds) Gtn (itands) iter. 

JB 
asudtu — ♦ asutu 

asubbatu, asbutu "woman, wife" jB lex. 
asubu — ♦ yasibum 

asuhhennu (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
asuhu(m) ~ "pine-tree" Bab., NA [GlS.tl.SU0s] 

as timber; zer a. "pine kernel" 
asukku(m) (a dais)? jB lex. 
asushu, ashaussuhhu, ashushu (a measuring 

vessel)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
asustu(m) "affliction, grief O/jB [(NfG.)ZI.IR; 

ext. SA5- ]; < asdsu III 
asutu; pi. asudtu (a leather strap) jB for a door; 

— » asdtu 
ata "why?" also as interj. NA, NB( Ass.) 
ata'isu, afisu ~ (a plant) M/jB lex., med. 

[U.KUR.KUR] 
ataku "to be(come) bent, crooked" M/jB G (a/a) 

of parts of body D trans, "bend, twist" s.th.; 

> itku; uttuku I 
atamu — ♦ watmum 
atannu (a piece of jewellery made in pairs) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

atanu(m) f. "she-ass" OAkk, Bab., M/NA 
[M/NB EME, EME6; (ANSe.)emEs; Mart also 
EME5.ANSE]; MB, Nuzi also "mare"; jB lex. a. 
ndri (a water fowl); — » bissuru 

atappis "like a canal" jB; < atappu 

atappu(m), NA adappu f.; pi. f. & m. "(small) 
canal, ditch" Bab., NA [PA5; OB math. 
PA5.SIG]; > atappis 

atappu (a plant) jB lex. 

atarsani — ♦ asarsani 



atartu, atirtu, NA also adalirtu (a type of grass) 

jB, NA 
atartu — ♦ also asartu; watartum 
ataru mng. unkn. jB lex. 
ataru — ♦ also watrum 
ataru — ♦ addru III; watdrum 
at(')a(t)tu — » ad attu 
atatum f. pi. "layers (of reed)" Mari 
atbaru(m) (or adbaru) ~ "basalt" Bab., M/NA 

[(NA4OAD.BAR] for statuary, grindstones; 

<Sum. 
atgigu -* asgigu 
athu pi.; OB du. athe ? "companions, partners" 

O/jB; OA as pi. of ahu I "brothers"; < ahu II; 

> athutu 

athusu, ithusu ~ "carrying-pole" (for fruit)? NA 

athutu(m) "partnership" OB, Am.; a. sakdnum 
"to establish partnership, brotherly relations" 
with s.o.; a. rdmu "to wish partnership" with 
s.o.; ana a. lequm "to accept in partnership 
(through marriage)"; < atM abstr. 

atirtu — ♦ atartu 

afisu — ♦ ataisu 

atkallusse (a functionary) NB 

atkam — ♦ aktam 

atkuppu(m), askuppu "craftsman making 
objects of reeds" Bab. [(LU.)AD.KID]; < Sum.; 

> atkupputu 

atkupputu(m) "craft of the reed worker" OB 
[(lU.)ad.KID- ]; NB as prebend; < atkuppu 

atmanu — ♦ watmanum 

atmartu (title of a goddess) jB; < amdru I ? 

atmasu ~ "stubborn" jB lex.; < amdsu ? 

atmu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

atmu — ♦ also watmum 

atmu; pi. NB atmanu ? (a wooden object) Nuzi 

atmu — ♦ also atwum 

atnannu — ♦ uatnannu 

atnannuhlu — ♦ uatnannuhlu 

atnu (or adnu) "prayer" jB 

atris "very much, copiously" M/jB; < watrum 

atru — ♦ watrum 

atruk (or atruq) (a cut of meat) NB for offer- 
ings, wr. uzu a. 

-atta — ♦ -atti 

att. . . also = ana t. . . 

atta, attu "you" (2 m. sg. pron.); — ♦ attunu; atti, 
attina; attamannu 

attadu(m) "spillway"? OB, NB ? 

attalu — ♦ antallu 

attamannu "each one; whoever you (m.) are" 
MA, M/NB, Nuzi; < atta + mannu I 



attamukarumma 



31 



awflutum 



attamukarumma in a. dabdbu "to conspire"? 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
Attana, Attannaswe, Attannati (7th month) 

MB(AlaL), Nuzi; < Hurr. 
attanu(ni) — » attunu 
attartu, NA uttartu "(military) cart" M/jB, NA; 

< watdrum; — ♦ wattarum 3 
attaru — ♦ wattarum 

attassihu "paternal" Nuzi, of estate, property; 

< Hurr. 

atta'u mng. unkn. jB, desig. of monsters in 

Enuma elis 
atteru "companion" Am.(Eg.); < Hurr.; 

> atterutu 

atterutu "friendship" Am.(Mit), Nuzi, Bogh.; 

< atteru 

-atti, -atta(m) (adv. endings) (-» GAG §1 131) 
atti "you" (2 f. sg. pron.); — » atta; attimannu 
attimannu "whoever you (f.) are" jB; <atti + 

mannu I 
attina "you" (2 f. pi. pron.) O/MA, O/jB; -♦ atta 
attinasa (desig. of terrain) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
attu — ♦ atta 
attu-, Nuzi after -u also uttu- "belonging to" with 

poss. pron. suff. M/NB, Am., Nuzi, Bogh., 

Ug.; Elamtu attuka "Elam is yours"; ayyutu 

attua "which ones are mine?" 
attultu (a substance) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
attunu, NA also attanu(ni), NB also attun "you" 

(2 m. pi. pron.); — » atta 
atu I jB lex. 1. (a kind of dark wool) 2. (Sutian 

word for ~ throwing stick) 
atu(m) II, atu'u, OB, Alal., Nuzi, Ug. utu(m) 

"gatekeeper, porter" Bab., M/NA [LU.NI.DUg, 

NB wr. .GAB] NB as family name; < Sum.; 

> atutu II, atutu; — ♦ sukkal-atu 
atu — ♦ also edu I; watum 

atudu, dudn, OA etudum "wild sheep; ram" OA, 

M/jB 
atugu — ♦ adugu 

atuhlu (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
atulimanu, talimdnu, tulimdtu pi. tant. "both 

hands" jB; — » sutlumu; talimu 
atunu — ♦ utunu 
aturu — ♦ aduru 

atutu I (a spiny plant) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
atutum II (or ututum) "female doorkeeper" OB 

[MUNUS.NI.DU8]; < atu II 
atutu, ututum, MB(Ass.) utu'utu "function of 

gatekeeper" Bab. [LU.NI.DUg- ] of man, as 

prebend; of gods in temple; < atu II; — » sukkal- 

atutu 
atu'u — ♦ at u II 



atwum, atmu "speech, word; manner of speech" 
O/jB [once KA.KA]; < awum Gt infin. 

ataru — ♦ addru III 

a'u "ferryman" O/jB [A.U5]; < Sum. 

du-* also hahu II 

a'ussu — ♦ amussu 

awarrdnum — ♦ awirdnum 

awatamulushe (an object) Am.; < Hurr. 

awatu(m), later Bab. (also occas. OB) amdtu, 
M/NA, also Ug. abutu, gen. abiti; pi. awdtum, 
amdtu, abate "word; matter" [INIM] 1. "word" 
a. qabu, a. dabdbu, poet. a. zakdru "to speak (a 
word), talk"; a. sabdtum "to 'seize the word', 
begin to speak" Mari; a. turrum "to report" 
OA, OB; OA a. qabum "to state (o.'s last) 
will"; MA a. sakdnu "to declare, make a 
statement"; of deity, king "order, command"; 
"wording" of tablet; a. libbim "thought" 
2. "legal case, lawsuit"; MA a. amdru "to settle 
a case"; a. gamrat "the case is completed"; bel 
awdtimlamdti -* belu 5 3. "matter, affair", often 
pi.; a. amdru "to investigate a matter"; a. 
napistim "matter of life"; ullld awassu etc. "it is 
not his business, he has not the right to" etc.; 

< awum; — ♦ Idmdtu 

awiharu, amileharu "plough" Nuzi [GIS.APIN]; 

as area measure (= V10 homer); < Hurr.; — » 

epinnu 
awilanu (a bird) jB; < awilu 
Awilatum (hypocorist. form of PN Awil-DN) 

OB; < awilu 
awilis, jB amilelis "like a human being" O/jB; 

< awilu 

awlltum, later amileltu "woman" OA, O/MB, 
Am., Nuzi, Bogh. [MUNUS]; jB lex. only; NB 
"dependent woman, slave 7 "; < awilu 

awilu(m), later amilelu, OAkk abilum, MA a'ilu 
"man" [LU; jB om., med. also NA; Bogh. om. 
ZA] "human being" (also coll.); MA 
"husband"; "person, one"; jB, Nuzi a. ana a. 
"one another"; O/jB a. ...a. "one ... the other"; 
OA, OB "free citizen", also mdrlmdru a.; 
"citizen" of PIN; as term of respect, OA, NA la 
a. "no gentleman"; OB a. Esnunna "man (i.e. 
ruler) of Esnunna"; Nuzi, NB also "slave"; a. 
ndri (an aquatic animal) jB [LU.iD]; > awilis, 
awiliitum, awiltum; amildnu, Awilatum; — » 
sahamelu 

awllutum, later amilelutu, OA awiluttum, MA 
a' iluttu "humanity" [(NAM.)LU.Uig/i9.LU; LU- ] 
1. "mankind"; O/MB "anyone" 2. M/NB freq. 
as coll. pi. of awilu "servants, slaves, 
personnel" [Nuzi NAM.lU.lU.MES]; NB also 
"(single) slave" 3. MB "status of a retainer" 



awiranum 



32 



ayyigalluhu 



4. OA, OB "humanity; gentlemanly behaviour"; 

< a wilu abstr. 

awiranum, amelirdnu, OB also awarrdnum 
"standing water" [jB A.NIGIN] after flood; -> 
Id' iridnu 

awiru "field" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

awitum "value (of goods)" OA, expressed in tin, 
silver 

awuin "to speak" G (pret. iwu; stat. and 2 pers. 
sg. imper. awn) OA only Gtn iter. OA 
Gt {atwum, later atmu) "speak" OA; 0/jB(lit.) 
"discuss": istilitti X a. "negotiate with X"; ana X 
a. "tell X, speak to X"; OA "order (to do 
s.th.)"; jB itti libbiya (etc.) a. "think about" s.th. 
St l.O/jB, MA "reflect on s.th., debate with 
o.s.", also ittilina libbi s. 2. stat., in j/NB 
coram., of words "are used, considered"; 

> dmdnti; atwum; awdtu; mutawum; mustdmu; 
Idwitum 

awurriqanum. jB amwriqdnu 1. "jaundice" 
O/jB [jB IGI.SIG7.SIG7]; d A. deified; sam(mi) a. 
"plant for curing jaundice" 2. (a bird) OB lex.; 

< wardqum 
ayarum — ► harum 
ayya — ► ai II 

ayyabakala, (ay)ydb akall (a plant) jB lex.; 

< ayydbu 

ayyabassa (a plant) jB lex.; < ayyabtu + sal 
ayyabas "let me not be put to shame" jB (desig. 

of shoe-button)?; < bdsu I 
a(y)yabba "the sea" Mari, Am., jB; < Sum.?; 

> ayyabbltu 

a(y)yabbitu, yahhJtu f. "of the sea" (epith. of 

Istar) MA; < ayyabba 
ayyabis, yabis "in a hostile manner" O/jB, NA; 

< ayydbu 

ayyabtu "(female) enemy" jB, NA; in pi. "evil" 
gener.; < ayydbu; — ► ayyabassa 

ayyabu(m), M/jB also ydbu; pi. ayydbu, occas. 
ayyabutu "enemy" Bab., NA [(LU.)ERIM] 
"hostile" spells; usu. as subst.; > ayyabis, 
ayyabtu, ayyabutu; ayyabakala 

ayyabutu(m) "hostility" O/jB; < ayydbu abstr. 

ayyaka(m), yaka Ass. 1. "where?" as interrog. 
pron.; NA issu ayyak(a) "whence?" 2. OA 
"somewhere" 3. in rel. clause "where" 4. NA 
"how?"; <ayyu + -kam (-> GAG §1 13b); 

> ayyakameni 

ayyakamma "somewhere" OA; < ayyakam + 

-ma 
ayya(k)ku(m), eyakku, ydku (a type of 

sanctuary) O/jB, M/NA [E.AN.NA] esp. of 

goddesses; < Sum.? 



ayyalatum f. "hind" OB as PN; < ayyalu I 
ayyalu(m) I, Ass. ya('a)lu "stag, deer" Bab., 

M/NA [DARA.MAS] jB qaran a. "hartshorn" as 

drug, also name of plant; > ayyalatum 
ayyalu II ~ "ally" j/NB; > yalutum 
ayyami "where?" Am. 
ayydna — > ayydnu 
ayyanis "whither, where?" Bogh. lex.; < ayydnu 

+ -is 
ayyanu(m), ydnu(m), jB also ayyinna, ayydna, 

lex. also ya'nu "where?" O/jB; "whence?" OA; 

for later usage in negation — ► ydnu; < ayyu + 

-dnum; > ayyanis, ayydnumma; ydnummis 
ayyanumma "anywhere" M/jB; < ayydnum + 

-ma 
ayyarahhu (a plant) jB lex. 
ayyarahi "gold" jB lex.; < Hurr. 
ayyartu(m), yartu, NB (ay)yastu^; NA pi. iA-e- 

re-te "white coral"? Bab, NA [(NA4.)PA]; 

< ayyaru I 

ayyaru(m) I, iyarum, Ass. ya('u)ru "flower; 
rosette" Bab., M/NA l.j/NB 7 "(natural) 
flower" 2. "rosette" of stone, gold; a. pdni 
(ornament on divine image) 3. jB (ay)yar(i) Hi 
'flower of god' = "chamaeleon"? 4. in names of 
plants: a. hurdsilkaspi "golden/silver flower" 
etc.; > ayyartu, ayyaru, yaritu 

ayyaru II ~ "young man" OAkk, MB in PNs; jB 
lex.; — > dru II 

ayyaru III mng. unci. jB; in comparisons 

ayyarum — ► also harum 

ayyaru "rosette-like" NB; < ayyaru I + -;": 
> yaritu 

Ayyaru(m) (2nd Bab. month) Bab. [ITI.GU4 
(.SI.SA)]; > ayyaru 

ayyaru "bom in the month Ayyaru" MB in fPN 
Ayydritu; < Ayyaru 

ayyarunitu — ► yarurutu 

ayyasu, ydsu (a small mammal, phps.) "weasel" 
Bab.; also "(skin of) weasel 7 " used as container 
for oil; OB also PN 

ayydsi — ► ydsim 

ayyastu — ► ayyartu 

ayydtu — ► ayyu 

Ayya'utu "function of the goddess Ayya" jB; 

< Ayya (wife of Samas) abstr. 
ayyekameni "anywhere" NA; < ayyaka + -me + 

-ni ? 
ayyema — ► ayyisamma 
ayyesa — ► ayyisa 
ayyi — ► ai II 
ayyigalluhu, haigallathe (a homed animal) 

Am.(Mit.), Nuzi; < Hurr. 



ayyika 



33 



azzatu 



ayyika "where, where to?" M/jB, Nuzi; 

< ayyikiam: > ayyikdni; ekd 
ayyikani "where to?" jB; < ayyika + -ni 
ayyikiam "where?" OB; <ayyu + -kiam (— » 

GAG §1 13b); > ayyika; ekiam; — > ai III 
ayyinna — > ayydnu 
ayyis, lex. also yis "where?; whither?" O/jB; 

< ayyu + is; > es; is; — > mes 

ayyisa(m), ayyesa "whither?" Ass., O/jB; NA 
also ana a.: < ayyu + -isam; > ayyisamma; 
esam; — > missam 

ayyisamma, OA also ayyema, Ug. ayyisamme 
"to anywhere" OA, OB, Ug.; <ayyisam + 
-mal-me II; > esamma 

ayyitu (a leather strap) for a door M/jB 

ayyitu — > also ayyu 

ayyitumma — > ayyumma 

ayyu(m), ayyu(m), jB, NA also ya'u; f. 
ayyitu(m); m. pi. ayyutu(m); f. ayydtu(m) 
"which?" usu. before subst. adi ayyi umi "till 
which day?"; after subst. me ayyuti "which 
water?"; pied. NA ya'u hitdya "what is my 
crime?": in subst. use "which (person); what 
(thing)", interrog. or indefinite; NB rel. pron. 
"which, that", NA in indir. question (— > GAG 
§180c); Bab. occas. for ayyumma; > ayyumma, 
ayyumme; ayyaka, ayyikiam etc.; ayyis etc.; 
ayydnu, ydnu etc. 

ayyu — > also ai II 

ayyu (a bird) jB lex. 

ayyumma, MB, NA also ya'umma; f. 
ayyitumma; pi. ayyutumma "any; anyone"; as 
adj. sarrum a. "any king"; as subst. "anyone"; 
MB a. sa "anyone who"; < ayyu + -ma 

ayyumme; pi. ayyuttimme "anyone" Am., Nuzi, 
Bogh. for ayyumma; < ayyu + -me II 

azabburu (or azappuru) (a plant) Nuzi, jB; — > 
azupiru ? 

aid illu — > azamillu 

azal mng. unkn. jB lex. 

azallu (a medicinal plant) O/jB [U.A.ZAL.LA/LA]; 

< Sum. 

azalum (or azdnum) (a tree) OAkk 
azalwannu (a precious stone) Qatna; for 

necklace, seal; < Hurr. 
azamillu(m), MA aza'illu; pi. f. "sack, net" 

O/MA, O/jB, Bogh.; for (transport of) straw, 

OA also du.; MB for flour 
azammu (part of a chariot) MB of gold; — > 

assammu 
azamritu, azamrutu; pi. azamrdtu ~ "lance" 

M/jB held by figurine; — > azmaru ? 



azamru(m), NA zamru "fruit" OB(N.Mes.), 

M/NA 
azamrutu — > azamritu 
azamu — > zamu 

azangunu (a bird) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
azannu, azdnu, zdnu; pi. f. "quiver" MB, 

NA(jB) [MB KUS.A.ZA.AN] 
azannu — > also hazannum I 
azdnu — > azalum; azannu 
azappu — > asappu; zappu 
azappuru — > azabburu 
azarkiru mng. unkn. OB lex. 
azarru — > asarru 
azaru(m), azzaru ~ "lynx" O/jB [SA.A.RI.RI] 

living in marshes 
azaru ~ "to help" jB; < W.Sem. 
azazhum (a kind of offering) OB(Alal.); 

< Hurr.? 

azazu, hazdzu "to buzz" jB G (pres. i'azzaz) of 

ears 
azibatu ~ "help" jB lex.; < ezebu 
aziru "sputum"? jB 
azirum — > also asirum II 
azmaru, ismaru, armarru, azzamu "lance" 

M/NB; -> azamritu ? 
azu(m) I, hazu, asu "to sigh, gasp" O/jB G om., 

of ghost, dog, lizard; > hazu 
azu II (a craftsman)? Nuzi 
azugallatu, azungallatu "chief physician (f.)" 

M/jB, NA [A.ZU.GAL] as epith. of Gula; 

< Sum. > azugalliitu 

azugallu(m) "chief physician" O/jB [A.ZU.GAL]; 

< Sum.; > azugalliitu; — > asu I 

azugalliitu "higher medical art" jB; 

< azugall(at)u 
azukardnu — > azupiru 

azukarastum (desig. of horses) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

azukirdnu — > azupiru 

azumu (a plant) jB lex. 

azungallatu — > azugallatu 

azupiranitu f. "resembling saffron" jB lex.; 

desig. of spices 
azupiru(m), azupirdnu, azukilardnu "saffron" 

Bab. [U.HAR.SAG(.SAR)] freq. a. arqu 

"yellow"; — > azabburu ? 
azuru (or asuru) in a. pindi mng. unkn. jB lex. 
Azzalli — > Izalli 
azzamu — > azmaru 
azzaru — > azaru 
azzatu f.; Hurr. pi. also azzatena "she-goat" 

Nuzi; — > hazzatum 



azzubutum 



34 



azzubutum 



azzubutum "status 
OB(Susa); <ezebu 



of divorced woman"? azzuzd -» zuzd 



B 



ba "water" jB lex. 

bd — » also bd'um 

ba'alu(m), hdlu "to be dominant, exceptionally 

big, bright" Bab., NA G (Hi) [GUR4] of decree 

"be valid, in force"; of part of body "be 

exceptionally big"; of stars "be abnormally 

bright" D O/jB "make important, exaggerate" 

Dtn OB iter, of D; > ba'lu, ba'ulu 
ba'dlu — » also bdlu 
ba'dru — » bdru I 
ba'asu, NB he'eSu "to smell bad, be of bad 

quality" Ass., j/NB G (Hi) of dates "be rotten"; 

transf. of words, day "be bad"; NB pdn(i) b. 

"be angry", of animals "look bad" Gtn iter. 

D "make stink"; j/NB transf. "besmirch" name 

etc.; > bisu I, bi'iltu; bu'Su, buSdnu; tabdstanu 
ba'dSu — » also be' esu 
babaltu (a plant) jB lex. 
babalu - "leader" jB lex. 
babalu(m) "to carry, bring" var. of wabdlufm), 

supplies G forms for infin., ptcp., stat., NB 

pres. D all forms (except Am.) N all forms; 

>hahhilu, babbilutum; biblu, bibiltu; bibbulu; 

mubabbilum, mubabbilutum 
babanu, NB bdbanna "at the gate, outside" 

M/NB of building, courtyard; < bdbu I + -dnu; 

> bdbdnu 
babanu "outer" j/NB, NA of building, courtyard; 

< bdbdnu + -i 
babaru - "forest" jB lex. 

babbanu; f. babbanitu "excellent, very good" 

NB; < *ban-banu (-» banu I); > hahhanutu 
babbanutu ? "excellence, high quality" jB; 

< babbanu 



babbilu(m) "bearer, carrier; tenant farmer" O/jB; 
< babalu 

babbilutum "service as bearer" OB; < babbilu 

babbirru — » banbirru 

babrunnu "brown" Nuzi of horses; < Indo-Iran. 

babtu(m) I "city quarter, district" OAkk ? , Bab., 
MA [DAG.GI/GI4.A; MA, NB KA-] as 
municipal authority; mar b. "member of a city 
quarter"; < bdbu I; — » b. II 

babtu(m) II "commercial goods, merchandise 
outstanding" OA, OB [KA- ]; OB, NB - "loss, 
deficit", also astr.; < bdbu I; = b. I ? 

babu(m) I; pi. m. & f. "gate, door" [KA] 1. of 
house, temple, palace, oven etc.; "city gate" as 
administrative authority; "sluice gate"; bdb zlqi 
"air vent" 2. transf. "entrance" to marsh, to 
apsti.; "opening, outlet" of objects; of parts of 
body; ext. bdb ekalli(m) (a part of the liver) 
[ME.NI] 3. NB "item" of accounts (< Aram.?) 
4. "point of departure", esp. in pdna(m) u 
bdba(m) ul ISu 'have no beginning or end' = 
"be beyond recording, control"; > bdbdnu, 
bdbdnu; bdbtu I.II 

babu II "small child, baby" jB lex. 

badahu "to kiss" jB lex. 

badamu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

baddqu — » batdqu 

badasu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

baddum (or battum) mng. unci. Mari, desig. of 
person 

badillum (a bird) O/jB 

badu "evening" NA in kilSalinalana b. "at 
evening"; < bidtum Ass. 

badu'itu (a garment) NB 

badiilu — » batulu 



ba'ertu 



36 



balatu(m) II 



ba'ertu "huntress" jB; < ba'eru 

ba'eru(m), bd'iru(m) 1. "hunter; fisherman" 
Bab. [(LU.)SU.HA/#A6] 2. OB, Mari (a type of 
military auxiliary); < bdru I; > ba'ertu, 
bd'erutu 

ba"erutu "substantiation (of evidence)"? MA; 

< bdru III 

ba'erutu(m) "activity of fisherman" OB; NB as 

temple prebend; < ba'eru 
bagani "under the protection of NB; < Aram.; 

— ♦ gannu II ? 
bagarranu (desig. of a horse) MB 
bagurru (a ladle) Qatna, jB 
bahdsu — ♦ he'esu; buhhusu 
Bahir (a month) OAkk; < bahru st. abs.? 
bahmddu — ♦ barumtu 
bah re ? (a stone, phps.) "coral" jB, NA; 

< Arab.? 

bahru "boiling hot" jB; (a specific hot dish); 

< buhhuru; > bahrutu, Bahir" 1 - 

bahrutu "boiling state" jB med. in bahrussu "in 

its boiling condition, when boiling"; < bahru 
bahsum mng. unkn. OAkk as PN 
bahu I "thin" O/jB of onions; MB, NA of people 

as PN; < bahu II 
bahu II "to be thin; be scarce" jB G (pres. 

ibahhuli) D "make emaciated"; > bahu I 
bahulatu "men, troops" jB(Ass.), artificially 

differentiated from — ♦ ba'uldtu 
bahutu — ♦ bahd I 
ba'ilu; f. ba'iltu "ruler" M/jB; m. of DN in PNs; 

f. of goddess; < belu 
bd'iru — ♦ ba'eru 
ba"Itu "thing sought" M/jB(Ass.) in b. ili/I 

"desire(d) of the god(s)"; < hu' 'u II Ass. 
baka'is "to weeping" OB; < baku 
bakisu "wailing woman" NA; < baku ptcp.? 
bakkaru — ♦ bakru II 

bakka'um "wailer, mourner" OB lex.; < baku 
bakkitu "wailing woman, mourner" j/NB, NA; 

< bakku 

bakku "tearful" jB; < baku; > bakkitu 

bakkutu — ♦ baktu 

bakru I "(first- )born" MB, in PNs 

bakru II, pakru; pi. bakkaru "foal" of camel or 

donkey jB; < Arab. 
baktu, bakkutu (an official) NB 
baku(m) "to weep" G {Hi) [ER] of human; of 

animal "cry"; also + dat. "weep over; weep for" 

Gtn iter, of G [ER.MES] S caus. of G; 

> baka'is; bakisu; bakku, bakkitu; bakka'um; 

bikitu 
bakuhu ~ "bud, shoot" jB lex. 



bal(a) — ♦ balu 

balaggu — ♦ balangu 

balalu(m) "to mix (up); alloy" Bab., NA; OAkk ? 
G (a/u) [OE.HE] 1. "mix (up)" food, drink, 
drug with (= ina); "alloy" metal; stat., of colour 
"is variegated" 2. OB qablam b. "join battle" 
3. "muddle up, upset" heart, text; ext., of good 
and bad results "be mixed up, confused" 
Gt stat. OB of people "mix with each other" 
D 1. "coat, smear" with (= ina) soil, spittle etc.; 
transf. ina dumqi "with prosperity" 2. "mix 
(up)" 3. OB stat. "is numb, deep in sleep" 
Dt 1. pass, of D; jB "be covered" with s.th. 
2. OB "smear" o.s. St OB lex. N jB of people 
"mix"; > ballu, baliltu^; ballussu; billu I, hillatu; 
nabldlu, nablaltum; tabliltum 

balamgu — ♦ balangu 

balamu "to gag" jB G {Hi); < Aram. 

balangu, balamgu, blpalaggu, buluggu, NA 
palaqqu, palakku 1 -, pilaggu 1 (a large drum) jB, 
NA; OAkk in PN ? [BALAG]; < Sum. 

balar "on the other bank" NB; < Sum. 

balasu I "to stare" jB G also in worship D "fix" 
the eyes "in a stare"; > balsu 

balasu II "to thrust, jerk"? with the rump G (///) 
of animals D ~ G; >ballusitu, tuballas- 
qinnassa 

balat(a) "without" NA; < haldtu 

bala(t)tu (an ornament) Qatna 

balatu(m) "without" OA; also haldtu- with pron. 
suff. OA, NA; > batata; -* balu 

ba'latu "mistress" jB; < W.Sem. 

balatu(m)I "life" [Tl(.LA); Am. TIL(.LA); NB 
also TIN] esp. ana baldt X "for X's life"; 
"vigour, good health"; OA haldtukka "during 
your life-time"; O/MB Id baldtu "loss of life"; 
0/jB(lit.) "(eternal) life"; sipatlsammi b. 
"life( -giving) spell/plant"; OB, Am. 
"provisions"; NA "food" for the gods; OA 
"(meagre) livelihood, small profit"; st. abs. 
Bogh., j/NB ana baldt 'within a life-time' = 
"next year"; < baldtu U infin. 

balatu(m) II "to live" [TI; TI.LA; TIN] G (ulu, 
Ass. a/a) stat. "is alive", "is healthy", OB "is 
solvent"; "live, stay alive, (be allowed to) live"; 
M/jB, Bogh. "be healed"; j/NB baldt napsdti 
"preservation of life"; OA of debt etc. "be 
revived, recognized" D of gods, people "bring 
back to life, revive"; MA "allow to stay alive", 
OB "let live; support, provide for"; O/jB 
"restore to health; cure"; OA, OB "recognize, 
credit" silver, goods to s.o.; OB "enact, 
validate" a document Dt Mari, jB "receive 
support, be maintained" S Am. "give life to"; 



baldahu 



37 



banfl(m) IV 



> bahu, balittum 1 , baltutu, baltdnumma; 

baldtu I; bultu; muballittu; muballitdnu; 

tablittum; nablatu 
baldahu (or baltahil) mng. unkn. jB 
bali — ♦ balu 
baliltu, balitu "rubbish tip" or "waste land"?; sir 

b. (a type of snake) jB; < ballu f. or belu II ? 
baliltu — ♦ also sambaliltu 
balittum "(a kind of) reservoir", "fishpond"? 

Mari; < baltu f.? 
balitu — ♦ baliltu 
baliu ~ "lord" jB lex. 
ballu "mixed" j/NB, MA of perfumes; of omens 

"confused"; "mixture" of animal fodder; 

< baldlu; > baliltu* 
ballu — ♦ also balu 

ballukku(m), Mari pa(l)luk/gu (a tree) OAkk, 
Bab. [GIS.BAL]; (an aromatic substance 
produced by the b. tree) [SIM.MUG; SIM.BAL; 
SIM.BULUG]; < Sum. 

ballussu "mixture" of aromatics ? NA; < baldlu 

ballusitu, pallusitu 1. (a bird) jB (-♦ tuballas- 
qinnassa) 2. (a lizard) jB lex.; < balasu II 

balsu — ♦ palsu 

balsu, palsu in blpalsa ini(m) "staring" O/jB; 

< balasu I 

baltu(m), bastu'- (a spiny plant) Bab., NA 
[GlS.Dig] 

baltu — ♦ bastu 

baltahd — ♦ baldahu 

baltanumma "alive" Am. [TIL.LA- ]; < baldtu II 

balti(t)tu — ♦ bustltum 

baltu(m) "living, alive" [(LU.)TI(.LA)] 1. Bab., 
NA of people, animals; "healthy", "(financially) 
solvent" 2. j/NB, NA "raw, uncooked" of meat, 
seeds 3. NA" "green" of wood 4. MA, NB 
"intact" of vessels 5. OA warham baltamma 
"for a whole month"; < baldtu II; > baltutu 

baltutu(m) "state of being alive" Bab. [TI; NB 
also TIN] of people, esp. baltussu(nu) "alive", 
of plants "fresh", Bogh. of stones; < baltu 

balu(m), bal(a), Am. bali; with pron. suff. 
baluli- "without" [NU.ME(.A)]; also ina b.; esp. 
"without (permission/knowledge of)" s.o.; 
O/jB also conj. + subjunct. "without ...ing, 
without having ...ed"; > balu; baluf, — ♦ baldtu; 
bildnum 

balu — ♦ belu II 

balu, ballu 'the one without'? (desig. of the 
planet Mars) jB; < balu 

balu, ba' dlu "to supplicate" G j/NB 

balu — ♦ also ba' dlu 

ba'lu; f. ba'iltu ~ "large, major" jB; < ba' dlu 



baluhhu(m), buluhhum (an aromatic plant) 

OAkk, O/jB [SIM.BULUtf]; hit b. "b. resin"; 

<Sum. 
balut "without" MA; < balu 
bama "half and half, in half OB; < bdmtu I 
bamanis "in halves" jB; < bdmtu I + -an + -is 
bamatu(m) pi. tant. "open country, plain" Bab. 
bamtu(m) I, lex. also bantu, pdndu; pi. bdmdtu 

"half Bab., Susa, OB(Alal.); st. abs. 

bdmat . . . bdmat . . . "half . . . half . . ."; > bama, 

bamanis 
bamtu(m) II, blpdndltu; lex. also pi. "ribcage, 

chest; thorax" O/jB; > Panddnu 
banaikanu (desig. of a group or organization) 

NB 
banbillu (or panbillu) (a dwarf cucumber) jB 

lex. 
banbirru, babbirru ~ "leather coat" jB lex. 
bandillanu "paunchy, fat" jB om.; < bandillu + 

-an 
bandillu ~ "belly" jB, NA of animal; 

> bandillanu 

bandu(m) "quotient" OB math., jB; tupsar b. 

"mathematician"?; < Sum. 
bdndu — ♦ bdmtu U 
banduddu(m) "bucket" O/jB [(GIS/GI.)BA.AN. 

DU8.DU8] esp. rit.; < Sum. 
banitu -» banu I 
bdnitu — ♦ bantu; banu 
bannu(m), banu (a ewer) OB; < Sum. 
bantis "like a mother" jB; < bantu 
bantu "mother" jB; < banu IV; > bantis 
bantu — ♦ also bdmtu I.II 
banu(m) I "good, beautiful" of person, animal 

[in PNs'du]; of object, word, deed, omen etc.; 

as subst. banitu "s.th. good"; < banu II; 

> banutu; babbanu, babbanutu 

banu(m) II "to be(come) good, beautiful" Bab. 
G {Hi) [NB in PN DU] of person, object, word, 
deed etc. D "make good, beautify" person, 
animal, object, building etc.; "look after s.o. 
kindly, respectfully"; NB "produce s.th. well", 
NB (+ tabnitu) "execute well, do a good job"; 

> banu I; babbanA, babbanutu; bunu II, bunna, 
bunnd; bunnannu; mubannu, mubannutu, 
mubannitum; tabnitu I; — ♦ hunzerru; buppdni- 

banu III "built"? jB lex.; < banu IV 

banu(m) IV "to create; build" G {Hi) [dO] of 
deity "create" person, grain etc.; of person 
"engender" child, "make" figurine etc.; "build" 
house, boat; math, "construct"; ext. of feature 
"form" a shape D Am. "erect" city S lit., caus. 
of G N pass.; > banu III; banu, bantu, bantis; 



banu 



38 



barbaru(m) 



hinitu, binutu; biniannum; nabnltu; tabnltu II; 

— » Zer-bdnitu 
banu (a type of crown) jB lex. 
banu — » also bannu 
banu; f. bdnitu "creator, begetter"; M/NB 

"builder" [(LU.)DU]; < banu IV 
banutu "distinction, beauty" M/jB; < banu I 
bappiru(m), pappirum "beer bread" [BAPPIR; 

SIM]; < Sum. 
baqalu "to malt; sprout (intrans.)" jB lex.; 

< buqlu denom.?; > bdqilu; baqlu; biqlum, 
biqletu 

baqamu(m), O/MA, M/NB baqdnu(m) "to 
pluck" G (a/u) "pluck" (wool from) sheep, 
(feathers from) bird, (hair from) human; "tear 
out" plants, Am. "harvest"; "pluck" cotton, 
fringe on garment D "pluck out" hair Dtn iter. 
S caus. of G N pass., of sheep, wool, grass "be 
plucked"; > baqmu; baqimu; buqqumu; 
buqumu; buqdmu; biqnu 

baqartum — » waqrum 

baqaru(m), M/NB usu. paqdru "to (lay) claim 
to" Bab., OA G (a/u, occas. ulu. Hi) "claim s.th. 
(=acc.) from s.o. (=acc.)"; absol. "make a 
claim", "contest" Gt "claim from each other" 
D ~ G, "claim for o.s.", "contest" Dt "be 
claimed" S caus. of G MB N pass, of house, 
field, slave "be claimed"; > baqru; bdqirdnum, 
pdqiru; buqurru; tapqertu; mupaqqirdnu; 
pirqu I; — » buqquru 

baqdru — » also waqdrum 

baqasu ~ "to be broad, prominent" jB, stat. of 
parts of body; > buqdsum; buqqusum 

baqbaqqu (a small gnat) jB; — » baqqu 

baqilu(m) "maltster" OAkk, O/jB; 

[MUNU4.SAR]; also as PN; < baqalu 

baqimu — » baqmu 

baqimu "plucker" Mari, of sheep; < baqdmu 

baqinu — » baqmu 

baqiqatu pi. tant. (a type of groats)? jB 

baqiranum, M/NB pdqirdnu, NB also 
paqardnu, Nuzi also pdriqdnu "claimant" Bab.; 

< baqdru ptcp. + -an 

baqlu; f. baqiltu "sprouted" jB; < baqalu 
baqmu(m), baqnu, OAkk, Nuzi also baqimlnu 

"plucked" O/jB of sheep, wool; OAkk, Nuzi as 

PN "with thinning hair"; < baqdmu 
baqqu(m), bdqu "(small) fly, mosquito 7 " Bab.; 

also as PN; — » baqbaqqu; buqdqum 
baqru(m), M/NB paqru, OB also waqrum 

"(entitlement to) claim" Bab. usu. pi.; of slave 

etc. blpaqri rasu(m) "to be claimed"; b. apdlum 

"to satisfy a claim"; ana b. izuzzum "to take 

liability for a claim"; < baqdru 



baqrum — » also waqrum 

bdqu — » baqqu 

barahu ~ "to beam, shine"? jB lex. G and D; 
> barhu; barihu*; burdhu 

barakku (a corridor or outbuilding) Bab. 
[E.BAR.RA]; < Sum.; -* parakku 

baramu I "to be variegated, multicoloured" O/jB, 
NA G [GUN.A] Gt stat. of eye, fleece "is 
multicoloured, speckled" D "make multi- 
coloured; weave (coloured cloth)"; > barmu; 
burmu; birmu I; burumitu; burumu; burrumu, 
burrumtu; burummu; bitrumu, bitrdmu; 
barumtu; birimmu; burmdmu; mubarrimu; 
tabrimu 

baramu(m) II "to seal (up)" Bab., NA G (a/u, 
NA ///) tablet, door; "emboss" inscription on 
metal S "have s.th. sealed"; > birmu II, birimtu; 
nabramu* 

baranu "rebel" jB(NA); <bdru II ptcp. + -an 
+ -i 

baraqu(m) "to lighten, shine" Bab.(lit.) G (///) 
[tJI.tJl] berqu + b. "lightning strikes"; of Adad 
"strike s.th. with lightning"; of eyes "flash" 
D jB stat. of woman "has flashing eyes 7 " 
S 1. "cause lightning to strike" 2. "strike" 
enemy etc. "by lightning" Stn NB iter, of S 2 
Ntn jB "flash, light up repeatedly", MB ptcp. 
^Muttabriqu as name of demon; > bdriqum; 
berqu; burruqu; barraqtu 

bardqum — » also wardqum D 

barari, bardr(a) adv. "at dusk, evening" O/jB; 

< bardru; > bardritu 

bararitu(m), barartu(m) "dusk, evening watch" 

O/jB [en.nun.(an.)usan/usan; en.nun.an. 

TA; EN.NUN.BAR.RA]; also ace. as adv. 

barartam; < barari 
bararu "to flicker" or "be dim"? jB G (ulu) of 

eyes "flicker, be scintillating"; of star; of word, 

lex. only S jB mng. unkn.; > barari, bardritu; 

bariru I, bariritu, barirdtu; barrurum; birratu; 

birbirru, birbirrdnu; nabraru*, nabrartu* 
barasiggu, parasiggu, parsigu "house altar, 

small shrine" jB [BARA.SI/SIG/SIG5.GA]; 

< Sum. 

barasu "to light up, shine" jB G (ulu); > birsu; 

barisu*; bursa* 
barasu "to pluck out" jB lex.; > barsu; birsu; 

burrusum 
bardtu — » biritu 

barbartu "she-wolf ' jB; < barbaru 
barbaru(m) "wolf OAkk, Bab. [UR.BAR.RA], 

also as PN; (one of the Ellil stars) jB 



bardibbu 



39 



baru(m) II 



[MtJL.UR.BAR.RA]; jB b. ursi 'bedroom wolf = 

"scorpion"; > barbartu 
bardibbu (a garment) jB lex.; < Sum. 
bardu ~ "crossbar, lintel" Ug., jB lex., for door, 

window; < Sum. 
bargallu (a desig. of sheep) jB lex.; < Sum. 
barhu "shining" NA, NB in PNs; f. Barihtu as 

fPN, MB; also Ug., m. & f. (a class of 

person)?; < barahu 
barhum —* also warhum 
bari(-) "between, among" OA for Bab. bin-; 

< baru I; — » baritum 
barihu (a stone) jB; < barahu ? 
barikatu "(salt from) Bariku" jB, NA; < PIN 
barilu, banldnu (a plant, phps.) "sagapenum" 

jB; var. of barirdtu 
bariqum "flashing, lightning" OB epith. of 

Amurru; < bardqu 
bariratu(m) (a plant, phps.) "sagapenum" Bab. 

[GIS/U.LUM.tfA]; < bardru; -» barilu 
bariritu 'the glittering one'? M/jB, name of a 

female demon; < bariru I ? 
bariru I ~ "radiance, glitter" jB; < bardru; 

> bariritu* 
bariru II mng. unkn. jB 
barisu mng. unkn. j/NB astr.; < barasu 
barittannu (or parittannu) ~ "grey"? Nuzi, 

colour of old horses 
baritu (or pari tu) (an object) Qatna, of gold 
baritum "intervening space" OAkk (= later 

biritu I); (in) bariti "between"; < baru I; -» 

bari- 
baritum "female diviner" OA, jB; < bam 
bariu — » beru I; biruyum 
barmu(m) "multicoloured, variegated" O/jB 

[GUN.A] of eyes, animal's skin, wool; MB, 

Nuzi as PN, fPN (Barundu, Barmatu); 

< baramu I; > barumtu 
barraqitu, pa(r)raqitu (a plant) jB 
barraqtu "emerald" NB; < bardqu 
barraqu (a court official) NA 

barru I mng. unci. M/NB, of metals, of the 

mouth 
barrum II (or parrum) (a head covering) OAkk 
barru — » also baru I 
barrumu — » burrumu 
barruqu — » burruqu 
barrurum "with scintillating eyes"? OA f. as 

PN; < bardru 
barsallu (or barsallu) (a kind of sheep) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

barsillu (a garment) jB lex. 
barsillu (a vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 



barsum (ovparsum) (wooden part of ship) OB; 

< Sum. 
barsallu — » barsallu 

barsu(m) "patchy" OB of hair; < barasu 

barsu — » also burdsu 

bartu(m) "revolt, rebellion" Bab., NA [HI.GAR]; 

< baru II; > bdrdnu 
baru — » baru III 

baru(m) I "to see, look at" G (Hi) [IGI.KAR; IGI; 
IGI.TAB; col. (BA.AN.)E; ext. MAS] 1. "see, 
behold" 2. "read" a tablet, in col. "read, check 
through" 3. of deity "oversee, watch 
searchingly" 4. j/NB (+ biru) "perform 
divination" Gtn jB "see repeatedly" Gt jB "look 
at thoroughly" D "announce s.th. to s.o., 
apprise s.o. of s.th." Dt OB of battle "be 
announced" S "make s.o. (= ace.) see s.th.", 
transf. "cause to experience" misdeeds, anger 
etc.; "make s.o. see a dream, reveal in a dream 
to s.o."; jB (+ biru) "make s.o. perform 
divination"; > baru, baru II, baritum, bdrutu; 
bari-, baritum; biru I; biri-, bird, biruyum, 
biritu, birit, birit birit; birutu; bitru I 7 ; tabritu; 
mubarru, mubarritum; nabritum III; — » b. Ill 

baru II "seen, checked" jB [e], of text; of 
poultice; < baru I 

barum IE "to be on the market, be available"? 
OA G (Hi) D "put on the market"?; or all = 
b.ll 

barum IV vb. mng. unkn. OAkk, OB 

baru V (having an eye defect) jB lex. 

baru — » also beru II 

baru I, barru "tax, tribute" NB; < Iran. 

baru II (a syn. for open country) jB lex. 

baru III (or baru) (a cereal) jB lex. 

baru — » also pdru II 

baru(m) "diviner" Bab., NA [(LU.)MAS. 
SU.GID.GID; lu.jjal; (lu.)azu; (lu.)numun. 
LUM, occas. MB(Alal.), NB] usu. by extispicy; 
jB mar b. "(prof.) diviner"; OB wakil b., j/NB 
rab b. "overseer of the diviners"; OB also of 
divination by oil, smoke; nepesti b. "diviner's 
procedures"; < baru I; > bdrutu, baritum 

baru(m) I, ba'dru "to catch, trap (with a net 
etc.)" Bab. G (d) fish, birds etc.; wicked 
people, enemies Gtn jB iter, of G [DAB.DAB] 
D "hunt, go hunting"; >bd'eru, bd'ertu, 
bayydru, bayyartu, bd'eriitu; nabdru, nabdrtu; 
bu'uru I.II; — » libdru-susi; pdru I 

baru(m) II "to revolt, rise against" s.o. (=acc.) 
O/jB om. G (a; Bogh. pres. also iba"alir) 
[tJI.GAR] Gt OB "rise against each other" N OB 
"be set against each other"?; > bdrtu, bdrdnu 



baru(m) HI 

baru(m) III, OAkk, Ass. budru(m) "to appear, 

turn up; be durable" G («) OAkk in PN e.g. 

DN-sumu-li-bur mng. unci., "appear, be firm"? 

(or — > labdru G); OA, OB of animal, goods ~ 

"turn up, become available"; M/NB(lit.) ~ "be 

durable, stay firm" D "affirm, convict" 1. OB, 

M/NA leg. "declare, specify, establish 

precisely", also math. 2. 0/jB "convict s.o. 

(= ace.) of s.th. (= ace.)"; OB, MA "prove s.o. 

(to be s.th.)"; OB "confirm (s.th.) to s.o." 

Dt OB "be established precisely"; > beru I; 

burtu III; ba'erutu; bu'dru 
ba'rum — > beru II 
harullu — > burullum 
barumtu, jB barundu "coloured wool" M/NB, 

also pi. barmdtu, hafcmddu jB lex.; < barmu 
barutu "work, lore of the diviner" M/NB 

[nam.azu; LU.HAL- ]; b. epesu "to perform 

divination"; iskdr b. (desig. of the series of 

extispicy texts); < hdru 
basalu mng. unkn. NA of stone; — > basalu ? 
basi ~ "soon" NA as prep, "soon after"; as adv. 

"forthwith"; before vb., gen. of infin. "so that, 

in order to" 
baskiltu(m), maskiltu, biskiltu (a part of the 

middle 'finger' of the lung) O/jB ext. 
basum "(square or cube) root" OB math. [BA.SI; 

BA.Sig; IB.SI8]; < Sum. 
basaru(m) ~ "to tear off' O/jB G jB grapes 

D "tear apart"; > bisru II; bdsiru 
basasu "to trickle" jB lex., NA G; > bissu, bisu, 

busasu; — > bdsu 
basihu "inhabitant of the marshes" NB; < Aram. 
basillatu (a musical instrument) jB lex.; mistake 

for — > habasillatu 2 ? 
basiltu (a type of headcloth) jB lex. 
basiru mng. unci, (a class of person) jB lex.; 

< basdru 
basis "like sand" jB; < bdsu 
basu(m), later bassu "sand" Bab., OA; from 

river; sipik b. "sand dune", qaqqar b. "sand 

desert"; Mari "sandbank" in river; > basis; — > 

basasu 
basalu(m), NA also pasdlu "to be cooked; 

become ripe" Ass., M/NB G (a/a, Hi) of food, 

medicine, glass; of dates "ripen"; also trans. 

"cook" S [SEG6(.gA); AL.SEG6.GA] "cook" 

food, drugs; NA "fire" bricks; jB "solder"? 

metal; "melt" silver, wax; "dye" textiles, wool; 

> baslu; buslu; busdlu; suhsulum; NA — > 

basalu ? 
basamu I, besdmu, also basdmatu "sackcloth; 

penitential robe" MB(Alal.), jB; jB lex. epis b. 

"maker of penitential robe" 



40 basu(m) 

basamu II "to create, form" Bab. G (Hi) (dry) 
land, shrine, sculpture; human form; plans, 
cosmic designs D ~ G "create" objects, rites, 
parts of cosmos N pass, of G, NB; > bisimtu 

basamu (m) III ~ "to allocate" OB, jB lex. 
G (alu) share of booty, field 

basasu m "to spread" (intrans.) OB G om., of 
plague 

basgigitum — > askikitu 

basitu(m) "what is present" Bab. 1. Mari, of 
troops "available, to hand" 2. "goods, \ 
property"; < bdsu 

bdsiu — > bdsu 

baslu "cooked; ripe" M/NB, NA [(AL.)SEG6.GA 
(— > sarpu)] "cooked, boiled" of meat, plants, 
liquids; "heat-treated" of stone, glazes, ivory, 
metal; Nuzi "dyed" of textiles; "ripe" of fruits; 
< basalu 

basmu(m) "(mythical poisonous) snake; homed 
viper (Cerastes cerastes)" O/jB [MUS.SA. 
TUR/TUR]; as symbol; OB (a constellation); jB 
lex. (name of a plant) 

bassu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

bastu — > baltu 

bastu(m), later baltu ~ "dignity, (source of) 
pride"? OAkk, Bab., OA, Am. [TES] of deity, 
person; esp. in PNs of protective force; of 
building, orchard as "pride" of city, land etc.; jB 
subat b. "formal dress"; < bdsu I 

basu(m), M/jB N occas. napsu "to be (at hand, 
available); exist" [GAL] G (///'; no perf.) "be in 
existence, available"; of eyes, ears "be fixed on, 
attentive"; of task, responsibility "lie with" s.o.; 
of power, characteristic "be owned" by s.o.; 
pret. ibsi "was/were" (emphatic); M/NA pres. 
ibassi, also pi., as adv. ~ "really, in fact; some"; 
j/NB mala hasu "as much as there is available, 
everything, everybody"; adi Id base (infin.) 
'until non-existence' of destruction, disease 
S "bring into being" 1. of gods "create"; "utter" 
words, incantation 2. of human beings 
"produce" crop, "procreate" children; "weave" a 
plot 3. OB "make (s.o.'s ears) fix on, call s.o.'s 
attention to" 4. "let happen" N ingress, of G 
1. of living beings "come into being; emerge, 
appear" 2. of crop "grow, be produced", 
"become ripe" 3. of event, lawsuit "happen, take 
place" 4. OA of goods, tablet "be available, in 
safekeeping", OB transf. of claim, profit 
"materialize, be realized" 5. OB of eyes "get 
fixed on" 6. jB med. of spots 7 "occur, develop" 
Ntn "happen repeatedly"; > bdsitu, bdsu; 
bisu II, bisitu; husum; musahsu; nabsium; 
tabsitu'- 



basu(m) 



41 



ba'ulu 



basu(m), hdsiu(m); f. bdsitum "existing, 
available" O/jB, MA of com and field; of 
exchange-rate; MB (Ass.) ana umi bds&ti "for 
('the existing' =) all days"; f. pi. bdsdti "what 
exists", i.e. status quo; < hasu; > bdsitu 

basu(m) I "to be ashamed, come to shame" [TES] 
G (d) before s.o. (= ace.) D "put to shame" S 
OB mng. unci., "cause shame"?; > bayydsu; 
hayyasu; ayyabds; bastu; biistu 

basu II "to stamp, tamp" jB G (i) 

bataqu(m), baddqu "to cut off, divide, tear off 
G (alu) 1. "cut off parts of body, object, 
garment, land; "separate" an area; "hew" 
statues, slabs etc. out of stone 2. transf. OA 
"deduct" money, "drop the rate of exchange"?; 
stat. batiq of price "is (too) low"; awatam b. 
"deal with a matter" 3. "cut through, pierce" 
dyke etc.; ellipt. of water(course) "break 
through (intrans.)"; "divert" water into a canal 
4. OB "interrupt" work; OA ellipt. "break off, 
depart" 5. MA, NB "denounce", esp. bitqe b. 
"make accusations", also NA bel batdqi 
"informer" D ~ G 1. "cut off, esp. MA with pi. 
obj., parts of body, garments, trees; "cut" ropes 
2. "cut up* corpse 3. "cut through, pierce" dyke, 
"divert" watercourse — > hutuqtu Dt pass, of D, 
of breach "be opened" N pass, of G Ntn iter, of 
N; > hatqu, batiqtu; hitqu, hitiqtu; hutiqtu, 
butuqtu; biduqtum; butuqqh; bdtiqu, bdtiqdnu 

batar "thereafter, moreover" NB uncert.; 
< Aram. 

batbatti — > battubattu 

batiqanu "informer" MA; < bdtiqu + -an 

batiqtu "denunciation" jB, NA; NA, also 
"rumour"?; < hatdqu 

batiqu(m) 1. OA "express messenger" 2. NA, 
NB "informer, denouncer"; < batdqu 

batqu(m) "cut (off)" etc. 1. jB of ligament "torn" 
2. OA of price "low, cheap" 3. OB of work 
"interrupted" 4. N A "damaged" 5. j/NB as 
subst. "damage", esp. in h. sabdtu "to repair 
damage"; NB "loss" of cattle 6. NA, NB 
"(repair to) damage"; rab b. "supervisor of 
repairs"; < batdqu 

battabatte — > battubattu 

battatayya in ina b. "each of several; 
individually" NA; < battu 

battel ibatteli — > battubattu 

battu(m) "side, region around" Ass.; OA ilana 
b. "outside, to one side"; M/NA ana b. "aside, 
to one side, apart"; NA ina b. "somewhere; in 
one place"; MA batta u batta "on both sides"; 
NA "side (of river)"; > battubattu; battatayya 



battubattu/e, battel ibatteli, bat(ta)batteli, 
pattepatte "all round, on all sides of M/NA, as 
prep. + subst./pron. suff; inalissulsa b.; also 
du. ina battubatten "on both sides of MA; 
< battu 

batu "half jB lex.; — > bd'um 

hdtu — > hidtum 

batultu, NA batussu "adolescent, nubile girl" 
M/NA, Ug., j/NB [MUNUS.KAL.TUR; NB 
MUNUS.NAR- ?] 

batulu, badulu "boy, young man" M/jB, NA 
[(l0.)kal.tur] 

baturru (a small chisel)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

batussu — > batultu 

batalu(m) "to cease" Bab., OA, NA G (Hi) 
"miss, fail to do, abandon" work, offerings; 
"be(come) inactive"; stat. of wool, bread "has 
run out, is exhausted" Gtn iter. OA S caus. 
"discontinue, interrupt" offerings, tribute, 
"abandon" campaign, song N jB "fall into 
disuse", of border, weapon; NB of worker 
"cease work"; jB "cease to be effective"; 
> batlu, batiltu; bitiltu 

batiltu "interruption" jB(Ass.) in b. isulrasu "to 
cease"; < batdlu 

batium — > batu 

batlu "ceased, disused" Bab., NA of offerings 
etc.; jB la batlu "incessantly"; as subst. 
"cessation, interruption", esp. in b. sakdnu "to 
cause cessation" in deliveries etc.; also (a 
person) "likely to stop work" OB lex.; < batdlu 

battum — > baddum 

batu(m), OAkk batium ?; OB pi. f. batidtum (a 
vessel)? OAkk, OB, NB, of silver, copper 

batu "to show contempt"? G (f) NB 

ba'um, bu(m) "half OB lex., math.; b. hepum 
"to halve"; ana bd "in half; < Sum.; — > batu 

ba'u(m) I "to go along" Bab., OA G (d) [DIB] 
1. with ace. "walk along, across" road, street, 
field, sky 2. "pass, overtake, defeat" s.o. 
3. MB(Ass.) "enter" into (= ana) 4. O/jB 
occas. with dat. pron. suff. "come near, up to 
s.o."?; OA imper. (bd'am, bd'dnim) before 
imper. or cohort, "come on; now then!" Gtn 
"pass repeatedly" S caus. "move along, past", 
rit. a censer, torch; "cause" water, flood "to 
flow over" s.th., s.o., "make" evil signs "pass 
by" 

ba'um II "to come" Mari, Am. G (u); < W.Sem. 

ba'ulatu(m), OB buldtum (jB — > also bahuldtu) 
"people, subjects" OAkk, Bab.(lit.), of human 
population; esp. b. Ellil; < bilu 

ba'ulu "great, important" jB lex.; < ba'dlu 

ba'uru — > bu" uru I 



bayyadu 



42 



belu(m) 



bayyadu mng. unkn. NA 
bayyartu "huntress" jB; < baru I 
bayyaru "huntsman" MA(lit.); < baru I 
bayyasu, also bayyasu "modest, decent" jB; 

< hdsu I 

bayyatu; pi. hayydtdnu "nocturnal offering 

ritual" j/NB(Uruk); < biatum 
baz(a)hatum "military post, outpost" Mari; 

< W.Sem. 

baza'um, hazdhum ~ "to make (unreasonable) 

demands" G OA D OB, Mari, Am. "treat 

harshly; press" person, household for services, 

payment; > bazihtum 
baziharzi (a leather object) MB 
bazihtum ~ "claim, need" OB; < baza'um 
bazltu (an exotic animal) NA, or error for 

pagltu ? (-► pagu I); NA, NB as fPN 
be' alum — ► belu 
be' dru —* beru 
bedum (or be turn) mng. unkn. OB G (Hi) phps. 

"to be slow" D "delay" s.o.; > nabtif 
be'esu(m), ba'dsu, hehesu, bahdsu "to stir" 

Ass., jB G (Hi) D ~ G; > mubessu 
be'esu — ► also ba'dsu 
beheru "to select" NB G (i/i) "choose" animals; 

"levy" troops; < Ararn.; > behiru; hihirtu 
behiru "recruiting officer" NB, as family name; 

< beheru 
beldnum — ► bildnum 

beltu(m), poet, also beletu(m), O/MA, MB, Am., 
Bogh. belatu(m) "lady; mistress, proprietress 
(of)" [NIN; GASAN; EN] 1. goddesses, absol.: 
d B. as DN, esp. NA, NB for Ninlil and 
Sarpanitu in PN; "mistress" of person; of 
heaven, earth, city, temple etc.; d Beltiya NB 

2. OB (human) "owner" of slaves, field; "lady" 
(as respectful address in letters); belet bitim 
"head of the household, housewife"; jB "queen" 

3. "possessor, controller" of abstr. attributes, 
e.g. battle, life, fates, incantations, divination 

4. jB in compounds: as belu 5b. amdti etc.; h. 
ikki (— ► ikku I); b. ridi (— ► ridu I 3); b. serri (— ► 
serru III I ); < belu 

belu(m) I "extinguished" O/jB of brazier, fire, 
torch; < belu II 

belu(m) II, balu "to be extinguished, come to an 
end" O/jB, NA G (Hi) of fire, smoke; of oil- 
bubble "burst"; transf. of life, disease etc. 
Gtn iter., of brazier, torch D "extinguish" fire, 
disease, fever: "stop" quarrel, fight; "destroy" 
people, life etc.; > belu I; baliltu 1 - 

belu(m) "lord; proprietor (of)" [EN; rarely d EN, 
UMUN; MU.LU] 1. gods, absol.; "master" of 



person; of heaven, earth, city, temple etc.; d Bel 
as DN, from MB on esp. = Marduk, also Ellil 
2. of humans, as address to king, to superior; 
"master, owner" of slave, field, house, grain 
etc.; OB b. assatim "husband" 3. "possessor, 
controller" of attributes, e.g. strength, decision, 
divination; OA b. Id ilim of s.o. "without a 
god", jB Id h. Hani; jB h. pdni "nouveau riche, 
parvenu"?; b. hubulli(m) "creditor"; b. niqim 
"owner of the sacrificial lamb, sacrificer"; in 
divine titles "owner" of a tiara, sceptre, 
lightning etc.; "master" of life, destiny, 
decisions, wisdom etc. 4. of one concerned 
with, responsible for s.th., e.g. b. gillati 
"sinner", b. ruhea "my bewitcher", b. diktiya 
"my killer"; jB b. gimilli "recipient of a favour"; 
NB b. misri "neighbour" 5. freq. compounds: 
b. ade "s.o. under an oath" jB; b. dli (also 
dlutu) "ruler of a city" jB, NA; b. awdtim (jB 
amdti) OA, OB, jB "litigant, opposing party (in 
court)", Mari "enemy"; b. birki 'lord of the 
knees', "runner, constable" OB, jB; b. biti 
"tribal chief NB; b. dabdbi "man of (evil) talk, 
enemy" M/NB; b. ddmi - "murderer" Bab., 
NA; h. deqti "honest"? NA; b. dini "opposing 
party" (in court) M/NA, j/NB; b. dumqim 
"friend"? OB; b. egerre 'lord of the formula', 
"sorcerer" jB besides belet e.\ b. emiiqi ~ "the 
powerful, vigorous"; b. hiti "evil-doer, 
criminal" M/NB, NA; b. ilki *• "commissioner 
for iV&M-duties" NA; b. lemutti (OB lumnim) 
"enemy"; b. narkabti "owner of a war-chariot" 
NA(jB) (— ► berkabtu); b. nukurti(m) "enemy" 
OA, NB; b. parsi OB "officeholder", jB "s.o. 
authorized, competent to perform a ritual"; 
O/MB b. pildhdti(m) (MA pdhete) 
"commissioner", M/NA, M/NB "governor"; b. 
piqitti "commissioner" NA, NB (a class of 
temple-officials); b. qasti "tenant, cultivator of 
'bow-land'" NB(Achaem.); b. qdtdte 
"guarantor" NA; b. salami "ally" NA; b. sdlti 
(NA sdsse, also selti) "enemy, (personal) 
opponent" j/NB, NA; b. terti(m) 
"commissioner" OB, jB lex.; b. tereti as divine 
title jB, NA; b. tdbti "benefactor, patron, friend" 
MA(Bogh.), ' j/NB, NA; b.-tdb(t)utu 
"friendship" NB; > belutum, belu ?, beltu 

belu(m), OA be' alum, Ass. also pe'dlu, pelu "to 
rule (over); dispose of G (e; pres. OAkk 
ibe"al; OA pret. also ib' el; ptcp. jB bd'ilu) 
[EN]; "rule over, control" countries; M/NA, 
M/jB "subject to o.'s rule, take possession of; 
jB, NA absol. "rule, be ruler"; stat. "is 
lord/lady" jB, NA; OB "detain" (s.o.); j/NB "be 
in charge of (= ace.)"; OA "be responsible for" 



belutu(m) 



43 



bibbulu(m) 



silver, "lay claim to" s.o. D OB "keep s.o. in 
power" N pass. OB "be detained"; OA "be 
claimed"; <helu denom.?; > bd'ilu; be'uldtum; 
ba'uldtu, bahuldtu 
belutu(m) "rule, domination" Bab., NA [EN- ] h. 
epesu "to rule"; dl b. "city of government"; 

< belu 

bennu(m) I ~ "epilepsy" Bab., NA, also abbr. 

he, hi 
bennu II mng. unkn. jB 
beram adv. "(for) a double hour" OB, Mari; 

< beru III 

beratu, hirdtu pi. tant. ~ "waters, lagoons" jB 

beri(-) — ► biri- 

beris "in hunger, hungrily" jB; < beru I 

herittu — ► hiritu 

beritu I "treaty" Qatna; < W.Sem. 

beritu II (an insect)? jB lex. 

beritu — ► also hiritu II 

berium mng. unkn. OB lex. 

berkabtu "charioteer" NB [LU.EN.GIS.GIGIR]; 

< bel(u) + narkabtu 

berqu, hirqu "lightning (flash)" M/jB, NA 
[NIM.GIR]; also "(symbol of) lightning"; 

< hardqu 
herteli — ► birti 
bertu — > hiritu 

beru(m) I, Ass. hariu "hungry"; of people; 

< beru II; > bens, herutu 

beru(m) II, haru(m) "to be hungry, starve" 
G (ele, OAkk a/a) of humans, animals; of field 
"be starved (of water)"; transf. of silver "be 
unexploited" Gt — ► bitril II Gtn iter. D "starve 
s.o., let s.o. be hungry" S ~ D St — ► bitru II; 
> hem I, beris, herutu; biru IV; bum IV; 
nebritu 

beru I, biru "distant" j/NB, NA of mountains; 

< baru III 

beru(m) II, hiru(m), haleli'rum "selected" 
OAkk, Bab., NA 1. "elite" of soldiers; OA pi. 
(an administrative body)? 2. of objects 
"choice", wool, vegetables, stone, wood etc., 
building site; < beru I 

beru(m) III, biru "double hour, league" 
[danna(=KASKAL.GID)] 1. linear measure: 
"double-hour, mile" (= 1,800 ninda - 10,800 
metres) 2. angular measurement: 7i2 of a circle, 
30 degrees 3. measure of time: "V12 of a day, 
double-hour" only NA, j/NB (after 700 BC); 
NB her umi "last double-hour of a day"; her 
musi "last double-hour of a night"; her ser(t)i ? 
"double-hour in the morning"; > biris II; beram 

beru — ► also biru I-III 



beru(m) I, Ass. he'dru(m) "to choose, select" 
G (e) [BAR] people, textiles, ingredients; jB 
stat., of hair "is thin"; NB in formula lu nashd 
lu herd (whether words of prayer) "are omitted 
or merely selected"; OA "examine, check" seal 
N "be checked, tested"; > hem II; berutum II 

beru II mng. unkn. G (0 jB 

be' rum — ► hem II 

berullum — ► burullum 

berutu(m), hiriitu(m) "hunger, starvation" O/jB; 

< beru I 

berutu(m) I, birutu(m) ~ "mound" OAkk, j/NB 

[SUR7] jB, esp. of corpses after battle 
berutum II (a collegium of officials) OA; 

< beru I 
besdmu — > hasdmu I 
heskdnu — ► hiskdnu 

besu "far apart, distant" O/jB; < hesu 

besu(m) "to go away, withdraw" O/jB, O/MA G 

of living beings, star; transf., of good times; of 

part of liver "fork, produce a bifurcation" N ~ G 

of person "withdraw"; > besu; muhesu 
hetdnu — ► hitdnu 
betdnu — ► hitdnu 
betatu pi. tant. (a decoration used on garments 

and leather objects) Am.; also M/NA (or — ► 

sabattu ?) 
betu — ► bitu 
be'tu (or til'etu) (a commodity) MB, measured 

in gur 
het&m — ► bedum 
be'u (a bird) NA lex. 
be'ulatum, huldtum pi. tant. "funds available, 

working capital" OA, also OB in huldt kisim 

"business capital"; < belu 
hiddu — ► hidtum 

bi'aru "spot on the skin" jB med. 
biatum, M/NB bdtu, Ass. biddu(m) "to spend 

the night, stay overnight" G (i) NB of moon; 

med. of preparation, ointment etc. "stand 

overnight" Gtn iter, of G D NB stat., of moon 

"spends several nights" S OA "have (people 

and animals) spend the night"; Bogh., jB med. 

"let" recipe "stand overnight"; < bitu denom.; 

> bddu; hittu; bayyatu; nuhattu 
bibbu(m) f. (a kind of wild sheep) O/jB, NA 

1. "wild sheep" in mountains; Urar. "(image of) 

wild sheep" 2. "planet, star; comet ?" [ d UDU. 

IDIM; MUL.UDU.IDIM(.GU4.UD)] 3. om., desig. 

of plague 
bibbulu(m), M/jB buhlmbulu O/jB, Bogh. 

1. "flood, spate" 2. "day of the disappearance of 

the moon" [UD.NA.AM; UD.NA.a] (28th or 29th 

of month); < bahdlu 



bibenu 



44 



bira 



bibenu "temple, side of head" jB, left, right; also 
"- "septum of the nose"? 

bibihtu — » bibltu 

bibiltu(m) "carrying off, deportation" O/jB of 
troops etc.; Mari pi. ~ "lies"?; < babdlu 

bibinakku (a bird) jB lex. 

bibi(r)ru(m) (a disease) O/jB med. 

bibltu (or bibittu), bibihtu (a demon or disease) 
JB 

biblu(m); pi. m. & f. "the (action of) bringing; 
things brought" 1. "(marriage) gift, present" 
2. "yield, • produce" of field, mountain 3. of 
river, "high water" [NIG.DE.A] 4. "(state of) 
being removed, invisibility (of the moon)", um 
b. "(day of the) invisibility of the moon"; NA 
pi. bib(i)ldni "(omens concerning) the new 
moon" 5. bibil libbi "heart's desire", b. qdti 
"stealing, theft"; b. pdni DN ~ "reconciliation, 
appeasement"?; < babdlu 

bibru (a bird) M/jB [BIBRA.MUSEN] also 
"figurine (of bird)"; Am., Bogh. "rhyton" in the 
shape of a bird or other animals; < Sum. 

bibu(m) "baby"? Bab., in (f)PNs 

bibu — » biu 

bidalu; pi. bidalum/na "merchant" Ug.; < Ug. 

bldiya "with my (own) hand" NB; < Aram. 

biduqtum "sluice channel" OB; < batdqu 

bidurhu — » budulhu 

bihirtu "levy" j/NB of soldiers; b. beheru "to 
raise a levy"; < beheru 

bi'iltu (a container)^j/NB for oil, ghee; < ba'dsu 

bi'iltu — » also bisu I 

bikitu(m) "weeping, mourning" Bab. [ER]; b. 
sakdnu, b. baku "to perform a mourning-ritual"; 
sa b. "(prof.) mourner" O/jB; jB qan b. - 
"shepherd's pipe"; < baku 

bikru (or pikru) (a bead or sim.) Am., of gold 

bilanum, beldnum adv., alsoina bildni "without 
(s.o.'s) knowledge"? Mari; — » balu 

billatu(m), billetu(m), NB also biltu "mixture" 
1. Bab. (a dry substance used in the preparation 
of beer) [DIDA(=KAS.U.SA); DiDA(=KAS.US. 
SA)]; "- "beer of second quality" 2. MA, MB 
"alloy" of metals 3. OB, Mari "mixing vat" 
4. NB "admixture"; < baldlu 

billu I "(ad)mixture" 1. NA "(component of 
metal) alloy" 2. MA, Nuzi "mixed beer"? 3. jB 
"complexity, intricacy"?; < baldlu 

billu II 1. MB, NB (a plant) 2. jB (a stone) 

billudu — » pelludu 

bilsu(m) mng. unkn. jB; also OAkk as PN ? 

biltu(m), NA bissu, bisu "load; talent; yield; rent; 
tribute" [GO; GUN] l."load", on donkey (also 



du.); as unit, of sticks etc.; OA sa biltim, pi. sa 
W/dft'm"carrier(s), porter(s)"; imer(um) (sa) b. 
"pack-ass"; jB transf. "burden, onus" 2. "talent" 
(as unit of weight = 60 minas; NA also 30 
minas — » qallul); st. abs. bilat "1 talent" 3. ~ 
"yield" of garden, field, land; trees; barley, 
dates, wool and metal 4. ~ "rental payment" on 
field, flock, equipment etc. 5. "tribute" of 
foreign countries; b. mahdru "to receive 
tribute"; b. nasu "to bring tribute"; b. elilina 
muhhi PN sakdnulkunnulemedu "to impose 
tribute on s.o."; < wabdlum 

biltu — » also billatu 

biltu — » bisu I 

bindtu — » binitu 

bingu(r)ru (a kind of roof)? jB lex. 

biniannum ~ "shape, physique" OB; < banu IV 

binitu(m); pi. bindtu, OB binidtum "creation; 
shape, appearance, structure" OAkk, Bab. 
1. "creature" of a god 2. "form, shape" 3. in pi. 
"limbs" [ME.DfM] 4. NB in pi. "creation" of 
river 5. (an abnormal growth) on the body 
[ME.DIM] 6. "egg; fish roe" 7. (wooden beam) 
OAkk(Sum.) of house; jB of boat 8. (an item 
of jewellery); < banu IV 

binna, ibinna "give!" (imper.) j/NB usu. vent. 
binnam(ma); f. (i)binni, (i)binnimma; also + 
dat. pron. suff., e.g. ibinnanndsi "give us!" 

binnu — > binu I 

bintu, bittu(m) "daughter" O/jB, MA; < binu I 

blnu(m) I, binnu "son" OAkk, jB, NA in PNs; 
bin bird "grandson"; jB b. qisse "sprout of a 
cucumber"?; > bintu 

blnu(m)ll "tamarisk" OAkk, OA, O/jB 
[GIS.SINIG] as tree, timber, med., mag. for 
purification; Qatna "tamarisk( -shaped gem)" of 
lapis lazuli etc. 

binutu "creation, creature; product; form" M/NB 
[DU- ] of living beings: binut (qdte) DN 
"creation of (the hands of) DN"; of animals, 
stones b. tamdlti "creatures of the sea"; b. same, 
b. apsi "formed in sky, in apsu"; of wood b. 
Hamdni "grown in the Amanus"; b. age 
'product of the current' (a marine plant); jB 
"form, appearance" of god, of fabrication of 
bow; b. mini "fish roe" jB om.; < banu IV 

biqletu pi. tant. ~ "germinating malt" jB lex.; 
< baqdlu 

biqlum ~ "sapling" Mari, of box tree 

biqnu "(what has been) plucked, pluckings" jB 
of goose; < baqdmu 

bira adv. ~ "(everywhere) in between"? M/NB; 
ana b. "in accordance with, correspondingly; by 
an equal amount"; < biri- 



birbasu 



45 



biriitu 



birahhum — » birihhu 

birdndtu — » birtu I 

biraqdnum — » pirikdnum 

birdtu — » berdtu; birtu I 

birbasu (a plant) jB lex. 

birbirranu ~ 'the sparkler' jB (a kind of lizard); 

< birbirru 

birbirru pi. tant. "radiance; sparkle, flash" Bab. 
of sun, lightning; < bardru; > birbirranu 

birdu "pockmark"? jB med., om.; also phps. 
"pockmarked person"; — » perdum 

birhu mng. unkn. NA 

biri-, biru-, beri(-) "among, between" Bab. 
[DAL.BA.(AN.)NA] with pron. suff., after ina or 
sa; occas. after st. constr.: OB kasap birini "our 
shared silver"; j/NB also after ana, ultu; loc.- 
adv. (ina) biru(m)- OB(Susa), occas. M/jB; 
spatially "between", "(from) among"; of 
bilateral relations "between", MB mdmit birini 
"our mutual oath"; Ug. (ina) beri X u (ina) beri 
Y "between X and Y"; jB(Ass.) as adv. ina 
beri "in between"; < baru I; > biritu I; bird; 
biruyum; OA — » bari- 

birihlju(m), OAkk birahhum - "string, bundle" 
OAkk, O/jB of vegetables etc. 

birimdu — » birimtu 

birimmu (a colourful bird) Bogh. lex.; 

< bardmu I 

birimtu, MB birimdu "sealing" M/jB; 

< bardmu II 

blris I "over, to the other side" M/jB; — » beris 
blris II "for a double-hour"? MB(Ass.); 

< beru III 

bint "between, among" Bab. [DAL.BA.(AN.)NA] 
spatially (inalsa) b.; NA, NB also "within"; NA 
issu b. "from inside" PIN, "from among" 
people; < biritu I st. constr.; — » birti 

bint birit, OB also pirit pirit "mutually" O/jB; 

< biritu I 

birltu(m) I, bilertu, NB also bistu; pi. bireldtu, 
OB biridtum, NB also bardtu "space between, 
distance" [DAL.BA.(AN.)NA] "partition, dividing 
baulk" (between fields); "alley" between 
houses; om. "partition wall" as part of liver; NB 
astr. "elongation, (angular) distance" (freq. 
abbr. bi or be); compounds: b. puridi "area 
between the legs"; b. appi "nasal septum 7 "; b. 
siddi "area between curtains" in shrine; MB b. 
dldni "countryside"; b. ndri(m) "region 

'enclosed by river(s)"; igdr biritim "wall shared 
by two houses"; bit b. "common house"; 

< biri-; > birit, birit birit; OAkk — » baritum 
biritu II, beritu, MA berittu; pi. bileretu "fetter" 

M/jB, M/NA; of bronze, iron; freq. pi., biretu/i 



(parzilli) nadu "to throw s.o. (= ace.) into 

(iron) fetters" 
biriyu — » biruyum 
birkatu error for — » birratu 
birku(m) "knee" Bab. 1. of humans, animals, 

usu. du. 2. "lap"; birkdsu "on his lap", tarbit 

birkeya "raised on my lap" 3. as euph. desig. 

for genitals; also transf. "strength" 4. bel b. 

"runner, henchman"; — » burku; petan birki 
birmu I "multicoloured cloth" M/NA, M/NB 

[GUN]; < bardmu I 
birmu II in birim kunukki "seal impression" 

M/jB; < bardmu II 
birqu — » berqu 
birratu mng. unci, (a disease of the eyes) jB; 

< bardru 

birru "grille, lattice" jB, NA 

birru — » also biru III 

birsu(m) (a luminous phenomenon) O/jB, om. 

"sheen"? of oil; night-time "glow"; < bardsu 
birsu; pi. m. & f. (a coarse fabric, phps.) "felt" 

M/NA, j/NB; NA "(garment of) felt 7 "; 

< bardsu 

birti, berteli, birtu- "between" M/NA, MB; 
spatially "between, within"; "(from) among"; 
NA birtile ene maddudu 'to measure between 
the eyes' = "to make s.th. clear to s.o."; jB lex. 
b. ahi "chest"; — » birit etc. 

birtu(m) I, NB also bistu; pi. NB also birdndtu 
"fort, castle" Bab., NA [NA (URU.)tJAL.SU (-► 
halsu II)]; OB also of citadel in town; NB also 
of area protected by fortified outposts; NA, NB 
rab b. "commander of a fortress"; > birtutu 

birtu(m) II in siddulsindu (u) b. "riffraff' OB 
lex.JB 

birtu — » also biritu; birti 

birtutu "function as fort" jB; < birtu I 

biru — ► biri- 

blru(m) I, beru "divination" [MAS] b. baru "to 
perform divination"; ina b. sakdnu, NA ina b. 
uddu "to determine through divination"; of 
god(s) bel(e) b. "lord(s) of divination"; MB pi. 
f. "oil-divination"?; < baru I 

biru II, beru "bull calf M/NB [GU4.NINDA] 

blru(m) III, beru, NB birru "baulk, ridge" 
between fields, canals OB(Susa), j/NB; — » 
biritu 

biru IV "hunger, thirst" jB; < beru II 

biru — » also beru I-III; biram 

birum — » beru II 

birutu "divination" jB lex.; < baru I 

birdtu — » also berutu 

birutu — » berutu I 



biruyum 

biruyum, jB biriyu, OAkk barium "median" 

OAkk, O/jB; OB of standard measure of 

medium capacity; < hiri- 
bis "then, afterwards" NA 
biskiltu — » baskiltu 
bisru, bisru "leek" jB 
bissatu mng. unkn. jB lex., desig. of door strap 

(ya'u) 
hissu, hisu — » biltu 

bisiltu (a leather container for oil) jB lex. 
bisinnu — » businnu 

bisru I "bag" jB lex., of physician, diviner 
bisru II mng. uncert. jB lex.; < basdru 
bissirtanu — » hissuru 
bissu(m) "droplet" O/jB of oil, tears; < hasdsu; 

— » hisu 
bissuru(m) "female genitals, vulva" [GAL4.LA] 

of human, animal; "vulva( -shaped amulet)", of 

lapis lazuli; b. atdni, bissirtanu [NA4.PES4/SA. 

ANSE] 'jenny-ass vulva' (a type of seashell), as 

ornament, drug 
bisu "(tear) drop"? jB lex.; var. of bissul; 

< hasdsu 
bisbisu "pith" jB lex., inside reed 
bisimtu, hisemtu, bisittu "formation, shape; 

product" j/NB; b. sadi "product(s) of the 
mountains"; b. libitti "formed of brick"; 

< hasdmu II 
bisitu(m) 1. Mari, jB "property, assets" 2.jB in 

bislt uzni "intelligence, wisdom", also used as 
divine title; ina la b. u. "through absence of 
understanding" 3.jB bislt libbi mng. unci., 
phps. "the whole body"; < basu 

biskanu, heskdnu "pupa of a caterpillar" NA 

bisru "small child" jB lex. 

bisru — » also bisru 

bissu, bussu "rue"? j/NB, a garden plant 

bistu — » birltu; birtu I 

blstu — » blsu 1 

bisu — » blsu II 

bisu I, bi'su; f. NB b(i' )iltu "bad; malodorous" 
Bab., of words, actions; objects (e.g. fruit, corn, 
pastry, wool, clothing, soil); < ha'dsu 

bisu(m) II, bisu "possessions, property" O/jB 
(st. constr. hisi, OB also bis; ace. with pron. 
suff. bisasu); < has A 

bi'su — » blsu I 

bit, bite "where; when" [E] 1. conj., M/NA, jB, 
NB(Ass.) (ina) bit "where, whither"; "when"; 
/'.ww b. (temporal) "since", (spatial) "from (the 
place) where"; adi bit "until"; ana bit 
"concerning the fact that"; ina bit . . . ina bit . . . 
"if ... if ..." 2. occas. as prep. MB, NA "at"; 

< bltu st. constr. 



46 bitu(m) 

bitanu, Ass. betdnu "in the house, inside" 
M/NA, M/NB [E- ] of wall, transaction, ration; 
j/NB, NA "interior" of palace, temple, mountain 
valleys; of person, parts of the body; < bltu + 
-dnu; > bltdnu 

bitanu, Ass. betdnu "inner, interior" M/NB, NA; 
of archit. features; NA uzu hltdnltu, uzu bltdnidte 
- "viscera"?; < bltdnu + -I 

bitbitis "from house to house" jB; < bltu 

bite -» hit 

bitiqtu(m); pi. bitqdtu(m) "damage, loss; deficit" 
Ass., OB; in agriculture, trade; < batdqu 

bititu "inside"? jB of house; < bltu 

bitkulla (a kind of meat) NB 

bitqu(m) 1. Bab. "break(age); cutting"; of 
umbilical cord; "opening, sluice" through dam, 
canal bank 2. MA "accusation" 3. M/NB '/8 of 
a shekel 4. NB '/2 of a seah measure, uncert. 
5. NB qem hitqalu (a kind of flour) 6. NA 
"levy" of horses etc.; < batdqu 

bitramu(m) "multicoloured" O/jB; of eyes; of a 
stone, of tortoise(shell), jB lex.; < bardmu I 

bitru mng. uncert. jB med. in prescriptions 

bitru I "enormous, magnificent" j/NB "magni- 
ficent" of sun; "prime quality" of pigs, sheep, 
cattle, fish; "enormous" of heaps of barley; 

< baru I ? 
bitru II "to be continuous, endure" Gt of battle, 

spell St [ZAL(.ZAL)] "persevere, continue", 
"hold out; see s.th. through"; "stay permanently; 
do s.th. (=acc.) permanently"; of activities, 
natural phenomena, star etc. "continue"; jB also 
trans, "provide" harvest, rains etc. "per- 
manently"; ext. "pass all the way through", of a 
hole; > sutehrum; mustahritu; — » heru II 
bitrumu "very colourful" MA, jB; of bird; 
"multicoloured" of yarn; "piebald" of mule; 

< bardmu I 
bittu(m) (a kind of wool) OB ? , jB lex.; < bidtum 
bittu — » also bintu 
bitu(m), Ass. hetu(m) m.; pi. f. bltdtu(m), Ass. 

also m., M/NA betdnu "house" [E; pi. E.MES, 
also E.FJI.a(.MES); OB(Susa) E.A.NI] 
1. "house", leg. b. epsu(m) "built house" 
[OB(Susa) E.DU.A (also for tiitum alone)]; b. 
kisri "house to let" jB; of (nomad's) tent, in pi. 
"encampment" 2. of palace, b. mar sarri 
"palace of the crown prince" NA, NB; rablsa 
muhhi b. "palace supervisor"; b. riduti "house 
of the succession" (= palace of the crown 
prince) Bab., NA; b. kutalli "rear part of house" 
NA for ekal k. (-» ekallu), NB 3. of temple: b. 
lli(m) "temple" Bab., NA; bit DN "temple of 
DN" (— » erib blti) 4. jB, as desig. of "tomb" 



bitiltu 



47 



buhru 



5. b. kunukki(m) "sealed storeroom" O/MB; b. 
nisirti "treasure-house" jB; b. piristi "house of 
secrets" (room in a temple) j/NB; b. makkuri 
"treasure-house" j/NB; b. kare "granary" NB; 
b. ure "shed" for sheep, cattle, also b. alpi; b. 
ruqqi - "shed (for the storage of) pots, vessels" 
M/NB 6. b. klli "prison" M/NB; b. sibitti 
"prison" jB, NA 7. "wing of building, room", 
b. ersi "bedroom" in palace or temple M/NB, 
NA; b, mayydli(m) "bedroom" Mari, jB, 
M/NA; b. simmilti "(well of a) staircase" 
M/NB 8. b. eleppi, b. narkabti "ship's cabin", 
"chariot body"; "container" for weapons, 
liquids, tablets etc.; b. qemi "flour container"; 
NB b. riqql "spice-box"; NB b. nuri "lantern"? 

9. "estate, premises"; NA, NB "plot of land", b. 
narkabtilqasti etc. "chariot/bow etc. fief (— » 
kussu, sisu); jB(Ass.) occas. for asru III 

10. "family, tribe"; "household"; b. abi(m) 
"paternal house, family" O/jB, NA, b. ahutu 
NB 11. Blt-X in names of cities, parts of cities, 
countries 12. freq. compounds: b. dli(m) "City 
House" (as institution) O/MA; b. dulli - 
"workroom", "field under the plough" NB; b. 
maskani "pledge" NB; h. meseri "confinement" 
jB; h. qdti 'house of hand(s)' NA, NB, mng. 
unci; b. rimki "bath-house" j/NB, NA, "bathing 
ritual", b. r. epesu "to perform a bathing ritual"; 
NB h. ritti 'house of the hand' (a kind of state 
or temple fee); b. sinnis(d)ti(m) "women's 
quarters" (in the palace) O/MB; b. sanu 
"outhouse, annexe" M/NA; sa b. sanile 
"lackey"; b. sarri 'house of the king' 
NB(Achaem.) = "royal exchequer"; NA b. 
sarrdni (royal mausoleum); b. sibirri 'house of 
the sceptre' mng. unkn., jB lex., NB; b. tdhti 
"salt desert" NA/jB; b. tuppi(m) 'tablet house' 
= "archive room, school" O/jB [E.DUB.BA(.a)]; 
b. zl/dqlqi 'house of the wind' = "desert", jB; 
> bit; bititu, bltdnu, bitanu; bitbitis; bidtum 

bitiltu - "inactivity"? jB, pi. "derelictions"; 

< batdlu 
bi'u, Ass. blbu; pi. blbu, blbdnu "opening, 

outlet" M/NA, M/NB; b. sa duri "drainage 

opening in wall" 
bizazu "frog"-shaped ornament jB lex.; < Sum. 
bum (or pum) (a bird) OB 
bu — » also bd'um 
budru — » baru III; bu'dru 
bu(')aru(m) - "happiness" Bab.(lit-); < baru III 
buati — » puati 
bubdtu — » buhutu I 
bubbulu — » bibbulu 
bubu(m) 1. (part of an oven) jB/NA lex. 2. (a 

topog. feature) OB 



bubuatu — » bubutu I 

bubulftu, bubuttu — » hubu'tu 

bubutu(m) I, bubdtu(m), MA bubuatu "hunger, 

starvation" [SA.GAR; SU.GU7] of individuals, 

"famine" of land; also "sustenance" 
bubutu(m) II "axle" O/jB, of cart, chariot; OB h. 

ndrim mng. unkn. 
bubu(')tu(m), buhbuhtu, bubuhtu, bubuttu; pi. 

bubu(m)dtu "boil, pustule" O/jB [C1/U4/U.BU. 

BU.UL; BU.BU.UL; U/U4.BU.BU.UL]; -» burbu'tu 
buddarhu — » hudulhu 
buddudu "to waste, dissipate" NA D 
budduru, bunduru, butturu, butturu - "bundle 

of reeds" OB, jB lex. 
budu (a cake)? NA, NB (or read gidde ?) 
budu(m) I, pudu(m), bu' du f. (an implement) 

OAkk, O/jB, of wood, metal 
budu(m) II, pudu(m) f. "shoulder" OAkk, Bab. 

[MURGU] of human beings; ext. "shoulder" of 

parts of liver etc. 
budu(m) III, pudu(m); pi. f. (a festival)? OB, 

Mari 
budu IV, pudu - (a pest)? jB 
budu — » also pudu 
bu' du—* budu I 
buduhum mng. unkn. Mari 
budulhu, bidurhu, buddarhu "(resin from) 

bdellium tree" j/NB 
budurum "profusion"? OB(lit.) in buduri nuni 

"profusion 7 offish" (jB -» puzru 3) 
budussu - "roller" jB lex. (an agricultural 

implement) 
buggum (or puggum) (a bird) OB 
buginnu, buninnu(m), OB also hukinum - 

"bucket, trough" O/jB, esp. rit. for (holy) 

water; "(flour-)chest"; MB (as symbol of Sin); 

<Sum. 
bugurru (or blpuglqurru) (a cut of meat) M/NA 
buhbuhtu — » hubu'tu 
huhhu — » bu"u II 
buhhuru "to heat" jB D a liquid Dtn "keep hot"; 

>hahru, hahrutu, Bahir 1 ; buhru, huhrltu; 

huhratum 1 - 
buhhusu "to check" jB(Ass.) lex. D text; 

< Aram. 

buhlalu (or puhlalu) (an Elam. class of priests) 
JB 

buhratum (an offering) Mari; < buhhuru ? 

buhritu (a hot dish) M/jB med.; < buhru + -I 

buhru "cooked state; cooked food" jB huhra(m) 
"in cooked state, when ready"; (a hot dish made 
with cereals); tdhat h. "cooking salt"?; 

< buhhuru 



bukanu(m) 

bu'itu — ♦ bu'u I 

bukanu(m), bukannu "(wooden) pestle" Bab. 

[GIS.GAN.NA] 1. as tool; O/jB leg. bukdna(m) 

siituqu(m) "to make step over the pestle" 

(symbolic act in sale transaction) 2.jB lex., 

med. (a plant) 3. jB lex. (an insect), usu. isid b. 

'base of a pestle' 
bukasum "duke" O/MB; < Kass. 
buklnum — ♦ buginnu 
bukkatu — ♦ abukkatu 
bukratu — ♦ bukurtu 
bukru(m) "son, child" Bab.(lit.) of gods, 

humans; > bukurtu 
bukum (a bird) OB 
buku (or puku) 1. Qatna (an ornament) 2.jB 

mng. unkn. 
bukurtu, bukratu(m) "daughter" 0/jB(lit.), said 

of goddesses only; < bukru 
bulalu (a plant) jB 
buldtum — ♦ ba'uldtu; be'uldtum 
bulffu — ♦ bulu 

bulili (a species of crested bird) jB lex. 
bulllu — ♦ abulllu 

bulimanu mng. unkn. MB as PN 
bullu I "to throw down, cast away" M/NB 

D hand; work; of fate (simtu) "strike down" 
bullu II subst. ~ "decay"? M/jB; > bullum, 

bullutum 
bullum ~ "putrid"? OB, of blood; < bullu II + -i; 

> bullutum 
bullutum "state of decay"? OB, of land in b. 

aldkum "to go to wrack and ruin"; < bullum 
bultu (a quilt or blanket) Am., Nuzi 
bultu — ♦ bustu 
bulti(t)tu — ♦ bustitum 
bultu(m) "life; cure, healing" [ti(.LA)] 

1. "lifetime" 2. "(state of) life" 3. "subsistence, 

food" 4. "cure" of illness, freq. in pi. "medical 

treatment, prescription" 5. "health(y state)"; 

< baldtu II 
bulu(m), MA buld'u "dry wood, dry reed" Bab., 

MA 
bulu(m) "animals, livestock" Bab., NA; 

[MAS.ANSE] "domestic livestock", NB rab b. 

"overseer of the herds"; jB of wild animals, b. 

seri "animals of the desert", also b. Sakkan 
buluggu — ♦ balangu 
buluhhum -* balufrhu 
bumbulu — ♦ bibbulu 
bundnu — ♦ pundnu 
bunatu "daughter" jB lex.; < bunu I 
bunbullu mng. unkn. jB, NA 
bunduru — ♦ budduru 



48 buqqumu 

buninnu — ♦ buginnu 

bunna, bunni ~ "thanks to"? MB in PNs; 
bunnamma "be so kind as to ..." OB; < banii II 

bunna(n)nu pi. tant. "physiognomy, (facial) 
features" Bab.(lit.) of human, god; jB salam 
b.-ya "likeness of my face"; esp. "(pleasant) 
features" in PNs, NB also fPN Bunnariitu; 
"(representation of) face" in art etc., also 
"image" of a chariot; of gardens b. dlisu "the 
characteristic feature of his city"?; < band II 

bunni — ♦ bunna 

bunnu — ♦ bunu II 

bunnu "beautified" j/NB, of appearance; NB 
(desig. of currency)?; < banu II 

bunnunu (or punnunu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 

buntum "daughter" OA; < bunu I 

bunum — ♦ bunum III 

bunu I "son" jB lex.; > buntum, bunatu 

bunu(m) II, bunnu "goodness"; pi. "face" Bab. 
[DU in PNs only] 1. sg., occas. du. "outward 
appearance" of god, human, tree, day etc., usu. 
"good looks"; "favour, good intentions"; NB b. 
pdni "friendly face", "prominence, distinction"; 
NB b. zed "preferential share" of jointly owned 
land; OB ana b. "in view of 2. pi., occas. du. 
"face" of god, human, b. namrutum "shining 
happy faces"; < band II; — ♦ bunzerru; buppdni- 

bunum III (or bunum) (a bird) OB 

bunzerru - "(fowler's) hide" jB, of reeds; 
transf. "web" of spider; < bunu II + zerru I 

buppanam "face down" Mari, in b. abdkum "to 
turn upside down" 

buppani- "face down, flat on the face" O/jB with 
pron. suff.; b.- saldlulsahdpulmaqdtu "to lie/be 
prostrate/fall on o.'s face"; of bowl ina b.-sa 
"upside down"?; < bunu II + panu I pi.; 
> buppdnis 

buppanis "face down" jB 

buqamu; f. buqamtu "lamb ready for plucking" 
jB; < baqdmu 

buqaqum "little gnat, fly"? OAkk, OB as PN; 

< baqqu dimin.? 
buqarum "cattle" Mari; < W.Sem. 
buqasum "broad(-shouldered)" OAkk, as PN; 

< baqdsu 
buqlu(m), buqulu(m) ; OA pi. f. 1. "malt" Bab., 

OA, Nuzi, Bogh. [MUNU4.g; Nuzi also 
BULUG.MES]; in similes kima b. hasdlulsetu "to 
crush/spread out like malt"; qem b. "malt flour" 
2. OA, NB "vegetables"; > baqdlu 
buqqumu; f. buqquntu "lamb ready for 
plucking" jB lex.; "curly-haired" person OB 
lex.; < baqdmu 



buqquru 



49 



buru(m) II 



buqquru "to inquire into, investigate" NB D; 

< Aram.; — ♦ baqdru 

buqqusum "very broad" OAkk, OB, as PN; 

< baqdsu 
buqrum — ♦ buqurru 
buqulu — ♦ buqlu 

buqumu(m), MA, M/jB also buqunu "plucking" 
O/jB, MA [ZU.SI.GA; SID.SI.GA] as event, 
season, "(sheep) shearing"; bit b. "plucking 
house" [E.ZU.SI.GA]; MA, MB "plucked wool"; 

< baqdmu 
buqurru — ♦ bugurru 

buqurru, puqurru, MA b/puqurrd'u, buqrum; 
MA pi. b/puqurrdnd' u "legal claim" O/jB, MA; 

< baqdru 

burahu ~ "shining"? MB as PN; < bardhu 

burallu (a stone object) NA 

burallum — ♦ also burullum 

buranu — ♦ buru I 

burasu(m), NB also barsu "(species of) 

juniper" [GIS.LI; (GIS.)SIM.LI] "juniper tree" as 

timber; "juniper (resin)"; "(pieces of) juniper 

wood" 
bura urn — ♦ buru I 
burbani mng. unkn. NA 
burbillatu (an insect) NA 
biirbu'tu; pi. burbudtu, OB burbuhdtum 

"bubble" O/jB, Bogh.; — » bubu'tu 
burddtu — ♦ purddtu 
burdi — ♦ burti samhat 
burdu — ♦ purdu 
burgu (or pur git) (a type of offering) j/NB; 

< Sum. 

burhis, burhu ~ "buffalo" MA, Am.; hunted; in 
art 

burkitu — ♦ burkutu 

burku, purku "knee" M/NB, NA 1. du. "knees" 
2. "lap" of gods and kings, also transf. ref. to 
control, protection 3. sa b. "loincloth" 
MB(Alal.), Am., Nuzi; — » birku; meburku 

burkutu, burkitu (or purkiilitu) ~ "(hereditary) 
share" M/NB of fields 

burmahu (a big libation bowl) jB [BUR.MAtf]; 

< Sum.; — ♦ puru I 

burmamu(m) (an animal) OAkk ? , MB, jB lex.; 

< haramu I 

burmu "coloured part)" jB, in b. ini "iris"; 

< bardmu I 
burrdnu — ♦ murrdnu 
burratu mng. unkn. jB 
burrisdnu — ♦ aburrisdnu 
burrum (a kind of cereal) Mari 



burru (a temple servant)? jB lex.; also pi. 
burrutu Bogh., of women; < Sum 

burrumtu (a multicoloured bird) jB; < burrumu 

burrumu, Ass. barrumu(m); f. burrumlntu, NB 
also burrundu "multicoloured, pied, speckled" 
[GUN(.GUN); GUN.A] of cloth, clothes; metal, 
stone; birthmark; tree; bird; animals: horse, dog, 
cow, sheep, goat; < bardmu I 

burruqu, Ass. barruqu "with flashing eyes" 
M/jB, Bogh., NA, of humans; jB of goat; 

< bardqu 

burrusum "bald"? OAkk, OA Barrusum as PN; 

jB lex.; < bardsu 
bursaggu/u(m) (or pursaggu/u(m)) a kind of 

offering) Bab. [BUR.SAG.GA]; < Sum. 
bursallu (a stone bowl) jB lex. 
bursiktu — ♦ bursiktu 
bursindu, bursittu — ♦ pursindu 
bursa adv. mng. unkn. jB; < bardsu ? 
bursatu — ♦ purddtu 
bursimtu, bursimdu (or pur...); pi. also 

bursimetu ~ "pivot-stone box"? j/NB for door- 
post 
bursasillu, bursasillu, bursusallu (or pur...) (a 

stone bowl) jB; also deified as symbol; < Sum. 
bursiktu (or bursiktu, purslsiktu) (a wooden 

implement) jB lex. 
bursusallu — » bursasillu 
bursuzaggu (a stone bowl) jB lex. 
burti samhat, burtalburdi samhat, burti 

sa(n)hat(i), NA also burdi (sahi) "caterpillar" 

jB, NA 
burtu(m) I "cistern, well; fish pond; source (of 

river); hole, pit" Bab. [PU]; < biiru I 
burtu(m) II, NB bustu "cow" Bab.; also as fPN; 

< buru II 

burtu(m) III "proof, attestation" OB in tuppi b. 
"record of attestation"; < bdru III 

buru "son" NA; < Aram. 

buru(m) I, OA burd'um, Nuzi, NB also buru; 
pi. NB also buranu "(reed) mat" Bab., OA 
[GI.KID.(MA.)MAH; GI.KID.MA.SU.A; GI.KID. 

MA.NIGIN.NA] to cover boat; as shelter, in cult; 

for roofing, irrigation dyke; OA (a type of rug) 
buru II (a garden plant) jB lex. 
buru(m) I "cistern, well; pool; pit" Bab., MA; of 

water; also "pit" of white naphtha, bitumen; for 

trapping animals; > burtu I 
buru(m)II "(bull) calf OAkk, O/MA, O/jB 

[(GU4.)AMAR] cow adi b.-sa "with her calf; b. 

sizbi "sucking calf; occas. of young of other 

animals, e.g. ass; as epith. of gods, e.g. Sin, 

Samas; of the king etc., in PNs; > burtu II 



buru(m) HI 



50 



butuqtu(m) 



buru(m) III (a surface measure) "bur" O/jB = 18 

iku (~ 64,800 sq. metres) [BUR(.IKU)]; st. abs. 

bur"\ bur"; < Sum. 
buru(m) IV "hunger" O/jB, NA; < beru II 
buru V (a type of song) jB 
bum VI (a word for sky) jB lex.; < Sum. 
buru — ► also buru I 
buru — » bu'uru I 
burubalum I "ruin, (abandoned) building site" 

OB, Mari, Elam [BUR.BAL]; < Sum. 
burubalum II (desig. of a supernatural snake) 

OB mag. 
buruburu (a children's game) MB 
buruhli — » wuruhli 
burullum, belarullu(m), burallum (ox pur.,.) (a 

commercial police official) OA, OB(N.Mes.), 

MB(AlaL); b. rabum "chief ft." 
burumitu "sky-blue lapis lazuli" jB lex.; 

< burumu 

burummu (a bird) jB; < bardmu I 

burumu, burummu pi. tant. "heaven, sky" 

j/NB(lit.) bdb b. (name of a temple gate in 

Assur); kakkab b. "star of heaven", sitir b. 

"celestial writing" i.e. the stars; < bardmu I; 

> burumitu 
bururanu mng. unkn. NB 
burussu(m) (or purussu(m)); pi. f. "bung, plug" 

O/jB, NA, of a mash tub; OB "plug" of a 

water-outlet; NA "stopper" of waterskin 
buru(t)tum — » puruttum 
burzaggu (a stone bowl) jB lex. 
burzaras, burzarasu (desig. of horses) MB 
burzibandu (kind of vessel) NA 
burziburzi (a leather belt)? jB lex. 
burzidunbarakku (a vessel with a lip or spout) 

jB lex.; < Sum. 
burzigallu "big pursitu vessel" jB [(DUG.) 

BUR.ZI.GAL] for fumigation, incense-burning; 

< Sum. 

burzisilabandu (kind of vessel) jB lex. 

burzisilagallu (kind of vessel) jB lex. 

busarum "announcement" OB; < bussuru 

busratu — » bussurtu 

bussumu I "pleasant"? Bogh. lex.; jB lex. of beer 

bussumu(m) II "to please" OB D 

bussurtu(m), j/NB also busratu, NA passurtu 
"message, report" Bab., M/NA [KA.DU.a] b. 
hade(m)/dumqi(m)/lumnim "glad/good/bad 
tidings"; OB om. b. nurim "message of light"; 

< bussuru 

bussuru(m), NA passuru "to bring, send a 
message" O/jB, NA to s.o. (= ace); "deliver 
(pleasant) news"; "extol" a god; > busarum; 
bussurtu; mubassiru; tabsertum 



busukku (or pusukku) ~ "son" jB lex. 

busallibu, busellibu (a plant) jB lex. 

busasu pi. tant. "trifles" jB; < basdsu 

busellibu — » busallibu 

businnu, businum, OA, Nuzi also bisinnu(m) 
[(GIS.)GI.ZU.LUM(.MA)?] 1. M/jB "mullein, 
Verbascum" 2. OAkk, O/jB, NA "wick" (made 
from Verbascum leaves); NA also "lamp" 
3. }B,NA bit b. "lamp" 

busis "like a b. bird" jB; < busu I 

busu(m) I "hyaena" O/jB, NA; also (a bird) ~ 
"rock partridge"; as PN; > busis 

busu II 1. M/NA, NB "fine linen, byssus" 
2. M/NA, M/jB, Nuzi m. & f., also buzu ? (a 
type of glass); "glass vessel" for oil, salt 

busalu(m) "what has been cooked" 1. OA, jB 
lex. ~ "cooked meat" 2.jB lex. "ripe date"; 

< basdlu 

busanu(m), bu'sdnu 1. O/jB "bad smell" (a 

disease affecting the mouth, nose and skin) 

[KlR4.gAB] 2. Bogh., jB (a plant) lex., med. 

[tj.tf AB]; < ba'dsu 
busiu — » busum 
busiu ~ "ripening" of dates jB; "smelting" of 

ores, "melting" of glass MA, jB; < basdlu 
bussanitu (or pussdnitu) (a star) jB 
bussu — » bissu 
bustu(m), j/NB also bultu "shame" Bab., OA 

"sense of shame, modesty; dignity", ina Id b.-su 

"shamelessly", sa b. Id isu "who has no 

shame"; < basu I 
bustu —* also burtu II 
bustitum, j/NB, NA bu/alti(t)tu "woodworm, 

termite"? Bab., NA [AN.TI.BAL] in granary; eats 

walls 
busum, busii(m), MA busiu "goods, property" 

Bab., MA [NIG.SU; NIG.GAL(.LA)]; OB usu. 

pi.; < basu 
bu'su, busu "stench" jB; also (a stinking plant); 

< ba'dsu 

butinnu (or putinnu) "button" Am., jB lex.; on 

shoe, Am. of stone 
butiqtu "(water-flow from) dam breach" jB, 

NA; < batdqu 
butturu I ~ "with a mutilated leg" MB as name 

of a horse; < butturu II 
butturu II "to mutilate"? jB lex. D; > butturu I; 

mubattiru 
butturu — ► also budduru 
butuqqu(m) "loss(es)" O/jB, in trade etc.; OA 

butuqqd'u pi. tant. "shortfall, deficiency"; 

< batdqu 

butuqtu(m); pi. butuqdtu(m) "breach, cutting" 
Bab. [A.MAg] 1. "breach" in dyke, bank, house; 



butnanu 



51 



bu"uru II 



b. batdqu "to make a breach"; "(water from) 
breach"; transf. ref. to Marduk's word, flow of 
blood 2. "(new) cutting" for channel 3. OA (a 
type of goods) 4. jB "loss(es)"; < batdqu 

butnanu, butundnu (a garden plant) Bogh., 
j/NB, NA; < butnu 

butnatu — ► butumtu 

butnu "terebinth, Pistacia" M/jB, NA as tree, for 

timber; "terebinth (nuts)" (coll.); > butumtu; 

butnanu 

butturu — ► budduru 

butumtu(m), bututtu, butuntu, butnatu 
"terebinth" Bab., NA [GIS.LAM.GAL] as tree, 
wood; nut(s); as flour; < butnu 

butundnu — ► butnanu 

butuntu, bututtu — ► butumtu 

bu"u I "sought for" NB in fPN Bu"ltu; 
<bu"u II 



bu"u(m) II, Bab., Am. occas. buhhu "to look 
for" Bab., M/NA D 1. "seek for" things, 
people; life, friendship etc. 2. j/NB, NA ina qdti 
X b. 'look in X's hands' for s.th. = "call X to 
account" for s.th. 3. M/NA leg. "attempt to 
start" proceedings 4. M/NA "to demand, claim" 
5. Am., Bogh., Ug. "ask for, aspire to"; 
"intend" evil Dtn jB "keep seeking out" 
Dt (NA Dtt) pass, of D; >bu"ul; bd'itu; 
teb'itum; mube'u 1 

bu"uru I, buru, Ass. ba"uru subst. "hunting" 
jB, NA, b. epesu "to go hunting" of king, of 
falcon; "prey", transf. in love lyrics "quarry, 
catch"; < baru I D infin.; — ► mu'uru 

bu"uru II adj. "captured" jB; < bdru I 

buwati — ► puati 

buzu — ► biisu II 2 



D 



da'dbu — » da'dpu 

da'amu(m) I "to be(come) dark, dim" Bab.(lit.) 
G (//;', ulu) [DARA4; MUD] of sun; esp. stat. of 
celestial bodies, eyes, torch etc. "is dark" Gtn 
OB of day "become dark" D "make dark, 
darken"; esp. stat., of celestial bodies, diseased 
parts of body Dt OB pass, of D; >da'mu; 
da'imul; ddmdtu; da'ummatu, da'ummis; 
du'umu, du"umis 

da'amu II, ddmu ~ "to wander about" jB 
G (pres. iddm) D ~ "make to fumble" 

da'anatte "by force" NA; < dandnu I 

da'dnu — » dandnu I. II 

da' ' dnu — > dayydnu 

da'apu, NA also da'dbu "to push (away)" jB, 
NA G (///) "push, knock (against)" part of 
body; "push away" stool etc.; "knock down" 
weapon; NA "push ahead" troops D NA 
"repulse" revolt; "injure by pressure" the nasal 
septum Dt pass, of D "be pushed away" N of 
wall "be knocked over" 

da'dqu — ► damdqu 

da'atu — » di'atum 

da" atu — » dannatu; dannu I 

dabababum "idle talk" OB; < dabdbu II 

dababtu "talk; (faculty of) speech" jB, NA; d. 
su/airdti "false talk"; d. sapti/pt; < dabdbu I 

dababu(m) I "talk" Bab., NA [DUn; NA also 
DUn.DUii] "(idle) speech"; d. kittilkinu 
"honest, straightforward, talk", neg. Id kitte; 
"complaint", leg. "litigation", bel(et) d. 
"adversary (in court)"; jB of inscription on bed, 
content of letter, document; < dabdbu II infin. 

dababu(m) II "to speak, talk" G {ulu) 
[DUn. DUn] 1. "talk" to (=ana), with (=itti) 



s.o.; itti libbisu d. "talk with o.'s heart, 
consider" 2. "speak, tell" truth, lies; "make" 
impudent "remarks" etc.; "declare, make 
statement" in front of s.o.; NA "recite" 
3. "litigate"; j/NB dlnu d. "bring an action" 
(against s.o.); NB itti X d., NA issi X d. "accuse 
X, prosecute X" 4. "plot" s.th. (NA/NB 
inalana muhhi) R Man Gtn "talk repeatedly" 
Rtn Man D "talk much" 1. OB "call on s.o. 
for" (= ana), "because of (= assum) services, 
payments etc.; "call s.o. to account", transf. of 
disease 2. "complain" 3. Bogh. for S "cause to 
speak" 4. jB "talk nonsense" DR Man Dt "be 
called on"; "be claimed" S "make s.o. speak, 
talk"; jB rit. "make s.o. say" prayer etc.; leg. 
"make s.o. declare", "make s.o. litigate"; "stir 
up, incite to gossip" etc.; "make" woman 
"compliant" St NB "be made to speak"; 
> dabdbu I, dababtu, dabababum; dabubum; 
dibbu, dibbatum; ddbibu, dabbibu; dubbubis, 
dubbubtum; musadbibu, musadbibutu 

dabaru I mng. unkn. jB G lex. only; > dabru 1 -; 

mundabru 1 
dabaru II subst. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

dabasinnu(m), tubasinnu (a leather object) 

OAkk, Bab., Bogh. 
dabatum — > tapatum 
dabbanu (a drug)? jB med. 
dabbibu; f. dabbibtu(m) "slanderer" O/jB; jB 

also "garrulous"; NB in PNs; < dabdbu II 
dabbu 1. NB ~ "bolt, pin"? in house construction 

2. jB lex. "bear" 
dabdu(m), dubdil, Man etc. daw(a)dum "defeat, 

bloodshed" O/jB [bad.bad; BAD5.BAD5 (-► 



dabibu 



53 



daku(m) 



abiktu)] d. ddkulmahdsulsakdnu "to inflict a 
defeat" 
dabibu "(legal) advocate"? M/NB in PN; 

< dabdbu II 

dabiru (a leather object) jB lex. 

dabitu, dabium — » dabu 

dabnu (or tldaplbnu) mng. unkn. NB 

dabru(m) ~ "aggressive" 0/jB(poet.) of person, 
storm; < dabaru I ? 

dabtu (a slab used in glass-making) jB 

dabu, OAkk dabium; f. dabitufm) "bear" OAkk, 
Bab.; also as (f)PN; > dabuis 

dabubum "conversation" OB; < dabdbu II 

dabuis "like a bear" jB; < dabu 

dada (a spiny plant) jB lex. 

dadanu (a spiny plant) jB [GlS.KlSli6-BAB ?] 

dadanu, diaddnii, jB also dadddnu pi. tant. 
"tendon of the neck" O/jB 

dadddmu — » damddmu 

dadddnu — > dadanu 

daddaris "like centaury 7 " jB; < daddaru 

daddaru(m), daddiru (a foetid plant, phps.) 
"centaury" Bab. 

daddu(m); pi. f. ~ "sole" O/jB of shoe 

daddu — > also dddu 

dadmu pi. tant. "villages, settlements; the 
inhabited world" Bab.(lit.) 

dadu(m), M/NB also daddu 1. "darling, 
favourite" of lover, father, son 2. also pi. 
"sexual attractiveness" of male, female 3. (a 
fish) [AB.KU6] as food 

dagalu(m) "to see, look" G (a/u) 1. "look, (be 
able to) see", Id dagdl mi "blindness" 2. Bogh. 
"experience" 3. stat. NB "has at his disposal, 
owns" 4. OA "look upon (as security), reserve 
to o.s." 5. "wait" 6. "obey" 7. NA ene X d. 
'"look at s.o.'s eyes', attend to s.o." S.pdn(i) X 
d. "await" s.o.; "obey" s.o.; Am. "show 
reverence"; pan X d. NA, NB of property 
"belong to s.o." 9. ana pan X d. "wait for X" 
Gtn iter, of G of eyes "look repeatedly"; "aim" 
a bow "repeatedly"; pan X d. "constantly obey" 
Gt "belong to henceforth" S caus. of G "make 
see, look", esp. in pdn(i) X s. "cause to wait for; 
make subject to"; NA (inalana p.) s. "hand 
over, transfer ownership of s.th. to s.o.; put 
under s.o.'s command"; "entrust" with a task 
N in jB ana X iddagil "attention was on X"; 
> diglu; dagiltu; ddgilu; madgaltu, madgalu; 
musadgilannu; sudugultu 

dagaru N jB mng. unci. 

dagiltu "observation" jB in sa d. "observer, spy"; 

< dagdlu 



dagilu "one who sees" 1. adj. of eyes "seeing", 
of man "sighted" 2. in d. issur(dt)e "augur, 
bird-watcher"; < dagdlu 

dahru ~ "angry" jB lex. 

dahu I "beaten"? MA, desig. of textile; < dahu II 

dahu(m) II, dehu "to beat, press down"? O/jB, 
NA G OB, NA "push s.o. on"; stat. of part of 
exta "is depressed"? Ntn of kidneys "be always 
compressed"?; > dahu I, dehu, dehutu; dihu 1 

da'ikanu(m) "murderer" Bab., MA; <dd'iku + 
-an 

da'iku(m), dayyiku; f. dayyiktu "killer; murderer" 
OA, O/jB; OB also "murderous"; jB lex. as 
desig. of abortifacient stone = aban Id alddi; 
<ddku 

da'imu I "gloom" jB lex.; < da'amu I 

da'imu II ~ "lance" jB lex.; — > id'umu 

dd'inutu — ► dayydnutu 

da'iqtu —* damqu 

da'isu(m) "thresher" O/jB desig. of worker, ox; 

< didsum 

dakaku I "to crush" jB G lex. only D "crush, 
grind up" drugs, in mortar; > dakkukutum; 
madakku 

dakaku(m) II ~ "to gambol, scamper" O/jB 
G (ulu) of lamb, donkey etc.; of child 

dakamu ~ "to bow down" jB G lex. 
D "prostrate" s.o., of disease ? lex. 

dakasu(m) *• "to press in" O/jB G (a/u) om. of 
parts of body, stat. "are depressed"; JB med. 
"press on" s.o.; OB math, "press out, enlarge" 
geometrical figure Gt stat. tidkus(at) "is 
pressed" OB of liver D ~ G of disease ? lex. 
only; > daksu; diksu, dikistum 

dakiru ~ "tree" jB lex. 

dakkannu(m) "doorway"? O/jB [KI.GISGAL]; 

< Sum. 
dakkassu — ► takkassu 

dakkukutum (an edible commodity) OAkk(Ur 
III); < dakaku I 

daksu ~ "pressed down" jB; < dakdsu 

dakum (a kind of accommodation)? OB 

dakii — ► also deku II 

daku(m), Ass. dudku(m) "to kill; beat" G (u) 
[GAZ] 1. "kill" person; jB/NA "fight" (-► Gt) 
2. "beat" as punishment; "defeat" enemy, city in 
battle (— > dabdu); of disease and sim. "strike"; 
infin. bel(et) d. "tormentor", of sorcerer 3. OA 
"break (and so invalidate)" tablet 4. "strike 
down" mountain; "kill" part of date palm by 
pruning Gt jB/NA "fight with each other", stat. 
pi. tiduku S O/jB "make s.o. kill s.o." N [GAZ] 
pass, "be killed"; diktu idddk "a massacre will 



dalahu(m) 



54 



damaqu(m) 



take place"; >dd'iku, dd'ikdnu; dikul; diktu; 
madaktu; tiduku 

dakutu — ► dikutu 

dalabdnu — ► dalbdnu 

daldbu — ► daldpu 

dalahu(m) "to disturb, stir up" Bab., OA, NA 
G (a/u) [LU] "muddy" water, "blur" eyes(ight); 
"disturb, trouble" people, land; "disturb, worry" 
heart, mind; "embarrass, interfere with" s.o.; 
stat., of omens "are confused, obscure" D ~ G 
"disturb, trouble" people, water; of face "be 
blurred" with (= ace.) tears; lex., Am. "hurry" 
S jB "cause disturbance" N [LU] pass, "be made 
turbid"; "be stirred up"; OB of fields "get mixed 
up" Ntn [LU.LU] iter, of N; > dalhu; dilhu, 
dilihtu, dulluhtu; dulluhis; duluhhd; dulhdnu; 
dalhdnis; mudallihu 

dalalu I "to be small, wretched" O/jB G OB stat. 
of part of liver "is stunted" D "oppress" s.o.; 
> dallu, dallalu 1 , dalllu II ? ; dullu*; dullulu 

dalalu(m) II "to praise" G (a/u) absol. "sing 
praise"; "praise" god, dalililtanattiltanitti DN d. 
"sing praises of DN"; jB qurud DN d. "praise 
valour of DN" S caus. of G Bogh.; > dalllu I; 
tadlultum 

dalamu (or dalamu) (a desig. of the 
underworld)? jB lex. 

dalapis (or dalapis), dallapis adv. "awake" jB; 
< daldpu 

dalapu(m), NA daldbu "to stir up; be sleepless" 
Bab., NA G (Hi) 1. trans, "stir up, keep awake" 
2. intrans. jB/NA "stay awake"; stat. of god, 
human "is sleepless"; astr. "linger on" Gtn jB 
intrans. "stay awake all night; be always 
sleepless" D jB of enemy "disturb, harass" 
Dtn iter, of D S j/NB, NA "stir up" N "become 
restless"; > dalpu, dalpis; dulpu; dalapis; 
diliptu; dullupu; sudlupu 

dal(a)qum mng. unkn. OB as PN 

dalbanu(m), dulbdnu, NB also dalabanu; pi. f. 
"intervening space" Bab.; Susa, math.; M/NB 
"passageway", also bit d.; < Sum. 

dalhanis "into a distracted state" jB with ewum 
S; < dalhu 

dalhu "troubled, disturbed" j/NB, NA [LU] 
"cloudy" of water, beer; "obscure, confused" of 
illness, omen; of land, people "unstable, 
chaotic"; f. dalihtu as subst. sg. & pi. 
"disturbance, (political) troubles"; < daldhu 

dalTlu(m) I, M/NA dililu, usu. in pi. "praise" 
Bab., M/NA [KA.TAR] d. DN dalalu "to praise 
DN"; jB/NA ana dalili "to sing" the king's 
"praises"; also as PN; < dalalu II 



dalllu II 'poor creature' (a type of frog)? jB; 

< dalalu I ? 
dallqdtu — ► dullqatu 

dalitum "bucket" O A, for drawing water; < ddlu 
dallalu 'poor creature' (a type of frog)? jB; 

< dalalu I ? 
dallapis — ► dalapis 

dallu(m) "small, stunted" O/jB, NA of humans, 
as PN; OB of grain; < dalalu I 

dallu — ► also dalu I 

dalluqu — ► dulluqum 

dalmdhu — ► talmdhu 

dalpis "restlessly" jB; < dalpu 

dalpu "sleepless, restless; watchful" jB, of 
person; f. daliptu occas. = diliptu "restless- 
ness", also pi.; lex. (desig. of gold); < daldpu; 
— ► dalapis 

daltu(m) f. "door" [GlS/GI.IG] d. samelerseti 
cosmic "door of heaven/underworld"; OB ext. 
(feature on breast of foetus); — ► edelu 

dalu(m) I, ddlu, dallu "bucket" Bab., NA for 
drawing water, of bronze; NB bit d. "land 
irrigated by bucket", opp. of bit me; < dalii II 

dalu II "to draw" water "with bucket" G (ulu) 
[BAL], NB also "irrigate" field "with buckets"; 

> dalu I, dalutum; dalu, dalitum, ddlutu; dilum, 
dilutu I.II; dulu; madid' um; — ► dullu 

dalu III (a needle or pin) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ddlu — » dalu I 

dalu "water drawer" M/NB [LU.A.BAL] as 
occupation; also 'dipper' (a bird); < dalii II; 

> dalitum, ddlutu 

dalu(m), Ass. dudlu "to move, roam around" 
O/jB, NA G (it) "walk, run around" of human, 
demon, fox, dog, NA of boat; NA "be active in 
service"; "prowl" of ghosts, demons D "dis- 
turb, disrupt" s.o. S Mari "make s.o. run 
around"; > dayydlu I, dayyaltu, dayydlitu 

dalutum; pi. ddluwdtum "bucket-irrigated field" 
Mari; < dalii II 

dalutu "function of a water drawer" NB; < dalii 

damamis "into (a place of) lamentation" OB; 

< damdmu 

damamu(m) "to wail, moan" OA, 0/jB(lit.) 
G (ulu) of person; of animal "howl"; "creak, 
rustle" of reed-bed, house, bricks Gtn (a/a, 
ulu) "moan, howl persistently" of person, 
animal (or Ntn ?) S caus. of G "make" people 
"wail", pigeons "coo" N ~ G, OB Ntn — > 
Gtn ?; > damamis; dimmu, dimmatu; 
dumdmu II 

damaqu(m), NA also *da'dqu "to be(come) 
good" G (('/('; NA stat. de'iq, deq) [SIG5; stat. 



damasu 



55 



dananu(m) II 



also AL.SAg] 1. absol. of person, god, object, 
part of body; of proceedings etc. 2. Mari "be 
friendly" 3. of person, household "prosper, 
have success, have good luck"; om. "be 
propitious" [also KAL] 4. analelilina mahri-l 
ina pan X d. "be pleasing to" s.o. D [SIG5] 
1. "improve s.th. in quality, embellish, beautify, 
polish" 2. "carry out" proceedings, work etc. 
"well, properly"; of deity "make" s.o.'s dreams, 
fate "pleasant"; "make" prayer "acceptable" 
3. NA in hendiad., e.g. dammiqd epsd "do it 
well!" 4. "do good, do a favour" to (= OB ana, 
jB ace.) s.o.; OA, OB "supply, loan" s.th. "as a 
favour (tadmiqtum)" 5. Bogh. "approve (of)" 
Dtn OB "continually make good" S jB "make" 
omen etc. "propitious"; > damqu, damqam- 
inam; damqatu; damqis; dumqu, dumuqtum, 
dumuqqu; dumdqu; dummuqu, dummuqtum; 
mudammiqu, mudammiqatu; tadmiqu, 
tadmiqtum 
damasu ~ "to humble o.s." jB G (ulu) "prostrate 

o.s." Gt ~ G; > damsum 
damasu ~ "to wipe"? jB lex.; > dumsu 
damatu, da'mdtu pi. tant. (a dark-yellow paste) 
jB, NA' ? [IM.SIG7.SIG7] in medical, glazing 
recipes; in foundation deposit; on clay figurine; 

< da'mu 

damdamu, damdammu, dadddmu (a kind of 

mule) O/jB [AN$E.NUN.NA] 
damgdru — ► tamkdru 
damgiru mng. unkn. jB in binut d. 
damiqtu — ► damqu 
damkdru — ► tamkdru 
dammuqu — » dummuqu 
damqam-inam, daqqam-inam, damqa-ini 

'good eye' jB desig. of ocular defect; < damqu 

+ inu I 
damqatu (a plant) jB lex.; < damdqu 
damqis "well; kindly" Bab., OA [SIG5]; 

< damqu 

damqu(m), NA also danqu, daqqu; f. damileqtu, 
MA da'iqtu, NA deqtu "good" [SIG5] 1. adj. of 
animal, goods, object "of good quality"; morally 
"good" of person; physically "handsome, 
beautiful"; "capable, qualified" of soldiers etc.; 
"good, favourable" name, words, deed, price, 
omen, message; "kind" of deity, eyes, hands; 
Mari, MB(Alal.), Am., Bogh. "notable, well- 
to-do" 2. M/NA, NB (mar) damqi [A/DUMU. 
SIG/SIG5] (a kind of soldier)? 3. f. damiqtu(m) 
as subst., sg. & pi. [SIG5- ; MUNUS.SIG5] "good 
fortune": with qabu etc. "to speak well on 
behalf of, intercede for" s.o.; jB amdt d. "good 



word"; with epesu "to do a good deed, a 
kindness"; < damdqu; > damqis, damqam- 
inam 

damsum, dahsum "humble" OB; < damasu 

damsillu (a kind of cucumber)? jB as name of 
one or more plants 

damtum I, tamtu O/jB mng. unci.; Mari phps. 
"blood, lineage"; < ddmu ? 

damtu II, dattu ~ "form, shape"? jB lex. 

damu — ► dawiim 

damu(m) "blood" [US] 1. liter, sg. & pi.; jB, NA 
tdbik d. "shedder of blood"; (aban) dame 
[NA4.OS] 'blood-stone' (name of a stone) 
2. transf. bel d. "murderer"; pi. "bloodshed; 
bloodguilt"; OA pi. "blood-money" 3. jB pi. 
"blood" = "lineage" 4. lex. "red wine" 
5. ddm(u) ereni(m) 'cedar-blood' = "cedar 
resin" as aromatic; > damtum V; — ► hiliddmu 

damu — ► also da'mu 

damu — ► da'dmu II 

da'mu(m), ddmu "dark" O/jB [MUD; DARA4] 
blood, weather, lex. "dark (paste)"; f. pi., lex. 
"dark wool"; < da'dmu I; > damatu 

dananis "by force" jB; < dandnu I 

dananu(m) I, M/NA da'dnu "power, strength" 
O/jB, M/NA [KALAG] of god, king, enemy; ina 
d. "by force"; "severity" of cold weather; ext. ~ 
'reinforcement' (part of liver); < dandnu II 
infin.; > dananis; da'dnatte 

dananu(m) II, M/NA da'dnu "to be(come) 
strong" G (('//) [KALAG(.GA)] liter, and transf., 
of god, king, person, animal etc.; of city, 
weapon, watch, reed, part of liver, "be heavy" 
of injury, disease, debt, NB deficit; "be hard, 
severe" of terrain, road, weather, work; transf. 
"pressurize" s.o. (=dat.), of words "be tough, 
threatening"; O A of silver, cloth etc. "be hard to 
come by"; with pdnu of attitude "become hard, 
harden" D "make strong; reinforce" person, 
building, fortress; parts of body, esp. liver, 
guard, watch; shouting, grief, fire, treaty, 
bondage; NA/jB "increase" tribute; jB "assign 
permanently, bequeath s.th. to s.o."; OAkk, OB 
"make" work "solid"; "make" words, letter 
"tough, threatening"; OB pdni- d. "harden o.'s 
attitude" Dt pass, "be reinforced, strengthened" 
R (udanannin) of part of liver "be of even 
thickness" Rt (uddanannin) "match o.'s 
strength"; > dannu I, II ? , dannatu, iddanna 1 -, 
dannutu, dannis, dannisam, adannis; 
da'dnatte; dandnu I, dananis; dandannu, 
dandanniitu; dunnu, dunndnu 1 -; dunnunu, 
dunnunis, dunnuttu 1 -; madnanu; tadnintum 



clandannu 



56 



darakum II 



dandannu, NB also dannudannu "all-powerful" 
M/NB, NA(lit.) as divine, royal title; 
< dananu II 

dandannutu "all-powerfulness" jB; < dandannu 

danene —* dannina 

danistum (a type of service obligation)? OB 

danitu (or dannitu ?) (a battle garment) jB lex. 

*danna -* iddanna 

dannatu(in), NA also da"atu [BAD4; MUNUS. 
KALAG.GA] 1. "fortified (place), fortress" [NA 
E.KALAG] 2. "foundation, building site" 3. Ass. 
"firm, binding (agreement)", also pi.; NA of 
conveyance document 4. "distress, famine, 
difficulty" 5. d. sattim "hard time of year", d. 
kussimlummatim "depth of winter/height of 
summer" 6. also pi. "strict (command), firm 
(order)", "threatening, harsh (words)" 7. (a 
mark on the exta) 8. (part of the construction of 
a window); < dannu I; -♦ iddanna 

dannina/u, danene "nether world" O/jB 

dannis "very; severely"; < dannu I; -♦ adannis 

dannisam "very much" OA; < dannu I 

dannitu -* danitu 

dannu(m) I; NA f. also da" atu "strong, 
powerful, mighty, great" [KALAG(.GA)] of god, 
king, people, country; animal; of city, fortress, 
building, building material, implement, weapon, 
cloth; of mountain; "firm" of statement, 
command; OA tuppum dannum, MA dannutu 
"binding document"; "strong" of oath; "urgent" 
of business, message; "hard, difficult, severe" 
of terrain, weather, disease, distress, onslaught; 
"high" of prices; NA "big"; < dananu II; 
> adannis, dannis, dannisam, dannatu, 
dannutu; -* d. II 

dannu II; pi. NB dannutu, NA danndni "(large) 
vat, barrel" j/NB, NA; for bread, spices, dates, 
beer etc., usu. wr. du Sd.; d. kaspi "silver barrel" 
in cult; < d. I ? 

dannudannu -* dandannu 

dannutu(m) "strength, power" Ass., O/jB 
[KALAG- ; NAM.KALA(.GA)] 1. divine "power", 
human "strength" 2. "fortress", also dl d. 
"fortified city" 3. OA "strong, harsh 
(statement)"; < dannu I 

danqu —* damqu 

dansum —* damsum 

danu(m) mng. unci. OA, jB G {Hi) jB of house 
"to be of inferior quality"?; OA "disparage 
(without reason)"?; > dunndtu; dund'ii 

ddni — ► dinanu 

danu —* didnum 



dapanu(m) ~ "to bear down on violently, hurtle 
towards" 0/jB(poet.), jB lex. G (alu) of 
chariot; transf. of deity; > dapnu, dapnis; 
dapinu, dappdnu, dappinu 

dapardnum -* daprdnu 

dapdru -* duppuru I; tapdru 

dapatum -* tapatum 

dapdappum -* taptappum 

dapinu(m) "overbearing, savage" Bab., NA(lit.) 
epith. of god, king, lion etc.; astr. = Jupiter, also 
Procyon [ d / mul UD.AL.TAR]; < dapanu 

dapi'u (or tdpi'u) (a container) NA, of silver 

dapnis "aggressively" O/jB; < dapnu 

dapnu(m) "aggressive" M/jB(lit.) of god, 
enemy; battle; < dapanu; > dapnis 

dapnu —* tahnu 

dappanu "warlike, martial" M/jB(lit.); < dapanu 

dappastu -* tappastu 

dappinnum -* tappinnu 

dappinu "very warlike" jB lex.; < dapanu 

dappu(m) 1. OB d. sa ddmim "blood clot"? 
2. jB astr. mng. unkn. 

dappu —* also adappu 

dappurtum "absence" OA in d. rasumlis&m "to 
be(come) absent, default"; < duppuru I 

dapranu(m), OB also dapardnum, duprdnu 
"juniper" Bab., NA as timber; as drug; saman 
d. "juniper oil"; jB qem d. "juniper flour" 

daqaqu "to be minute, fine" G not attested 
D "crush minutely" enemy, wall; like potsherds; 

> daqqu; diqqum, daqqiqu, daqqaqu, 
daqqaqita; duqdqu; duqququ; diqdiqqu 

daqasu(m) "to bend down" G (u/u) OB; (Hi) jB, 

of person 
daqqam-inam —* damqam-inam 
daqqaqita adv.? "tinily"; < daqqaqu 
daqqaqu in pi. daqqaqutu "tiny ones" jB lex.; 

< daqaqu; > daqqaqita 

daqqiqu "very tiny" jB lex.; < daqaqu 
daqqu(m) "minute, fine" OAkk, O/jB of person 

in PN; of corn, stone, metal "pulverized"; f. pi. 

"small amounts left over" of silver, food OB; 

< daqaqu 
dar —* dardru II 
ddr -* ddru I 

dara, MB(Alal.) ddria "for ever" M/jB; < ddru 

daraggu "way, track" jB 

dardgum -* darakum II 

daraku I "to follow"? G not attested D lex. only; 

> darku 

darakum II (or dardg/qum) - "to pack up" OA, 
textiles 



daraku III 



57 



das 'urn 



daraku III D "to thresh" NA; < Aram.; 
> mudarriktu 

daranu (a plant) jB lex. 

daranu "for ever" jB lex.; < dara + -dnu 

dardqum —* darakum II 

dararu(m) I ~ "to move freely" O/jB G lex. only 
N (nadarruru) of pig "roam free"; OB of silver 
"become free" of debts; of gods "run together, 
converge"; > andurdru; sudardru* 

dararu II "to intercalate" a month NA G (alu; 
stat. ddr); < diru denom.; -♦ deru 

dardru —* also andurdru 

darasu(m), Bogh. dardsu "to trample; push 
back" Bab., NA G (Hi) people; OB "repulse"; 
"trample back, clear"? reeds; O/jB of parts of 
liver "press down"? Gt jB "push each other 
away" D OB "push away, repudiate" wife 
N "be pushed aside"; > darsu; dirsum 

darasum I "to try"? OB G (Hi) 

darasu II mng. unkn. jB lex. G of wound 

dardsu —* also dardsu 

ddrdtu —* ddritu 2 

dardarah, tartarah - "buckle"? MB, of gold, 
copper etc.; on shoe 

dargis ~ "couch" NB of wood 
( dargu "stair" NB in bit d. "staircase"; < Aram. 

ddria —* dara 

ddridta, ddridtis, ddridtum — ♦ ddritu 2 

darikum —* darku 

dariku; pi. darikdnu "pressed dates" NB; 

< Aram. 

daris "for ever" Bab., NA; also ana d., ad-d.; 
Am., Bogh., Ug. adi d.; OB d. umim/umi; 

< ddru I 

darisam "for ever" jB(roy. inscr.); < ddru I 
daritu(in) "perpetuity, eternity" Bab., NA 1. sg. 

OB(Susa), Mari ana d. "for ever"; Am., Bogh. 

istulultu d. "from time immemorial", adi d. "for 

all time" 2. freq, pi. subat d. "eternal abode"; 

kudurri d. "eternal boundary"; OB ana d. "for 

ever"; Am. adi ddridta, jB sa ddrdti "for ever"; 

OB ddridtis umi "for ever"; jB ana ddrdt sandti 

"for all years"; < ddru 
dariu —* darrum 
ddriu — ♦ ddru 
darku, derku, OB also darikum "following, 

later" OAkk, OB as PN, also fPN Darkatum; 

Bab.(lit.) nise darkdti "later people", also f. pi. 

as subst. "successors, posterity"; < daraku I 
darkullu —* tarkullu 
darrum. M/NA dariu; MA pi. f. "sacrificial 

sheep" OB(Susa), M/NA [UDU.SIZKUR.ME5] 

M/NA d. epdsu "to sacrifice a sheep"; < Sum. 



darsu "deposed" M/NA of gods; < dardsu 

daru(m) "to last (for ever)" OAkk, O/MB, NA, 
stat. only; in PNs of person; OB lu daridta/i 
"may you live for ever"; NA adi . . . daruni "as 
long as" (heaven and earth) "last"; > ddru I, 
daris, darisam; ddru, dara, daranu, ddritu, 
ddriitu, ddrutas; diiru II, duris 

daru —* also deru 

daru(m) I "era; eternity" OAkk, Bab., NA; 
OAkk, OB only st. abs., OAkk istum ddr 
"from time immemorial", OB analad-ddr "for 
ever", MB an ddr; j/NB ana (umi) ddri "for 
ever"; Ug. ana ddri duri "for ever and ever"; 

< daru; > daris, darisam; -* duru II 
daruni II - "lifetime, 60 years"? OB; < W.Sem.? 
ddru —* also dune I 

daru(m), ddriu(m) "lasting, eternal" Bab., NA 
[DA.RI] of gods, royal offspring; of life, 
kingship, days, years, protection, good deeds 
etc.; of foundation, temple, wood etc.; < daru; 
> dara, daranu, ddritu, ddriitu, ddrutas 

daruba (an animal) jB (or scribal error ?) 

darutas "for ever" jB; < ddru 

darutu "long lasting life" NA; < ddru 

dastu ~ "treachery, disrespect" M/jB; esp. pi., as 
omen interpretation; < ddsu 

dasu(m) "to treat unjustly, with disrespect" O/jB 
G (d) "pressurize"; jB ptcp. dayyis amdtiya 
"that treats my words with disrespect" D -♦ 
mudissum; > dastu 

dasannu (an item of jewellery) NA, NB of 
silver 

dasapu(m) "to be sweet" O/jB G lex. only, of 
honey (dispu), dates D "make sweet"; stat. 
transf. of song, sexual charms "are very sweet"; 

< dispu denom.; > daspu; dussupu 
dasari "(a type of) palace" NB; < OPers. 
ddsdtu -* desu 

dasgarinnum —* taskarinnu 

dasnu(m) ~ "mighty" O/jB 

daspu(m) "(honey-)sweet" Bab.; of beer, fruit; 
of person, also as PN; < dasdpu 

da(s)siya (a functionary) NB 

dassu(m), tassu "buck; ram" OAkk, Bab., 
M/NA, Nuzi [MAS.GAL] 1. "buck" male of 
gazelle, goat, also "ram" of sheep 2. pi. f. (a 
metal fitment with a leather strap?), on 
furniture etc.; -♦ masgallu 

ddsu —* desu 

ddsu -* didsum 

das'um "spring" OA, as time of year; -♦ disu II 

ddsiis — ♦ iddsus 



dat 



dat, ddti, ddtu- "behind, after; then" NA in comb, 
with ina, ana 1. as prep, spatially: "behind", 
idddtukka "behind you", idddt sarri "behind the 
king": occas. adddt 2. temporally: "after", 
idddtussu "after him", idddt anni "after this", 
also adddt; as conj. ina dat sa . . . taspuranni 
"after... you wrote to me" 3. adv. idddti/e 
"afterwards" 

databarra "legal expert" NB; < OPers.; — ► ddtu 

ddti — » dat 

datnu ~ "warlike" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 

dattu — » damtu II 

datum "member" of a family ? OB 

datu "law, decree" NB; < OPers.; — » databarra 

ddtu(m) — » also di'atum; tdtu 

ddtu — ► dat 

da'tu (part of a plough) jB lex. 

da'u (or ta'u) adj. mng. unkn. jB 

da'udu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

da'ummatu(m) "gloom, darkness" 0/jB(lit.) as 
natural phenomenon; med., mag. of physical 
condition; < da'dmu I 

da'ummis "in pitch dark" jB, also astr. [DAR4- 
mes\; < da'dmu I 

da'umtu (a cup) jB lex. 

daw(a)dum — » dabdu 

dawum, jB damu "to jerk; convulse" O/jB 
G (u/u) of person; of limb "jerk", of eyes 
"move in uncoordinated manner" Gtn iter., of 
body; > dawum, dimitu; — » tawum 

dawum ~ "convulsive"? OB lex.; < dawum 

dayyalitu f. "prowling" of witch jB; < dayyalu I 
+ -1 

dayyaltu ~ "(hunting) foray" NA; < ddlu 

dayyalu I 1. jB "prowling" of dog 2. NA ~ 
"scout", rab d. "scout commander" 3. jB lex. 
(desig. of gold); < ddlu; > dayyalitu 

dayyalu II "servant" NB; < Aram. 

dayyantu, MB also diyantu "(female) judge" 
[MUNUS.DI.KUD- ] M/jB, epith. of goddesses; 

< dayydnu 

dayyanu(m), da"dnu, MB also diydnu "judge" 
[(LU.)DI.KUD] of human beings, occas. as royal 
title; as divine title; NA sa pan d. "president of 
tribunal"; < didnum; > dayydnutu, dayyantu 

dayyanutu, NA dd'inutu "judicature, judgeship" 
O/jB, NA [DI.KUD- ]; < dayydnu abstr. 

dayyastu "threshing sledge" jB/NA in simile; 

< didsum 

dayyasu adj. "threshing" of ox jB lex.; < didsum 

dayye (a plant) jB lex. 

dayyik(t)u — ► dd'iku 

dayyiqu "siege wall(s)" jB, NA 



58 desu(m) 

dejiu "depressed, pressed in"? jB lex.; < dahu II; 

> dehutu 
dehutu "depression"? O/jB lex.; < dehu 
deku I "raised" NB of hands; < deku II 
deku(m) II, daku "to raise, shift" OAkk, Bab. 

G (e/e, Hi) [ZI] 1. "call up, levy" troops, land 
2. "wake up" person 3. "unleash, stir up" battle, 
slander 4. "lift" hand in supplication, as threat; 
from work; "raise" eyes, head, aims (in 
surrender) 5. OB "collect" silver, taxes 
6. M/NB "lift, remove" s.o. from throne, seat; 
stele, crown, commodity etc.; "clear away" 
earth, beam, monument 7. NB ~ "break up" or 
"weed" field 8. "charter" a ship D "get s.o. 
moving, incite" S OB, NB "have (troops) 
called up"; "incite" s.o., s.o.'s heart, to action 
N pass, "be called up"; "be disturbed"; NB of 
hands "be taken off (ref. to inactivity); 

> deku I, deku; diku II, dikutu; mudekku, 
mudakkiu 1 - 

deku(m) "summoner (for taxes and corvee 
work)" Bab. [LU.ZI.Zl]; lex. also "(night-) 
watchman"; < deku II 

delum "unique, single" OB lex.; < Sum. 

denu — » dinu 

depu I "warp" jB lex., of textile; < depu 

depu II (a thrusting weapon)? j/NB [DUN4] of 
iron; jB ext. (part of liver); < depu ? 

depu "to lay" the warp jB lex.; > depu I, II ? 

deq — » damdqu 

deqtu — » damqu 

derderru ~ "battle" jB lex. 

derku(m) (desig. of a priest)? OB lex. 

derku — ► also darku 

derkullum — » tarkullu 

deru, NA dam "to intercalate" a month NA, NB 
G stat. "is intercalated" Dt NB pass, "be 
intercalated"; < diru denom.; — ► dardru II 

dessu "exceedingly opulent" jB of offerings 7 ; 
< desu 

desu(m) "to sprout" Bab.(lit.) G jB lex! only 
D "let flourish" greenery, plants; "let prosper" 
abundance, wealth; "provide (s.th./s.o.) 
copiously with (s.th.)" (=2 ace), "supply 
copious" offerings Dt pass, of D "be allowed to 
flourish"; of offering bowl "be copiously 
supplied" Dtn jB iter, of D; < disu II denom.; 

> desu; dessu; dussu; diisum I; mudessu 
desu — » disu II 
desu(m), ddsu "abundant, flourishing" O/jB of 

population, vegetables; < desti 
diaddnii — » ddddnu 



dianum 



59 



dimatis II 



dianum, later ddnu "to judge" G (I) [DI.KUD] 
1. dina(m) d. "administer justice" (to s.o. = 
ace.) 2. "give judgement" 3. "pass judgement 
on, sentence" s.o. 4. "litigate, engage in lawsuit" 
D OB dinam/dindtim d. "initiate litigation" N of 
decision "be pronounced"; > dinu, dittum; 
dayydnu, dayyantu, dayydnutu; Maddnu 

diasum, later ddsu "to tread down; thresh" Bab., 
NA G (f; j/NB also u) of cattle, people "tread 
out" corn, "thresh"; transf. "trample, tread 
down" countries, enemies etc. Gtn iter. D jB 
"trample down"; > disu I; dd'isu, dayyasu, 
dayyastu 

di'(a)tum, da'atum, OA, jB lex. ddtu(m) 
"knowledge, information" OA, OB, jB lex.; 
only in d. sdlum "to inquire after" s.th., s.o.; 
usu. neg., e.g. di'ati ul tasdl "you took no 
notice of me"; < edu II 

di'dtu — » dimtu II 

dibalii — » dipalu 

dibbatum "argument, chatter" OB; < dabdbu II 

dibbu(m); OB pi. f. "words, utterance" Bab., 
NA; j/NB, NA "talk, rumour; matter"; Nuzi, 
NB "(legal) claim(s)"; < dabdbu II 

dibdibbu (or sissippul) "clepsydra" jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

v dibhu — » tibhu 

dibiru ~ "calamity" jB lex., om. 

diblu — » tublu 

didabu, didibu "scribal apprentice, pupil" NA 

didakku (a functionary) NB 

didallum, ditallu, didilu "ash(es)" O/jB lex.; 

< Sum.; > ditallis 
diddnu — » ditdnu 

didbu (a door) jB lex.; < Sum. 

didennutu — » titennutu 

didibbu "(court) judgement" jB lex.; < Sum. 

didibu — » didabu 

didilu — » didallum 

didiqqum — » diqdiqqu 

didisu (feature on liver) jB ext.; < Sum.? 

didu pi.; du. didd (female garment) M/jB, 

NB(Susa); loosened, torn, of temple attendant, 

prostitute, goddess, Lamastu 
digalu, digilu — » diglu 
digimu — » tikmenu 
digiru "god" jB lex.; < Sum. 
diglu(m), diga/ilu "vision, view" Bab., NA med. 

"(power of) sight, vision", d. ene "eyesight"; 

OB "view, opinion"; "glance, look"; j/NB (a 

precious stone)?; < dagdlu 
diglu (a metal object, phps.) "mirror" M/jB, NA; 

< dagdlu ? 



dihme(n)nu —» tikmenu 

dihu ~ "mark" (on the liver)? jB ext. ~ 

"depression"; < dahu II ?; OB —» zihhum 
dihu —» &\sodi'u I 
dikenu, dikimu — » tikmenu 
dikistum ~ "extension"? OB math.; < dakdsu 
dikkuldu "legal opponent"? NB; < Sum. 
dikmennu, dikmenu — » tikmenu 
diksu(m) "bulge, swelling" O/jB on body, on 

liver, lex. "diaphragm" of stomach ?; OB math. 

(part of geometrical figure); < dakdsu 
diktu(m), lex. also tiktu (a type of flour) Bab.; jB 

lex. (a plant) 
diktu(m) "fighting, slaughter" Bab., NA 1. O/jB 

"fight", OB pi. "blows" 2. j/NB, NA 

[GAZ(.MES)] in d. daku "to massacre", d.-sunu 

ma'atta aduk "I massacred them in great 

numbers"; < daku 
diku 1 1. Bogh., jB, NA "killed" 2. M/jB "killed" 

by pruning of date palms, reed etc.; < daku 
diku(m) II "lifting, raising" j/NB "awakening"; 

"levy, raising (of troops)"; d. biti (a temple 

ceremony); OA (ina d. >) iddik qdtimma ? 'at 

the lifting of a hand', i.e. immediately; < deku II 
dikuggallu(m), diqunlggallu "chief justice" Bab. 

[DI.KUD.GAL] 1. OB(Hana) an official 

2. M/NB of deity, esp. Samas; < Sum. 
dikuru "judgement, verdict" jB lex.; < Sum. 
dikutu(m), occas. dakutu "levy" of workers, 

troops Bab.(lit.) 1. OB ~ "corvee work", d. 

aldkum "to report for duty" 2. M/jB "levy", d. 

mdti "country(-wide) call up"; erib d. 'levy 

locusts', i.e. swarm; < deku II 
dilbu — » dulbu 
dilhu(m) "disturbed state" O/jB 1. of river water 

"turbidity" 2. of person "confusion", of country 

"disruption"; < daldhu 
dilihtu "disturbed condition" MB(Susa); 

< daldhu 
dililu —» dalilu I 

diliptu(m) "sleeplessness, anxiety" O/jB; 

< daldpu 
diliqdtu — ► duliqdtu 

dilitu (a stringed instrument) jB lex. 

dillatu (a cereal) jB lex. 

dilum "(bucket) irrigation" OB; < dalu II 

dilutu I "(action of) bucket irrigation" jB me d. 

"water drawn by bucket"; < dalu II 
dilutu II, dulutu(m); pi. dilulatu "device for water 

drawing, shaduf 7 " O/jB; < dalu II 
dimanu (an insect) jB 
dimatis I "like towers" jB; < dimtu I 
dimatis II "in tears" OB; < dimtu II 



dimgur 



60 



disiptuhhu 



dimgur, dimmigirru (a kind of wood)? NB for 
furniture; < Sum.? 

dimitu jB 1. (a bird) 2. (an illness, phps.) 
"convulsions"; < dawum 

dimmahhu (a priest) jB lex.; < Sum.? 

dimmatu(m) "wailing, lamentation" O/jB; sa d. 
"mourner"; < damdmu; —* dimtu II; zimmatu 

dimmeru "god" jB lex.; < Sum. 

dimmetu (a vegetable) jB lex. 

dimmigirru — ♦ dimgur 

dimmu "wailing" subst. jB of child; < damdmu 

dimmu —* also timmu 

dimmussatu (or timmussatu) ~ "reed-thicket" jB 
lex. 

dimtu(m) I, M/jB also dintldu "tower" OAkk, 
O/jB [AN.ZA.GAR; Ug. E.AN.ZA.GAR] "watch- 
tower", also "(garrison of) tower", as part of 
wall, of quay; fortified dwelling, also as PIN 
D., D.-DN, D.-sa-PN; Nuzi "district, estate 
(centred on stronghold)", also bel d. (an 
administrative official); Mari %&d. "wooden 
siege tower"; OB (a feature in oil omens); jB 
"pyramid" of skulls; > dimdtis I 

dimtu(m) II, dintu, M/jB also dindu; oft. du. 
dimd-; pi. NA di' ate "tear" Bab., NA [ER], 
freq. + aldku "to flow"; NA di at pdni "tears 
(on) face, weeping"; > dummu, dimdtis II; -* 
dimmatu 

dimuru (a substance) NB 

dinanu(m) "substitution", ana dindn X aldku "to 
go as a substitute for X; give o.s. up to X, lay 
o.'s life down for X" freq. in introduction of 
letters; jB ana d. naddnu "to give as substitute"; 
salam d. "substitute figure"; OB ana d., MB 
assu d. "for the sake of, NB letters ana 
ddnika, add- 'for your sake' = "please"; -* 
andundnu; ardandnu 

dindu -* dimtu I.II 

dingiruggu pi. "the dead (primordial) gods" jB 
[DINGIR.UG5.GA]; < Sum. 

dinnamu —* dunnamu 

din nil, dinnutu (or tin. ..)~ "bedstead" O/MB, jB 
lex. [GIS.(NA.)AS.NA/NE] 

dintu — ► dimtu I.II 

dinu (a kind of flour) NB 

dlnu(m), Ass. also denu(m); pi. m. & f. "legal 
decision: lawsuit, trial" [DI; DI.KUD] 
1. "judgement, sentence", d. didnum/ddnu "to 
pass verdict"; d. gamdru "to pronounce final 
sentence", d. gamru "completed case"; OA d. 
karim "verdict of kdrum", OB d. hit Samas 
"verdict of temple of Samas" 2. "decision" of 
deity, d. sakdnu "to give a decision" (by omen) 



3. "legal provision, statute" 4. "legal case, 
issue", OB d. amdrum "to look into, examine a 
case"; d. pardsu "to settle a case" 5. "lawsuit, 
trial", d. suhuzu "to grant a lawsuit", d. 
napistim "case of life or death"; d. epesu "to 
institute legal proceedings" against (= itti) s.o.; 
M/NA dena dabdba ba"u "to initiate legal 
proceedings"; NB d. dabdbu "to bring an action 
against"; NB d. u ragdmu "lawsuit and claim"; 
bel d. "adversary" (in court), OB also sa dinisa 
"her adversary"; NB bit d. "law-court"; NA sa 
pan dindte "president of court"; <didnum; 
> dittum 
dipalu (or dibalu) "distortion of justice" jB 

[DI.BALA] 

diparu(m) m. & f. "torch" Bab. [GIS/GI.IZI.GAR] 

d. nasu, d. napahulnuppuhu "to raise, light a 

torch"; transf. "torch" as title of astral deities 
dippu(m) (a kind of wooden door); < Sum. 
diqaru(m); pi. f. "large bowl, tureen" Ass., O/jB 

[(DUG.)UTUL] of clay, stone, copper, bronze; 

for oil, perfume, water, medicine, food; 

"trough" for animals 
diqarutu (a small bowl) jB lex. 
di(q)diqqu(m), duqduqqu, dugudug "wren"? 

O/jB also as PN; < daqdqu 
diqqum "small, meagre" OB of provisions; as 

PN; < daqdqu 
diqungallu — ♦ dikuggallu 
dirigum "intercalary month" OB [DERIG?]; 

< Sum.; -* diru 
diritu -* teritu II 

dirratu(m), tirratu "lash (of whip)" O/jB l.jB 
d. qinndzi "whiplash" (an astronomical 
phenomenon) 2. OB(Bogh.) ~ "halter" of 
donkey ? 

dinu — ♦ diru'u 

dirsum "trampling back, clearing"? OB, process 
on reeds; < dardsu 

diru 1. j/NB, NA "intercalation" 2. NB "inter- 
calary month"; < Sum.; > dardru II; deru; -* 
dirigum 

diru'u, dir(ru) (a kind of bread) NA lex. 

dishu — ♦ tishu 

diskarinnum — ♦ taskarinnu 

distum; pi. disdtum "abuse(s)" Mari; < ddsu 

disarm ~ "oats" jB lex. 

disa'u, disi'u, tisd'u "of, born in spring" Nuzi, of 
animals; < disu II 

dishu — ♦ tishu 

disiptuhhu, diziptuhhu ~ "sweet beer" jB lex.; 

< dispu + tuhhu ? 
disi'u — ♦ disa'u 



dispu(m) 



61 



dumamu I 



disku — ♦ tisku 

dispu(m) "honey, syrup" [LAL(.MES)] d. sadi 
"mountain honey" [LAL.KUR.RA]; d. suluppi 
"date syrup"; > dasdpu; disiptuhhu 

disu I "trampled down" of palm tree jB lex.; 

< didsum 

disu(m) II, desu "(spring) growth; spring" Bab. 
[U.BAR8(.SAR)] O/jB d. eburi, kussi "summer, 
winter growth", "grass"; as time of year 
"spring"; NB as PN; MB dis mill "spring 
flood"; > desu; disa'u; — ♦ das'um 

ditallis "into ashes" j/NB, usu. d. usemi "reduced 
to ashes"; < didallum 

ditallu — ♦ didallum 

ditanu, diddnu "bison"? jB; also (a fish) 

ditennutu -* titennutu 

ditillu "final judgement" OAkk, jB lex.; < Sum. 

dittum "lawsuit" OA; < dinu nom. unit. 

di'tu —* di'atum; dimtu II 

dium —* Hum 

di'u(m) I (or di'u(m)), dihu(m) (a disease 
affecting the head) Bab., NA [SAG.GIG] also 
murus d. "d. illness"; jB as demon; > di'um 

di'u(m) II, d/tu, d/tu'u "(deity's) throne- 
( platform" in temple Bab. [DUg]; < Sum. 

dVu — ♦ di'u I 

di'um "afflicted by headache" OB; < di'u I 

diyantu -* dayyantu 

diydnu — ♦ dayydnu 

diziptuhhu — ♦ disiptuhhu 

du — ♦ di'u II 

dudku — ♦ ddku 

dudlu — ♦ ddlu 

duarum "to surround, enfold" OAkk G stat. 
only 

du(h)bdqu -* tuhdqu 

dubbubis "into incoherent speech" jB; 

< dabdbu II D 

dubbubtum "(troublesome) negotiation(s), 

complaint(s)" OB; < dabdbu II 
dubbuqu D "to join together" Ug.; < W.Sem. 
dubdu -* dabdu 

dubdubbe adv. mng. unkn. jB lex. 
dubdubbu 1. (a bird) jB lex. 2. (a drum) jB; 

<Sum. 
dubgallu "big tablet, compendium" jB; < Sum.; 

-* tuppu 
dublu —* tuhlu 
dubsarmahhu "chief scribe" jB lex.; < Sum.; -* 

tupsarru 
dubur "foundation" jB lex.; < Sum.; -* tublu 
dudittu -* tudittu 



dudu(m) I (a metal vessel) Bab., Am., Nuzi, 

Ug., NA 
dudu(m) II (a bird) jB lex.; NA as PN ? 
dudu — ♦ also atiidu 
dugdnu -* tugdnu 

dugdumu (or dukdumu) (a plant) jB lex. 
duglum (or duklqlum) (a commodity) OA 
dugsdnu — ♦ dunsdnu 
dugsigakku (a vessel) Bab. lex.; < Sum. 
dugudu -* guduttu 
dugudug -* diqdiqqu 
duharum — ♦ tuharum 
duhhusu, also metath. dussuhu D "to oppress" 

s.o. Dt pass., of person "be oppressed", of 

penitent "be depressed, downhearted" M/jB 
duhnu, tuhnu "millet" M/NA, M/NB 
duhpu(r) -* tuhpu(r) 
duhsum —* dusu I 
dukdumu — ♦ dugdumu 
dulaqum mng. unkn. OB as PN 
dulbdnu — ♦ dalhdnu 
dulbu(m), dilbu; pi. f. "plane tree (Platanus 

orientalis)" OAkk, M/jB; as tree, as timber; 

OA pi. as commodity 
dulhanu "meteorological disturbance" jB; 

< dalahu 

duliqatu, Ass. also da/iliqdtu pi. tant. ~ "roast 

corn"? M/NA, jB; as offering 
dullu(m); pi. m. & f. "trouble: work, service" 

1. "trouble, hardship"; d. mullu(m) "to fill with 
misery, make full of misery" 2. "work 
obligation, corvee"; d. emedu "to impose corvee 
work"; NA d. sarri "royal service"; building, 
manufacturing "labour" etc. 3. "work", d. 
sabdtu "to set to work"; d. epesulmussuru "to 
do/neglect work"; "(product of) work"; "craft" 
4. religious "ritual"; < daldlu I ? 

dullu D "to lift out, unload" dates NB; < Aram. 
dulluhis adv. "in confusion; hurriedly" jB; 

< dalahu 

du(l)luhtu 1. "hurry, despatch" Am., Ug. 

2. "anxiety" NB of person's state; < dalahu 
dullulu "oppressed" jB of citizens; < daldlu I 
dullupu "very restless" M/NB as PN; < daldpu 
dulluqum, MA dalluqu mng. unkn. OB, MA as 

PN 
dulpu "sleeplessness" jB; < daldpu 
dulu "bucket" jB lex.; < dalu II 
duluhhu "disturbance" M/jB 1. "turbidity" in 

river 2. "confusion" of person's state 3. political 

"disorder"; < dalahu 
dulutu -* dilutu II 
dumamu I, tu(m)mamu ~ "leopard" jB 



dumamu II 



62 



durussu 



dumamu II "moaning" jB; < damdmu 
dumaqu pi. tant. "jewellery, gems" Ass.; of 

women, king, divine statue; < damaqu 
dumhundtu -* tumhundtu 
dummu D "to bring to tears" jB, esp. stat. "is 

brought to tears"; < dimtu II denom. 
dummuqtum "good deed, benevolence" OB; 

< damaqu 

dummuqu(m), Ass. dammuqu(m) 1. OA, OB 
"good quality" of metal 2. "very good" of 
sheep, action; also NB as PN; NA pi. 
dammaqute (a type of soldier)?; < damaqu 

dumqu(m), dunqu, duqqu "goodness, good 
(thing)" [SIG5] 1. "welfare" of person; pi. 
dumql qabu(m) "to decree s.o.'s wellbeing" 
2. "good condition; good appearance, beauty" 
of person, face etc. 3. "good deed" OB pi. f., 
gimil d. "reward; return favour"; Mari bel d. 
"favourite, friend" 4. "favourable, lucky 
meaning" of dreams, omens etc. 5. "good 
results" 6. "the best" of s.th., "prime" produce 
etc.; < damaqu 

dumsu ~ "towel" jB lex.; < damdsu 

dumugabu(m); f. dumugabitu(m) "baby, 
suckling" O/jB [(MUNUS.)DUMU.GABA]; 
<Sum. 

duinuqqu "sign of gratitude" jB; < damaqu 

dumuqtum "good deed, favour" OA; < damaqu 

dunanu — > andundnu 

duna'u pi. tant. ~ "deductions"? OA; < danu 

dunnamu, dinnamu "person of lowly status; 
fool"jB; <Sum. 

dunnanu "strong one"? jB mag.; < dunnu ? 

dunnatu f. pi. "inferior quality" NB of 
commodity; < danu 

dunnu(in) 1. OAkk, Bab. "power, strength" 
[KALAG.GA] jB d. eriyati "intense cold"; d. 
qaqqari "solid ground, bedrock"; d. qisdti 
"depth of the woods"; transf. dunni pdni "hard- 
ness of attitude" 2. Ass. "(fortified) farm- 
stead)", also (bit) d.; Bab. in PINs 3. Bab. (a 
type of bed)? 4. jB "part of lung"; < dandnu II 

dunnunis "very firmly" jB; < dunnunu 

dunnunu "very strong" jB; of fortifications; 
Bogh. adv. dunnuna "very securely"; NB of 
person "highly respected"; < dandnu II; 
> dunnunis 

dunnuttu "strengthening"? jB lex.; 

< dandnu II ? 
dunqu -* dumqu 

dunsanu, dugsanu (a vessel) OB; < Sum. 



duppuru(m) I D Bab., OA "to move away, 
withdraw; stay away" from; OA "absent o.s. 
from work"; > dappurtum; -* tapdru 

duppuru II adj.? mng. unkn. jB lex. 

duppussu, tuppussu "younger brother" 
j/NB(lit.), also transf. "second in rank"; < Sum. 

duprdnu -* daprdnu 

dupsikku — ► tupsikku 

duqaqu(m) "tiny" O/jB lex., as PN; < daqdqu 

duqdu "almond (tree)" NA; — ► siqdu 

duqduqqu -* diqdiqqu 

duqqu — ► dumqu 

duqququ "very tiny" jB; < daqdqu 

duranis "over the wall" jB; < duru I + -an + -is 

duraru -* andurdru 

dura'u "arm" NA, also "foreleg" of sheep; 

< Aram. 

durdu "goddess" jB lex. 
durgaiiu "(reed) rope" jB lex.; < Sum. 
durga(r)ru (a stool or chair) jB lex.; < Sum. 
durgu, duruku ~ "innermost, central part" 

M/jB(Ass.) of mountain terrain, foundations; 

of royal origins sa d.-su Assur "who is of pure 

Assyrian descent" 
durinnum — ► turinnum 
duris "for ever" Ug.; < duru II 
durmahis "to the durmdhu" jB 
durmahu 'mighty hawser' jB, cosmic reed rope; 

< Sum.; > durmahis 

durru(m) D "to neglect, reject"? Mari, O/jB lex. 
duru(m) I, OB also ddrum ? "(city) wall, 

rampart" [BAD; OA, Mari BAD.KI; OAkk pi. 

BAD.BAD] 1. "city wall"; transf. of DN as 

protection in PNs; jB reed "fence" of 

shepherds' camp 2. "fortified place, fortress"; 

bit d. jB, NA "fortress", NB "(temple) 

enclosure" 3. of parts of the body: d. appi 

"cheeks"; d. naglabim "pelvis"? of sheep; d. 

libbi(m) "heart wall"; jB d. sinni "gums"?; 

> duranis 
duru(m) II "permanence, eternity" Bab., NA 

1. OB "permanent status" of employment, land 

tenure 2. NA issu d. "since long ago"; Susa st. 

abs. ana dur u pala "for ever and always"; 

j/NB (analsa) d. uml "(for) all time, always"; 

(ana) d. ddr(i) "for ever"; < daru; > duris; — ^ 

ddru I 
duru III "lance" jB lex. 
duruku — ► durgu 

durummu (a bird) jB lex., om.; — ► turunnu I 
durussu "foundation (platform)" Bab. of city, 

temple; "base" of mountains; transf. of 

dwelling, support 



dusinnum 



63 



Du'uzu 



dusinnum (or dltuslsinnum) ~ (potential 

claimant) OA, of purchased slave, house 
dussuhu -* duhhusu 
dususu (a plant) jB lex. 
dusinnum -* dusinnum 
dusmu, dussumu; f. dusmltu "slave bom in the 

house" Bab., also transf. "servant" of deity; 

MB(Alal.) in PN; > dusmutu 
dusmutu "status of a slave bom in the house" 

jB; < dusmu 
dussu "abundant, copious" j/NB(lit.) of water, 

offerings; of tavern, storeroom "well-stocked"; 

< desu 
dussu bu — ^ dussupu 

dussumum mng. unkn. OAkk, OB as PN 
dussumu — ► dusmu 
dussupu(m), dussuhu. Ass. dassupu 

"sweetened; very sweet" O/jB, NA(lit.) of beer, 

wine, dates; < dasdpu 



dusu(m) I, OB also duhsum 1. O/jB, NA ~ 
"quartz, rock-crystal" [(NA4.)DUy.Sl.A] 2. ~ 
"untanned leather"? [(KUS.)DUH.SI(.A)]; M/NA 
eleppatlsa d. "rafts of (inflated) skins"; NA, 
NB sarip d. "tanner of d. leather"; < Sum.; -* 
tuhsiwe 

dusuII(awell)?jBlex. 

dusum I (a silver object) OAkk; < desu 

dusu II mng. unkn. jB lex. 

dutu(m) "virility, manliness" O/jB; transf. Nuzi 
"codpiece" of armour, jB "nook, secret place" 
of house, shrine etc. 

du'u -* di'u II 

du"umis "in great darkness" OB; < du'umu 

du"umu "very dark" jB; of skin markings; 
< da'dmu I 

Du'uzu, Duzu "Tammuz" (4th Bab. month) 
j/NB [iti.su(.numun.a/na); iti.su.gar. 
NUMUN.NA]; < Sum. 



E 



e — ► ai I 

ea -* ya'u 

Eannakkum "(the temple) Eanna" OAkk; 

< Sum. 
e'asu — ► widsum 

Ea'utu "Ea-ship" j/NB [ d DIS- ; d IDIM- ], i.e. the 

role of the god Ea; < DN Ea 
ebahu — ► /Tra/in 

ebar "beyond, the other side of OA; < ebiru I 
ebaruttum — ► ibrutu 
ebberu — ► ebbiru 
ebbiate — ► e/j/3 1 
ebbiru, ebberu "pacing, travelling purposefully" 

M/jB; of knees; < e/jm/ 1 
ebbis "in a state of (ritual) cleanliness" jB; 

< ebbu 

ebbu(m) "bright; pure" Bab., NA [dadag(.GA)] 
"bright, shiny" of metal, precious stone; of 
wood; "clean" of clothes, water, "pure" of 
offerings, rituals; of mythical beings; OB 
"reliable"?, also as subst. ~ "trusted agent, 
colleague"; < ebihu; > ebbis, ebbutum 

ebbum — ► ibbu I 

ebbubu(m), enbubum, embubu "flute, pipe" 
Bab. [(GIS.)GI.GfD (-+ also malllu)}; songs sa 
e. "with the flute"?; sa e. "flute-player"; e. hasi 
"windpipe"; — ► umbubu 

ebbutum "position of trusted colleague" OB; 
Mari ~ "administrative control"; < ebbu 

ebebu(m) "to be(come) bright, pure" G (ili) "be 
clean" of hands, "clear" of illness, impurity, 
omen; "be free" of claims D [DADAG] 
"cleanse", "purify (ritually)", "keep pure"; leg. 
puta ubbubu 'clear the forehead', i.e. 
"manumit"; "clear" s.o./o.s. of guilt, claims; 



"free" s.o. from duties; Mari "take census of 
Dt [DADAG] "be purified, cleared"; Mari "be 
counted in census" S ~ D NB "purify" Stn OB 
iter. St NB pass, of S; > ebbu, ebbis, ebbutum; 
mubbibum; tibibtu; ubbubu 

ebehu "to gird, belt up" O/jB G (Hi) person with 
(= ace.) garment; "surround" building with 
frieze (nibehu); stat., of moon "is encircled" 
D stat. "is surrounded with" N astr. "be 
encircled"; > ebihu; nebehu 

ebehu — ► also ebihu 

ebelu "to net, catch with a net" jB G (Hi) birds, 
Anzu; < eblu denom.?; > ibilu 

Eber nari "across the river", i.e. Syria west of 
Euphrates NA, NB; < eberu I + nam I 

eberta(m) "on the opposite bank" O/MB [MB 
BAL.RI] ina, ana, sa e:, Nuzi also "on (this) 
bank"; < ebertu I 

ebertan "on the opposite bank" M/NA, Nuzi, 
Bogh., jB; ina, istu, sa e:, as prep. e. nari "on 
the other side of the river"; < ebertu I 

ebertu(m) I "bank, esp. opposite bank; other 
side" Bab., MA [BAL.RI]; as prep, (sa) eberti 
"(land) across" river, canal; < eberu I; > eberta, 
ebertan; — ► abartu 

ebertu II "pace; step" M/NA; also of staircase; 
< eberu I 

eberu(m) I, NB occzs.epiru "to cross over" 
G (ili) [BALA] river, sea, sky etc.; ext. "stretch 
over, lie across" Gtn iter, of G S "make to 
cross, get s.o./s.th. across, bring across"; 
> ebar, Eber nari; ebertu I.II; eberta, ebertan; 
ebbiru; abartu; niberu, nibertu; musibiru, 
musibirtu; — ► sutiburum 



eberu II 



65 



edena 



^ 



eberu II "to paint (the face)" jB lex.; > ebrum, 

ibdru 
eberu III "joy, celebration"? jB lex. 
ebetu(m) I "to swell up" O/jB G (Hi) of water; of 

parts of body; stat. "is swollen" Gt "be 

permanently swollen"? D "make swollen"; lex. 

"fill (with joy)"? Dt pass, of D lex. "be filled 

(with joy)"? N "swell up, become swollen" 

Ntn iter, of N; > ebtum; ubbutu I.II 
ebetu(m) II ~ "to bind"? G MB(Bogh.), NA stat. 

"is bound" D (OB hubbutum) OA, OB mng. 

unci. N jB "be bound"?; > ubbutu III; nibettu; 

NB -+ ubbutu IV 
ebihu, ebehu, ibihu (a rope or girdle) Bab., 

M/NA; also transf., of city wall; < ebehu 
ebilu ~ "hunter" (with a net) jB lex.; < ebelu 
Ebirtum, Helibirtum, Abirtum (month at Mari) 

OAkk, OB 
ebissu, ibissu; pi. ebildte "(roped-up) bundle"? 

NA of saplings, reeds; < eblu 
ebitu, abitu (a plant) jB lex.; < W.Sem. 
eblu(m) "rope, thong, string"; as surface measure 

(= 6 iku or '/3 bur); NB "field of 1 eblu area"; 

"string" (of dried fruit); > ebelu; ebissu; — ► 

habalum 
ebrum "painted, made-up" OB lex.; < eberu II 
ebru — ► also ibru 
ebtum ~ "swollen" OB lex., of part of body; 

< ebitu I 
ebu(mjl; f. pi. ebbiate "thick" O/jB, NA of 

worm, loaves, trees; "dense" of eclipse; < eb& II 
ebu II "to be thick" M/NA, M/jB G of plant 

"become thick"; stat. of part of body, urine, rim 

of pot "is thick"; > ebu I; ibitu; ubu, ubdtum; 

mubu; mumbium 
ebubatu "wood, thicket" jB lex. 
ebuhusinnu — ► abahsinnu 
eburatu — > eburu 
eburu(m), ibHru; pi. MA, NB eburdnu "harvest; 

summer" [BURU14] "crop, harvest"; "yield" of 

orchard; "(activity of) harvesting"; "(time of) 

harvest", warah E. "Harvest month" 

(=Abulll); NB "(grain for) harvest, 

seed(-corn)"; > eburu 
eburu(m) adj. "summer" Bab. "(born in) 

summer" as PN; "summer (lamb)" [OB SILA4. 

BURU14], "summer (vegetables)" (f. pi.) of 

cucumbers; < eburu 
ebuttum (or ebuttum ?) "interest-free loan" OA 
edabu — > edepu 

edadu (a flour offering) jB; < Sum. 
edakku(m) "outhouse, wing (of a building)" 

O/jB [G.DA]; < Sum. 



edakku "fish-bone" OB lex.; < Sum. 

Edammitu (a title of Istar) jB lex.; < edammu 

edammu(m) (a dream-interpreter) O/jB; < Sum. 

edamukku, adamukku jB 1. "foetal membrane"? 
2. (a membrane) as drum-skin ?; < Sum. 

edanis "alone" jB(Ass.); < edenu 

edaniu — > edenu 

edanu(m), idanu, Mari(Ass.) helidanum "fixed 
time" Ass. "time limit, appointment"; "(repay- 
ment) date"; Bab. — > addnum 

eddnu — > edenu 

eddnu — > edenu 

edappatu, eduppdtu ~ "fringe of a towel" jB lex.; 
Nuzi. sg. edaptu ?; < Sum.; — > adapu II 

edaqqu ~ "small child" jB lex. 

edatu pi. mng. uncert. MB 

edddtu — > eddittu 

eddelu "he who locks" jB; < edelu 

eddessd — > eddesu 

eddestum "new town" OB; < edesu 

eddesu — > edesu 

eddesu(m), eddessu "constantly self-renewing" 
O/jB of deities, esp. heavenly bodies; of life, 
reign; < edesu 

eddidu (a kind of thorn-bush) jB; < ededu 

eddittu; pi. eddetu, Am. edddtu (a kind of thorn- 
bush) O/jB, Am.; < ededu 

eddu(m) "pointed" O/jB of horns; < ededu 

edebu — > edepu 

ededu(m) "to be(come) pointed, spiky" Bab., 
OA G (ulu; stat. id, edud) [stat. id SIG] of 
parts of body, horn; of horns of moon, sun etc. 
Gtn OB unci. D stat. ~ G "is pointed"; OB in 
hendiad. "look sharp, do s.th. quickly"; OA 
"pressurize"? s.o. N stat. ~ G "becomes 
pointed"; > eddu; eddidu, eddittu; iddum; 
midedu; udittu 

edehu(m), edikum "to cover with patches, with a 
network" O/jB G stat. "is spotted" of stone, 
face, moon; of entrails "are patchily covered" 
with tissue D "cover (objects) with a network" 
of wool; stat. ~ G stat. "is patchily covered with 
(= ace.)" tissue, with network of veins; 
> idihum; midehtum 

edikum — » edihu 

edelu(m) "to shut, bolt" G (ili, Am pret. Mul) 
[TAB] door, city gate; house; hand, mouth; 
"shut (s.o.) off from (= ina) Gtn iter. D ~ G 
door, gate Dt pass, of D N "be shut, bolted"; 
"shut o.s. up"; > edlu; eddilu; idiltu; midelu; -* 
daltu 

edimum — > addmum 

edena (a plant) jB lex. 



edenu 

edennu — » edenu 

edennu — ► edenu 

edenu, edanu, edennu, Idlnu "alone" M/NB + 
pers. suff. e.g. edenukka, edenussu "on his 
own; alone"; Nuzi "single" [LU.DIL], i.e. 
without family; < wedum + -dnu; > edenu; 
eddnis 

edenu, edennu, Ass. eddniu, edanu "single, sole, 
lone" M/jB, NA of messenger; of things often 
in pairs, e.g. horses; of village "isolated"; 
< edenu + -J 

edepu(m), edebu, NA eddbu "to blow (away)" 
O/jB, M/NA G (Hi) of demons "blow on" s.o. 
(= ace); "blow away"; stat. "is inflated" with 
(= ace.) D ~ G of storm; revolts; stat. "is 
inflated" N MA "be blown away" Ntn iter.; 
> edpip; idiptu; uddupu 

edequ(m), addqu "to dress, clothe" Bab.(lit.) 
G (Hi) "clothe" body with (=acc.) D ~ G 
divine statue Dt pass, of D "be arrayed in" 
St OB "have o.s. dressed in" N "get dressed, 
arrayed in" (= ace); > tediqu 

ederu(m) "to embrace, wrap o.s. round" O/jB 
G (/'//') person, person's neck; of features in 
exta; astr. of moon's horns N "embrace one 
another" [GU.DA.RI] of persons; lizards; heaven 
and earth; stat. "have conspired"; > ediru; 
nanduru II 

edesu (oxeddesu) "bud"? jB lex.; < edesu ? 

edesu(m) "to be(come) new" G (Hi) of clothes, 
building; "be renewed" of person, god; OAkk 
infin. edesumma "anew" Gtn "constantly 
renew o.s." of Sin D "renew" [GIBIL] building, 
clothing, dais etc.; "resume" journey; "restore" 
life, cult; Mari in hendiad. "repeat" action Dtn 
iter, of D Dt pass, of D; > essu I, essutu, essis; 
ussusu III; eddestum, eddesu; tedistu; edesu'- 

edigu — > udugu 

edihum, edikum "basket mender"? OB, also as 
PN; < edehu 

ediltu — > edlu 

edinu, OA idinum "desert, steppe" jB lex.; OA 
mng. unci.; < Sum. 

ediptu, adiptn mng. unkn. jB lex. 

edirtu — ► idirtu 

ediru (a garment) jB lex.; < ediru 

edis "alone" jB; < wedum 

edissi — ► wedissi- 

edistu — » essu I 

edlu "shut, bolted; inaccessible" M/jB of door, 
house; bolt; road; "locked up" of prisoner; 
< edelu 



66 egalkurru 

edpu mng. unci. jB desig. of sheep's hoof; 

< edepu ? 

edu(m) I, occas. adu, atu "flood, wave" O/jB of 
river "flood, spate"; "wave(s)" of sea; as epith. 
of king; < Sum. 

edu(m) II, idu(m), OA idd'um "to know" 
(M/NA -> wadum) G (pret. only, ide (-» 
GAG §106q)) [ZU]; ina la ide "unwittingly"; 
stat. "is aware of, also "is known" to s.o.; 
"know" that = kifma), how much = mala, 
where = ema, asar; "be acquainted with" s.o., 
s.th.; "be conscious of" prayer, guilt; 
"experience" defeat, fear; "know" person 
sexually; Am. with ana "care for" s.o. D(t) -> 
wad&m S "cause to know", "acquaint s.o. with 
s.th." (= ace), abullam s. "show s.o. the city 
gate", i.e. confine to city; "make s.th. known, 
convey, make pronouncement" St "inform 
oneself? SD — » wadum N (nilendu) "become 
acquainted"; > di'atum; edutu; mudu, mudutu, 
mudanutu; sudutu; musedd; udu II ? 

edu — » wedum 

edd — > wedum 

eduk — ► ediitu 

edukku — ► wedum 5 

edulldnu — > edulnu 

edullu (an administrative building)? j/NB 
[E.DUL]; < Sum. 

edulnu (or edulldnu ?) (a functionary) NA lex. 
edumanu "single" NA i.e. without family [A§- ]; 

< wedum 
eduppdtu -> edappdtu 
eduru — > aduru 

edutu "sleeve"? jB lex. (var eduk erron.?) 
edutu, iddtu "knowledge, awareness" jB lex.; 

< edu II 
edutu "isolation" jB in edutiya "by myself; 

< wedum 
e'elu(m), a'dlu "to bind (on)" G (pres. i"il, pret. 

Vil) "tie up", "tie on to"; "bind" with spells, 
with legal contract Gt ~ "tie all round" D ~ G 
NA (with pi. obj.); NB "make" contract 
"binding" (on s.o.); stat. of water, foam "is 
attached together, collects together" Dt pass, of 
D, of water "be collected" St "link" hands; stat. 
of hands "are linked, folded together" N pass, 
of G of rope; of illness "be attached to, infect" 
s.o.; > i'lu; e'iltu, u'iltu; e" elu; melu 1 - 

e"elu, eilu, a'dlu "binder" jB lex., mag., desig. 
of a demon; <e'elu 

egalkurru "ritual for entering palace" j/NB 
[E.GAL.KU4/KUR.RA]; < Sum.; -» ekallu 



egalturru 

egalturru f. "little palace" jB [E.GAL.TUR.RA]; 
< Sum.; -► ekallu 

egaru "to write down"? MA G stat. "is written 
down"; > egertu; ugurtu 

egegu — » ekeku; eqequ 

egemgiru, egengiru, gimlngiru, gergiru (a 
medicinal plant, phps.) "Sisymbrium officinale 
or Eruca sativa" M/NB [U/GlS.NIG.GAN.GAN] 
1 egerru, O/jB also igerru(m), NA gerrd 
"utterance" Bab., NA [INIM.GAR] "ominous 
utterance" relating to s.o.; "spoken opinion, 
reputation", e. dummuqumllummunum "to 
speak well/ill" of s.o.; bel(et) e. "slanderer (m., 
f.)"; < Sum. 

egertu, igertu "inscribed tablet" NA, NB of letter, 
legal document; < egaru 

egeru(m) "to lie (transversely) across" O/jB 
G (//(') of animal across a person, another 
animal; transf. of language "be perverse, 
difficult" Gtn Mari, of enemy "continually 
thwart" s.o. Gt "lie across each other, be 
crossed over" of animals, parts of liver, transf. 
"be in disagreement" with s.o.; of heart "be 
perverse, wrong" D mag. "twist" feet of a 
figurine S mng. unci. St [GIL] "cross" feet 
"over each other"; stat. of parts of body "are 
crossed over each other" N "limp, go lame"? 
Ntn med. of feet "continually cross over each 
other"?; transf. of tongue (speech defect); of 
animal "continually cross (a path)"?; > egru; 
etguru; tegirtu 1 ; — » egaru 

eggetu — » ekketu 

egiddu — » agittu 

egisitu — > igisitu 

egitu, jB also igitu ? "negligence, omission" 
M/NB e. Ellil "negligence towards EUU"; 
"(sin(s) of) omission"; < egu I 

egizaggu, igizaggu, igizangA (an ornamental 
stone) jB/NA [NA4.IGI.ZAG.GA/GA; NA4.IGI. 
ZAG.GA], also in mag.; < Sum. 

egru(m) "transverse, crossed" O/jB, NA of 
birds, in representation; transf. of language 
"difficult"; of enemy "perverse"; < egeru 

egu, igu, egu, agu (a kind of camel-thorn) jB lex. 

egu I "negligent" OB lex., jB; f. egitu (a class of 
person); < egu III 

egu II, equ "antimony (paste), kohl" jB 

egu(m) III "to be(come) lazy; be negligent" 
OAkk, Bab.; M/NA in PNs G (ulu, Hi) "be 
negligent" towards (= ana) deity, person; with 
respect to (= ana) work, task; > egu I; egitu, 
egutu; megutu; tegif 

egu — > also agu II; egu 



67 ekelu(m) 

egubbu — > agubbu 

egumu(m) "hot water" OB lex.; < Sum. 

egusu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

egutu "negligence" jB "(act of) negligence" by 

diviner; < egti I 
eguzu mng. unci. OB lex.; < Sum. 
efce (a cry of lament) jB 
ejjele; pi. efrelena, also abbr. efre (a type of land 

tenure) MB(AlaL); mdru e. (a social class); 

< Hurr. 
ehlipakku, ehlalupakku "raw glass" Qatna, Am., 

Nuzi, Bogh.; < Hurr. 
ehrushu (or uhrushu) (a vessel) Alal.; < Hurr. 
ehzu(m) (a kind of axe) O/jB [URUDU.G1N. 

MUNUS] used on fields 
e'iltu(m), i'iltu(m) "bond, obligation" O/jB "debt, 

liability"; OA "obligation" of offerings, jB 

"obligation" to deity (pi. also elletu), esp. with 

patdru (to absolve); < e elu 
eilu -*e"elu 

eka, ekdmale "where?" M/NB; < ayyika; > ekanu 
ekallis "into the palace" jB [E.GAL- ]; < ekallu 
ekallitu — » ekallu 
ekallu(m) f., rarely m.; Mari pi. occas. ekalldnu 

"palace" [E.GAL; NA also KUR] as building; e. 

mdsarti "review p., arsenal"; e. kutalli "rear p."; 

e. tapsuhti, e. saldli "p. of rest", i.e. royal tomb; 

OB(Susa), Nuzi (part of a private house); as 

administrative authority, i.e. "the government"; 

rab(i) e. "palace overseer" [GAL.E.GAL]; sa e. 

"queen" [prob. MUNUS.E.GAL; MUNUS.KUR]; 

sa muhhi e., sa pan e. "palace supervisor"; 

< Sum.; > ekallis, ekallu, ekallutu; — > 
egalkurru, egalturru; erib-ekalli 

ekallu(m) "palace official" O/jB [(LU.)SA. 

E.GAL]; f. ekallitu j/NB, NA [MUNUS.SA.E. 

GAL] "queen(-mother) 7 " 
ekallutu — > arad-ekallutu 
ekdmale — » eka 
ekannam — > akanna I 
ekanu "where?" NB ana e. "whither?"; < eka + 

-dnu 
ekdis "furiously" OB; < ekdu 
ekdu "wild, furious" Bab. of animal, king, 

warrior; < ekedu; > ekdis 
ekedu(m) G mng. unci. OB D ~ "to revile, 

slander" jB; > ekdu, ekdis; ukkudu 
ekeku, egegu(m) "to scratch" O/jB G (Hi) 

Gtn iter, of G D ~ G Dt "scratch o.s." (or -» 

takdku ?); > ekketu; ukkum V; mekeku 
ekelu(m) "to be(come) dark" G (///) of sun, 

moon etc.; divine image; transf. of face, 

situation etc. Gtn "repeatedly become dark" 



ekemu(m) 

Gt "become permanently dark"; infin. 
"'condition of darkness" D "darken" Dt pass, of 
D; > eklu, ekletu, eklis; iklu I; uklu I; ukkulu, 
ukkulis 

ekemu(m) "to take away, deprive" G (///) [KAR] 
"take s.th. away" from (=acc.) s.o., usu. 
unjustly; "rescue" (from adversity); "deprive" 
s.o. of sleep, joy, life, potency; ext., of feature 
of liver, stat. "is displaced"?; "absorb, lie over" 
another feature Gtn "repeatedly take away" 
Gt ext. "(mutually or fully) absorb, lie over" 
D ~ G MB "carry away" population N pass, of 
G, OB of fields; > ekmu; ekkimu, ekkemu; 
ikimtu; ukkumu; nekemtu 

ekepu(m), NA also eqdbu ~ "to come close, 
approach" G (//;') in space, time; to girl, 
sexually; Man "come up with intent to" temple 
(< W.Sem.) Gt "come very close to"?; stat. "is 
very near" D of time "draw near", "be in good 
time, early", trans, of Adad "bring" rain "early, 
in good time" St OA of textiles "pack tightly 
together"; of cedars, hair "grow close together" 
Ntn or Nt of animals "come close together" for 
copulation; >nekepum; ukkupu, ukkupis; 
tekuptum 

ekesu mng. unkn. jB lex.; > aksu ?, eksis ? 

ekiam "where?, whither?" jB; <ayyiklam 

ekiltu — » eklu 

ekkemu(m) "robber" O/jB; < ekemu 

Ekkena (a month) OB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

ekketu(m), eggetu "itching, scabies" Bab.; 

< ekeku 
ekkimu(m) "rapacious, thieving" O/jB esp. of 

demons; < ekemu 
ekletu(m) (or ikletu(m)) "darkness" Bab. 
[KUKKU]; bit e. "dark chamber", "underworld"; 

< eklu 
eklis "gloomily" jB; < eklu 
eklu(m) "dark" Bab. of day, water, transf. jB of 

person ekil parii "with gloomy face"; f. ekiltu 
"dark (times)"; f. pi. ekletu "dark places"; 

< ekelu 
ekmu "taken away, stolen" jB of land, fortress; 

< ekemu 
eksis "insolently" jB; < aksu 
eksu — » aksu 
eku(m) I, iku; f. ekutu; f. pi. eki'dtum 

"impoverished; orphaned, bereaved" Bab.; at 
Alal., as social class; freq. f. "orphan(s)" 
[NU.SIK]; < eku II; > ekutu 
eku(m) II "to starve, deprive (of food, water)" 
O/jB D land, people; infin. ukku sa zunni 



68 elathjpu 

"shortage of rain"; > eku I; ek&tu; mekutu; 

tekitu 1 
eku — » Iku 
Ekur 1. (temple of Enlil at Nippur) 2. jB (a name 

of the underworld, abode of demons); < Sum.; 

> ekurris; ekurru 
ekurris "into the Ekur (= underworld)" jB; 

< Ekur 
ekurru f., occas. m. "temple, chapel" M/NA, 

M/NB [E.KUR(.RA)] as building; as cult place; 

akil, satam ekurrdte "inspector of temples"; 

<Ekur 
ekurum (or equrum) (a wooden object) OAkk 
ekutu jB "impoverishment"; Nuzi "orphanhood"; 

< eku I 
el — » eli 
ela "apart from, in the absence of Ass., O/jB 

"except (for)", "if it were not for" (— » GAG 
§1 14p); in adv. use "exclusively" OB; < elu I ?; 

> elaman; elat 
elae, elaya (desig. of horse, of tool) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
elallu "cloud" jB lex.; < Sum. 
elallu — » also alallu 
elallu mng. unkn. MB(Ass.) 
elallu — » also alallu I 
elaman "apart from" OB lex.; e. nidti "were it not 

for us"; < ela + -man 
Elama(t)tu(m) "(goddess) of Elam" O/jB 

[ELAM.MA- ] name of the Bow star (qastu); 

also MN at Susa; < elamu 
elamittu — » alamittu 
elamltu — » elamu 
elamku (a kind of arrow) jB lex. 
elammakku(m), Nuzi elalemmahhu (a tree, 

valuable wood) OAkk, O/jB (felled in Syria) 

as timber, as material for furniture; M/jB med. 

in prescriptions 
elammihuru (a craftsman) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
elamu; f. ela(m)mitu "Elamite" jB, NA desig. of 

fig, cart, wool, camelian; > Elamattu 
elamutu mng. unkn. jB 
elan — » elenu 2; elldn 
elanis "above, in the upper part" jB( Ass.); < el(i) 

+ -an + -is 
eldnu — » elenu; ilidnum 
eldnum — » ilidnum 
ela(p)pii — » alapu 
eldq pi — » liqu I 
elat "beyond, over and above" NB "in addition 

to, apart from" (prep.); with pron. suff., sa; 

also adv. "additionally"; < ela 
elathipu (a linen garment) jB lex. 



eldu 

elatu — » elitu; elu I 

elaya — » elae 

eldu (a dairy product) jB lex. 

eldu — » also esdu 

elehu(m) "to strew, sprinkle" O/jB G (Hi) of dry 

substances, e.g. flour D ~ G; also ~ "to adorn" 

s.th., with (= ace.) wool, clothing; stat. "is 

decked out" with; transf., with abundance; 

^ > ulluhum 

elelanu "carolling merrily" jB; < elelu I 

elelu I "cheerful song" jB e. sadrutu "songs 
(written down) in sections"; < aldlu III 

elelu(m) II "to be(come) pure, free" G (i/i) [KU] 
of ominous sign "be clear"; "be pure" cultically, 
of person, incantation; OA, OB of person, 
person's forehead (putum) "be free" from 
claims D "purify" [KIJ] weapons in sea; body, 
mouth, hands; of deity "purify" humans, 
heaven; by magic; "carry out purely" ritual, 
offering; "dedicate by purification"; OB 
"manumit" slave(-woman) Dt "purify o.s."; "be 
purified"; > ellu I.II ?, ellis, ella-me, ellutu; 
elilu ?; ullulu I; mullilu; teliltu; tullal 

elelu III mng. unci. jB lex. 

elemmahhu — » elammakku 

elen — » elenu 2 

elenitu I, eliydnitu 'the superior one' jB mag. 
(desig. of witch); NB "deceitful words"? (-» 
elitu 10); < elenu 

elenitu II "upper garment" NB = elitu 4; < elenu 

elenu(m), OB also elidnuml, O/MA, Bogh., NB, 
occas. jB also eldnu "above, over" Bab. 
[AN.TA(- ): UGU- ] 1. adv. "above", topog., in 
sky; "above (ground)"; after prep, ana, adi, istu 
e. "upwards, upstream", "up to the top", "from 
above"; elenumma "in addition" 2. prep, (with 
pron. suff., e.g. elenussu; M/NB often elen, 
elan) "above, over"; Nuzi also = "to east of; 
"upstream of; OB "besides, apart from", Am. 
"more than"; elan uri "pudenda"; < el(u) I + 
-dnum; > elenu; elenitu I.II 

elenu "upper" M/NB [AN.TA- ; NB also UGU- ?] 
of fields, territory, sea; < elenu + -i; 
> elenitu I.II 

eleppatum — ^ eleppu 

eleppu(m), ilippum f., NB also m. "ship, boat" 
[GIS.MA; OAkk, OB freq. mA; OAkk pi. 
MA.MA] OB also nom. unit, eleppatum 
"(single) boat"; bel e. "ship owner"; e. bd'eri/i 
"fisherman's boat"; e. Hi "deity's boat"; e. 
qardbi "battleship"; e. neberi [GIS.MA.DIRI.GA] 
"ferry boat"; "(model) boat", Am. as toy; jB of 
gold 



69 elitu(m) 

elepu(m), alapu "to sprout, grow" Bab. G (Hi) 
astr. of halo (agu); NB stat. in PNs "grants 
growth to" Gt "grow into one another", stat. of 
parts of body, exta; "be interlocked" of 
combatants, weapons D "make grow" trees; 
MB transf. "increase" daily stint Dt/Dtn NB 
"increase, multiply" of descendants S "cause" 
stature "to grow" St "(cause to) interlock", "be 
made to interlock", of vegetation, in combat; "be 
made to grow, increase" of descendants, regnal 
years; > ellipu; lipu, lip lipi; etlupu; nelepu^ 

elesu(m) "to swell; rejoice" Bab.(lit) G (///) of 
heart, liver "rejoice", also ellipt. of person, stars 
Gtn iter. Gt "rejoice constantly" D "make 
joyful" heart, liver; stat. "is swollen", of parts of 
body Dt "be made to swell" S "cause to rejoice" 
heart, liver etc.; door (mng. unci.); ellipt. of 
person; > elsu, elsis; Usu II; ulsu, ulsdnis; 
ullusu; melesu 

elestihhuri (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

elgulla — » elkulla 

eli, elu, el, Hi, OAkk al "on, over, above; against; 
more than" OAkk, Bab., rarely NA [UGU] "on; 
on to" a place, a thing; of obligation etc. "on; on 
to" a person; of person "over" another, a task; 
"in addition to"; "more than" in quantity or 
quality; "against" enemy, person, esp. of anger, 
shout; "on account, on behalf of s.o.; "to" s.o. 
after tidbu(m), mardsu(m) "to please, 
displease"; < elu I; > elanis; — » eliya sa sise 

elidnum — » elenu 

elidtum — ^ elitu 

eligulla — » elkulla 

elihuru (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

elikulla — » elkulla 

elilu — » alilu 

elilu, ellilu, OA i(l)lilum (a kind of soapwort)? 
jB, OA ? ; < elelu II ? 

elilu — » also alilu 

elinu (a plant) jB lex. 

elis "above; in addition" [AN.TA(-w)] 1. adv. "up 
above", i.e. in heaven, or on the earth; e. u 
saplis "above and below"; "upstream"; 
"upwards", also ana e.; NA med. ana e. "by 
mouth"; "aloud"; OA "in addition", "and 
further" 2. occas. j/NB prep, "over" the water; 
"upstream of; < elu I 

elis — » also His 

elita(m), elitu, ellita 1. OB "furthermore, 
moreover" 2. Bab. "aloud"; < elu I 

elitu(m), ilitu, OAkk alitum; pi. elidtum, elatu 
'that which is above' [AN.TA] 1. OA 
"top(-load)" of donkey 2. "upper (stone)" for 



elitu(m) 

grindstone; "pestle" for mortar 3. MA, NB 
"upper room, structure" 4. "upper (garment)" 
(— » elenitu II) 5. "upper part" of moon, plant, 
sack, wheel 6. e. uzni(m), Ini, libbi "upper part 
of ear, eye, heart"; of parts of liver [AN.TA; 
NU.UM.ME] 7. eldt same [AN.PA] "zenith" 8. pi. 
eldtu "the upper world" (as opp. to 
underworld), also = "humanity" 9. OAkk 
alidtum "the upper lands"; OB "high-lying 
(fields)" 10. "deception", pi. "lies" (— » 
elenitu I) 11. jB lex. "exterior"; OA e. tuppim 
"tablet envelope" 12. gramm. (sa) ellti "(Sum.) 
prefix"; < elu II 

elitu — » also ellta 

elitu(m) "rising (amount)" Bab.; sg. OB "high 
amount" (opp. to wdrittum); pi. "additional 
payments" in inheritance, bride price; NB "extra 
payments" of dates; < elu IE f. ptcp. 

eliu (a perfume) MA 

eliu — » also elu I. II 

eliydnltu — » elenitu I 

eliyanu (a garment) jB lex.; < elu I 

eliya "rider" in e. sa slse NB(Achaem.); < eli ? 

elkulla, elgulla, eliliklgulla (a medicinal plant or 
plants) M/jB lex., med. 

ellabbuhhu(m), ellambuhhu, illabbuhu, 
(elil)libbuhu, ilbuhfyu f. "bladder" O/jB, MA*of 
bird, fish, sheep etc.; MA as container for oil; 

< Sum.? 

ella(m)-me, illa-me "pure in divine powers" O/jB 
title of Stn, Samas; lex. (a deity's garment); 

< eliu I + mu II 

ellamkusu, illaggusu (a leather object, phps.) 

"bellows" jB; < Sum. 
ellamu-, illamu- "before" (prep.) jB; OB in 

PN ?; with pron. suff. "before" s.o., in time; "in 

front of, in place; < ina + Idmu- 
ellan, elldnu(m) "over and above" Ass. 1. OA 

adv. "additionally" 2. prep, "in addition to, apart 

from"; MA "beyond"; Bogh. "more than"; 

M/NA "on the far side of; Ug. "away from"; 

> ellatdn; — » alldnum ?; ulldnu ? 
ellarutu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
ellatan "on the other side of OB(N.Mes.); 

< elldn 
ellatu — » illatu I 
ellaya — » elleya 
ellemesum — » elmesu 

ellet, elliat mng. unci. OB ina e. DN "with the 
authority of DN"?; Nuzi "beside, next to"?; 

< lew ? 

elletu — » eliu I; illatu I 
elletu — » e'iltu 



70 elsu 

elleya, elillaya 1. O/jB lex. "no! no way!"? 2. jB 
(shout of joy) 

elliat — » ellet 

ellidtu — » elu II 

ellibbuhu — » ellabbuhhu 

elligu, illigu (a stone) jB; < Sum. 

Ellil, Illil, OAkk Enlil [ d EN.LlL; d 50; NA d BAD] 
1. the god Enlil 2. Bab.(lit.) desig. of the 
supreme deity, E. ill "E. of the gods", of 
Marduk, Assur, Nergal, Ninurta; > Ellillatu; 
Ellilutu 

Elli(l)latu, Elli(l)litu (desig. of supreme goddes^) 
jB [ d EN.LfL.LA- ] of Istar, Ninlil; < Ellil 

ellilu — » elilu 

Ellilutu, Illilutum "power of Enlil, divine 
supremacy" O/jB [ d EN.LlL(.LA)- ; M/jB 
d BAD- ] of Enlil, Marduk, Assur, Sin, Istar, 
Ninlil; < Ellil 

ellimesu — » elmesu 

ellipu 1. (a plant) jB lex., med. 2. mng. unkn. jB 
lex.; < elepu 

ellis "purely" jB; "clearly" of appearance of 
moon; "in cultic purity"; < eliu I 

ellita — » elita 

elliu — » eluU 

ellu(m) I, allu "pure; clear" [KU; SIKIL] "pure, 
clean" of water, oil; "bright, shining" of metal, 
stone; of mountains, forests, onions; 
"(cultically, ritually) pure" of deity, person, 
hands; of incantation, symbol; temple, place; of 
meal, offering, wine; e. as subst., desig. of 
priest; Bogh., Ug. "free" as social class; 
< elelu II; > ella-me; ellis; ellutu; — » e. U 

ellu(m) II "sesame oil" Bab. of a specific quality 
[i.GIS (-» also samnu)]; <e.ll 

eliu — » elu I 

elluku — » illukku 

elliiru — » ilium 

ellutu — » illatu I 

ellutu "purity" M/jB; < eliu I 

elmarumma "oath"? Nuzi in e. epesu; < Hum 

elmestu, elmeru, MA elmeltu, NA elmessu (a 
kind of grass) jB, M/NA; < elmesu 

elmesu(m), ellilemesum. Ass. e/ilmusu, e/ilmisi 
(a valuable stone, phps.) "amber" Bab.(lit.), 
NA [SUD.AG] also as (f)PN; freq. in lit.; 
> elmestu 

elpetu, ilpitu, elpatu "alfalfa grass" Bab. 
[U.NUMUN; U.A.NUMUN], med. in prescriptions 

elpu — » alapu 

elsis "joyfully" Bab.(lit.); < elsu 

elsu "joyful" OB of heart; < elesu; > elsis 

eltu -» iltu I.n 



elu(m) I 



71 



emedu(m) 



eltuhhu — » istuhhu 

elu(m) I "top, upper side" O/jB (rare); > eli, 
eldnis; elenu, elenu, elenitu I.II; eliyanu; elis; 
elu II, elitu, elutiC-; ela 1 -; — » e. II; elu TH 

elu II (part of a metal object) NB of censer (= e. I 
"top, lid"?) 

elu — » also eli; ilu 

elu(m) I, elium, eliu "high" Bab.(lit.); "tall" in 
stature; of neck, head "(raised) high"; "exalted"; 
< elu III; > elita 

elu(m) II, ilu, alum, OAkk alium. Ass. eliu(m), 
MA f. pi. also ellidtu "upper" [AN.TA; AN- ; 
NIM; Am. UGU- ] of parts of body and liver; 
buildings; matum elitum = "Upper Meso- 
potamia"; of river, sea, fields; of wind (sdru) 
"north"?; "up above, supernal" of Igigi; OB 
"outer" tablet; gramm. "(Sum.) prefix"; < elu I 
+ -i"; > elitu; elutu 

elu(m) III, OB also alum "to go up, arise; (stat.) 
is high" G (('/(') [En; jB also AN.TA] 1. stat. "is 
(too) high", "is raised up"; transf. of DN etc. 
"is exalted" 2. of living beings "move upwards, 
climb up" into heaven, mountains, upper land; 
"come up" out of water; on to roof, wall; 
"ascend" {ana) throne; of animal "mount" 
sexually 3. of things "come up, arrive"; of ship 
"go upstream"; of star, cloud, water "rise"; of 
land "emerge" (from water); "come up" of 
plant, lot, metal etc. from kiln; of ornament "go 
on to" s.th. 4. transf. of prices "rise"; "climb 
(socially)"; "apply (etc.) higher up", e.g. to 
king, law court; leg. of claimant, witnesses 
"come forward"; of person, tablet etc. "turn up, 
appear"; math, "emerge, be the result"; of 
harvest, profit "be produced, result"; NB ana 
mulfhi (X) e. "take on liability for (X)"; ina X 
<?., qdtu ina X e. "forfeit X" (— » Gt); of person 
"get away from" s.o.'s control (qdt-), of 
property "be lost" to owner Gtn iter. Gt "go up 
and away"; of person, animal, silver, illness; 
O/jB ina X e. "forfeit X" D "make higher, raise" 
wall, building, 'head' (resu) of building; of 
deity "lift up, elevate" person, kingship (also 
with resu); "extol, praise (deity)"; NA "take 
away, remove" Dtn "repeatedly extol" Dt 1. = 
Gt "forfeit" 2. "be raised high(er)" than 
(= ana) (— » utlellu) S [En] caus. of G; jB ana 
zaqlpi s. "impale"; "post, install" garrison in 
fort etc.; Susa me s. "have water close over one, 
be submerged" (in ordeal); "dedicate" to 
temple; "get out" from storage, kiln; "embark" 
person, goods; "bring forward" witnesses; 
"produce" lesion; "bring out, produce" tablet, 
lost property; "enter" on tablet; "introduce" bees 



to a region; "express" anxiety, thought; sum X 
s. "swear oath by X"; "disinherit" heir, "turn 
off, drive from" fields, land; "take" sheep from 
fold; "remove" boundary stone etc.; math, 
"subtract" [En; NIM], "determine" root; Am. sa 
dama sulu (desig. of gold) Stn iter, of S St jB 
of features in liver "be raised (as) high" as 
(= ana); Am. transf. of dowry "be made (as) 
immense as" N — » ne'ellu; > elu I, ellta; eld, 
elitu; melu, melltu, mulu; ullu n, ullutu; 
mullltum; telltu; sulu, sulutu II, selu'utum; 
muselu; utlellu; — » elu I and derivatives 

elu — » also alallu II; alu I.IV 

elu — » alu II 

elu "claimant" MB; < elu III 

elu'e (a prof, desig.)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 

Elunum, Elulu(m), j/NB Ululu (a festival; 6th 
Bab. month) [lTI.KIN(. d INNIN.NA)]; OAkk, OB 
"(festival of) £."; "month of £.", also "second 
(NB sanu, NA urkiu) £."; PN E/Ululdyu 

elupatu (an object) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

eluri — » Mure 

elutu, Hutu in subdt e. (a garment) jB; < elu II ? 

em, ema "wherever" Bab. 1. prep, "in 
whatever/every part of, em dli "in 
whatever/every part of the town"; em qabli 
"wherever there be battle"; j/NB temporal "at 
whatever time", ema arffi "at each (new) 
month" 2. conj. "wherever", ema tannamru 
"wherever you appear"; j/NB temporal 
"whenever"; < ai III + -ma (-» GAG §1 14i) 

ema'e — » miya 

emahu (a word for temple) jB; < Sum. 

emammu, emdmu — » umdmu 

emanamumma "tenfold" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

emantu "group of ten" Nuzi; < Hurr.; — » 
emantuljlu 

emantuhlu, emattuhlu "decurion" Nuzi [GAL. 10]; 
< Hurr.; — » emantu 

emartu (an ornament)? jB lex. 

emdru — » imeru 

emarukku "flood dragon" jB; < Sum. 

emasu (a temple inner room) jB 

emdsu — » also umdsu 

emattuhlu — » emantuhlu 

emba (or imbd) "baa"jB of sheep 

embubu — » ebbubu 

emdu I, endu "imposed" jB; < emedu 

emdu(m) II, endu (an aromatic tree) O/jB, 
M/NA; its wood as fumigant; NA sa e.-su "the 
e. man/supplier"; saman e. "oil of e."; — » suddu 

emedu(m) "to lean on; impose" G (OA, early 
OB alu, later /'//) [US] 1. "lean on" (=acc.) 



emegalammu 



72 



emsu(m) 



person, thing; ext., math., stat. "is in contact 
with, touches, reaches to"; of boat "land", of 
stars "come into contact with"; "rely on, take 
refuge with" deity, "in" corner, hiding place; 
sadd(su) e. "resort to mountain" (= disappear) 

2. "impose, put s.th. on (= ace.) s.o./s.th."; 
"install" door, beam; "load" captives on boat; 
"put" yoke, load "on" donkey, neck; "impose" 
corvee, tribute, tax etc.; penalty, judgement, 
oath(-taking); illness, woe; O/MB put- e. "give 
guarantee" Gtn iter. MB "push ever further" 
into woods Gt OAkk "lie on each other" D 
"install" beams etc.; med. "apply" dressing; 
qdta(m) u. "lay hands on", liter, and transf. of 
legal act; "dock" a ship; "build" quay "onto" 
bank; "set" fire to s.th.; "hide (intrans.) in" 
corners; stat. "is in contact with"; OA 
"assemble, load" goods etc. Dt pass, of D with 
qdtu S caus. of G OAkk "cause to take refuge"; 
NB "cause to impose" tax St "bring" troops etc. 
"together", "put" (o.'s heads) "together"; "add 
up" amounts; "knit" o.'s eyebrows; of parts of 
body, of liver, med. "mix", "add" ingredients 
"to one another" N 1. recipr. of persons "get 
together" with (=itti), "confer"; of troops 
"combine, join up"; "meet" in battle; of parts of 
liver, stars "converge, meet up"; Nuzi stat. 
"adjoins" 2. "betake o.s. to", "seek refuge in" 

3. pass, of G "be propped up"; "be imposed"; 
"be placed next to" Ntn (or Nt ?) "continually 
join together", astr. "continually conjoin"; 

> emdu I; emidu, emmedu; imdu, imittu II; 
nemedu, nemettu; etmudu, etarndu; mummidu^; 
suteniudu; muttetendu; umdu? 

emegalammu (a Sum. dialect) jB 
[eme.galam.ma]; < Sum. 

ememu(m) "to be(come) hot" O/jB, NA G (///; 
stat. em) [KUM] of person's body "be hot, run a 
temperature"; of weather, walls of house 
Gtn [KUM. KUM] jB med. "continually have 
temperature" D "heat up" water, oil etc.; 

> emmu, emmu, emmutu; ummu II; immu, 
immanis 

emequ(in) I "to be wise" OAkk, Bab. G stat. 
(emuq) of deity, person St "pray devoutly" to 
(=ana), for (=dat. pron. suff.); > emqu, 
emqis, emqutu, emuqtu; nemequ; ummuqu, 
temiqu; mustemiqu; — ► emuqu 

emequ(m) II ~ "to care for" OB G only ptcp. -» 
emiqum D "make, appoint s.o. to care" 

emerum — » amaru I 

emeru I "to be red" jB G -» emru I D "redden", 
stat. of eyes "are reddened" 



emeru(m) II ~ "to swell" O/jB G stat. of heart, 
gall, pregnant woman "is swollen" N "become 
swollen, enlarged" of body, star Ntn iter, of N; 

> emru II 
emesallu — ► mesallu 

emesu(m) I "to be sour" O/jB G stat. (emis, 

emus) of beer etc.; > emsu I 
emesu(m) II "to be hungry" OA, O/jB G (Bab. 

ulu, Ass. ///') of people, land; OA aklam e. "be 

hungry for bread" D OA "allow" s.o. "to go 

hungry"; > emsu II; umsu I; emmisum 
emesu "to strive" MB(Ass.) Gtn iter. 
emetu(m) "mother-in-law" (or other female 

relative by marriage) Bab.; < emu 
emetuku "slanderer" jB lex.; < Sum. 
emidu "tax assessor" NB; < emedu 
emiqum; f. emiqtum ~ 'one who cares for, carer' 

(a household servant) OA, OB; < emequ II; — ► 

emuqtu 
emittam — » imitta 
emittu — ► imittu I. II 
emmea, emba "baa"jB of sheep 
emmedu ~ "lodger, tenant"? jB lex.; < emedu 
emmertu — » immertu 
emmeru — ► immeru 
emmisum ~ "in need, short of cash"? OA; 

< emesu II 

emmu(m), am/nw/n "hot" "O/jB, M/NA [KUM] of 
bitumen, water, dregs; baked brick, oven; as 
subst. "hot (water)", sa e. "servant bringing hot 
water"; emmetu "hot (bread)"; < ememu; 

> emmutu, emmu 

emmu pi. tant. ~ "fuel" MA (or "hot cinders"?); 

< emmu 
e(m)mu — ► imu 

emmutu "heat" MB in e. umi "heat of the day"; 

< emmu 

emqis "intelligently" OB; < emqu 

emqu(m), enqu; f. emuqtu "wise, clever" Bab. 

[KU.ZU]; "skilled, clever" craftsman, scribe; 

"wise" god, king etc.; "crafty" fox; < emequ I; 

> emqis; emuqtu; emqutu 
emqutu "wisdom" Am.?; < emqu 
emru I "red(dish)" jB of otter; < emeru I 
emru II "swollen" M/jB lex.; < emeru II 
emsu(m) I, ensu; f. emistu "sour" O/jB, NA 

[BIL/BIL.LA] of wine, vinegar, beer; fruit; 
pastry; < emesu I 
emsum II, ensu "hungry" OB, jB lex.; 

< emesu II 

. emsu(m), ensu, im/nsu "lower body, abdomen" 
O/jB [tfAS] 1. of human (also du.), horse 



emsutu 



73 



enketum 



2. (part of a harrow; pi. f. of a chair) 3. (a kind 
of lapis lazuli bead); > emsutu 1 - 
emsutu mng. unkn. Nuzi; armour ana e.; 

< emsu ? 

emu(m), imu "father-in-law" (or other male 
relative by marriage) [uSBARg]; bit e. 
"(father-)in-law's house, family"; mdr(at) e. 
"brother/sister-in-law"; e. rabu "father-in-law", 
(as opp. to) e. sehru "son-in-law"; > emetu; 
emumdtu; emutu 

emu I "tongue" jB lex. as part of plough; < Sum. 

emu II (a strap) jB lex. 

emu — » also ewum I; imu 

emumatu pi. tant. "relatives, in-laws" jB lex.; 

< emu; — ► emusutu 

emuqa(mma) "forcibly" MA, Nuzi; < emuqu 

emuqattam "forcibly, violently" OA; < emuqu 

emuqtu "carer"? jB (for emiqtu ?); < emqu 

emuqu(m), NA also amuqu, miiqu; pi. m. & f. 
"strength; force" (freq. du.) [A; USU] 1. "bodily 
strength", e. ramdni "own strength, resources"; 
often in PNs; OA transf. "(financial) support; 
authority" 2. of groups of men "military/labour 
force", "forces" 3. "force (majeure)"; ina e. 
"forcibly", "forceful, violent" deeds, words 
4. "power, ability, capability", klma emuq 
"commensurately with"; NA (Id) miiqd- "(not) 
within the power of, e.g. Id muqdsa "she 
cannot..."; > emuqamma; emuqattam; — ► 
emequ I 

emusutu error for — ► emumdtu ? 

emutin (a kind of bandage) jB lex. 

emutu(m) "relatives by marriage; marriage 
relationship" O/jB bit e. "father-in-law's 
house(hold)"; Am. "marriage alliance"; < emu 

enanna — ► enenna 

enanu (a plant) jB lex. 

endtu — ► inu I 

enbu —* inbu 

enbubum — ► ebbiibu 

endippu, enduppu (a temple cook) jB lex.; 
<Sum. 

endu — ► emdu I.II; undu I 

enduppu — ► endippu 

enebu "to fruit" jB G not attested Gtn (or Ntn) 
jB lex. D lex. Dtn "repeatedly gather fruit"? 
Dt "be made to bear fruit"; < inbu denom.; 
> unnubu; innabu; nanndbu 

enen(na), enanna, enin(na), eninni "now" M/jB 
var. of inanna 

enenu(m) I, jB also andnu "to grant favour, be 
favourable" OAkk, OA, O/jB G (a/u) esp. in 



PNs; OA "grant leave (of absence)"; Am. "be 

merciful"; > ennu; ennandtum 
enenu II "to punish" OAkk, MA, M/jB G (///) of 

deity, esp. in PNs; > unnunu ? 
enenu III "to sin" jB G (e/u) of person, PIN; 

> ennenu; ennettu 

enenu IV "to pray" jB lex.; -♦ utnenu II 

enequ(m) "to suck" G (///) of child, animal; obj. 
breast, milk Gtn iter. D lex. "soak, steep" Dt jB 
"be suckled" S "suckle, give suck to"; > eniqu; 
uriiqu, muniqu; t eniqu; sunuqu, museniqtu 

enerhi (a plant) jB lex. 

enesu(m) "to be(come) weak" G (/'//) [SIG]; of 
person, part of body; transf. "be(come) 
poverty-stricken"; of building "become 
dilapidated, fall into disrepair" Gt stat. OB 
etnus akalam "he is short of food" D "weaken" 
person, population, land; (part of) body; cattle; 
stat. of ziggurrat "was allowed to fall into 
disrepair" Dt OA "become poverty-stricken, 
insolvent"; > ensu, ensutu; unsu; etnusu; 
unnusu, unnusutu, munnisu; menesu, menestu, 
menesutu; tanistum 

enetu — ► entu 

enetu "to flatten"? M/jB, NA G not attested D 
liter, "flatten"?; astr. stat. of moon, planets "are 
faint" Dt astr. "be faint, become faint"; 

> unnutu 

engisu, engisu (a stone) jB [NA4.EN.GI/IGI.SAg]; 

<Sum. 
engisu, engu (a temple cook) Bab. [EN.ME.GI4]; 

<Sum. 
engisu — ► engisu 
engu — ► engisu 

enguratti adv. mng. unkn. NA 
engurru(m) "subterranean waters" O/jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

eni, OB ini - "indeed" OAkk, OB; = anna ? 

eniktum —* enketum 

enimgallum "(legal) claim"? OB lex.; < Sum. 

enimmu — ► inimmu I 

enimtarrum "rejection of claim"? OB lex.; 

<Sum. 
enin(na), eninni — ► enenna 
eniqu; f. eniqtu "suckling, unweaned child" NB; 

< eniqu 

eni(s)su (a kind of bandage)? jB lex. 

enita, enitu "in changed order" jB of incantation; 

parts of lung; < enu I 
enitu —* enita; enu I; initu I 
enitu — ► enu 
enketum (or enqetum) pi. (a kind of fish) OB, 

purchased for consumption 



enkummu(m) 

enkummu(m) "temple treasurer" O/jB [ENKUM]; 

< Sum. 
Enlil-*Ellil 
Enli(l)latu — ► Ellillatu 
Enlilutu — ► Ellilutu 
enma "thus, saying" OAkk ptcl. introducing dir. 

speech; later — ► umma 
enna "now" NA, NB, rarely jB; also e. agd, e. 

adu; adi (sa) e., adi muhhi (sa) e. "up till now" 
ennakku mng. unkn. jB lex.; < Sum. 
ennanum; pi. f. "supplication, petition" OA; pi. 

"indulgence, dispensation"; < enenu I; — ► unlnu 
ennenu ~ "malicious" jB of Lamastu; < enenu III 
ennenu(m), inninnu (a kind of cereal) O/jB 

[SE.IN.NU.HA] sown; ground into flour 
ennettu(m), e/innintu, also ennetu "sin; 

punishment" O/jB e. patdru "to absolve sin"; 

hel e.-ya "one who has sinned against me"; 

< enenu III 
ennettu — ► also ernittu 
ennetu — ► ennettu 
ennigu (a priest) jB; < Sum. 
ennintu — ► ennettu 
ennu(m) "favour" OAkk; OA, OB in PNs divine 

"favour, mercy"; < enenu I 
ennu — ► also enu 
e(n)nungallu "chief guardian" Bogh., of forest; 

< Sum. 
enqetum — ► enketum 
enqu — ► emqu 
ensu(m) 1. "dream interpreter" OB lex., jB 2. (a 

plant) jB lex.; <Sum. 
ensu — ► emsu I. II 
ensu(m), M/jB(Ass.) also ansu; f. enistu "weak" 

[SIG] of person, animal, esp. "sick"; militarily 

"weak"; socially "weak" as opp. to dannu; 

"poor" exchange rate; of building "dilapidated"; 

< enesu; > ensutu 
ensu — » also emsu 
ensupu (a bird) jB 
ensutu, MB (Ass.) ansutu "weakness" M/NB of 

person; of building "dilapidation"; < ensu 
entu(m), enetu "high priestess" OAkk, Bab. 

[NIN.DINGIR(.RA)]; MB(Ass.), jB bit e. 

"cloister", syn. of gagu; < enu 
entu (technical term in date cultivation) jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
enu(m), ennu Bab. 1. "lord" [EN] 2. "high 

priest(ess)" [en]; < Sum.; > entu; enutu 
enu — ► also inn I 

enu I ~ "overturned" jB lex.; < enu III; > eriita 
enu II (loincloth or kilt) jB lex. 



74 eperu(m) 

enu(m) III "to change" G (///) [BAL] "alter" 
place, street, boundary; MA ellipt. "cross 
(boundary)"; of person kallta e. "change 
kidney", i.e. lie on the other side; "change" 
dynasty, statement, order, judgement; ellipt. 
"renege" (on earlier agreement); "replace" s.o., 
"substitute for" Gt "change places with one 
another", "relieve each other" St "change s.th. 
over into s.th. else", "exchange" with s.o.; 
"have sexual intercourse"; "reassign" omen to 
s.o. else N pass, of G [BAL] M/NB "be altered" 
of decision, word (usu. negated); of person 
Ntn "be constantly changing" of facial 
expression; > enu I, eriita; enu; initu I, H ? ; tenu, 
ten&nu, tenitum; mustenniunC 

enu —* inu I 

enu; f. eriitu "substitute" O/jB; < enu III 

enuma — ► inuma 

enungallu — ► ennungallu 

Enunnakku —* Anunnakku 

enunutu — ► anunutu 

enusu — ► inusu 

enutu j/NB 1. "lordship" of gods, king 2. "office 
of high priestess"; < enu 

enutu — ► also unutu 

enzu(m), ezzu(m), inzum; pi. mostly f. "goat" 
[UZ; Oz.yi.A] "female goat"; "goat(s)" gener., 
re'i e. "goatherd"; sdrat e. "goat-hair"; astr. 
"(the constellation) Lyra" [MUL.UZ]; also (a 
kind of bird); — ► hazzum 

epa(p)pumng. unkn.jB lex. 

eparsu (or etamsu) (a garment) MB 

epartu (a garment) M/jB lex. 

epattum; pi. epaddtum (a garment) OA, from 
TaHjad 

epdtu — ► apatu 

epeqenu —* epqenu 

epequ(m) ~ "to embrace; grow over, round" OA, 
O/jB G (Hi) "grow over" of part of liver etc., 
usu. stat.; O/jB lex. "embrace (in affection)" Gt 
"grow over each other" D ~ G ext., stat. "is 
grown over, round" part of body; of wave, 
flood "be turned over"?; OA ~ "pack an upqum 
load" Dt pass, of D (or Gt ?) OB of lung "be 
grown over"?; > epqu I; ipqum; upqu I ? , II; 
etpuqu; uppuqu 1 -; epuqurn 1 - 

eperis, epris "with earth" jB, with katdmu ("to 
cover"); < eperu 

epertu(m) "(baked) brickwork" OB(Elam), 
MB(Ass.) material of wall, of temple; < eperu 

eperu(m), epru, j/NB also ipiru "earth, soil; 
dust" [SAtfAR(.tfl.A)] "(loose) earth, soil" for 
building work; from excavation or destruction; 



eperu(m) 



75 



episum 



as means of concealment; "dust (storm)", 
"dust" of the feet; mag. "dust" from street etc.; 
in self-debasement OA "dust" (on the head), 
MB "dust" (under king's feet) as self-descr.; jB 
hit e. 'house of dust', i.e. underworld, kisid e. 
'conquest of the soil', i.e. doomed to be buried; 
MB (Ass.) "mortar" in masonry (e. sa kupri "e. 
of bitumen"); "earth" yielding ores etc.; math, 
"volume of earth"; Mari, Alal., Bogh. "land, 
territory"; > eperis; epertu 

eperu(m) "to feed, provide for" OAkk, Bab., 
MA G (Hi) [SE.BA] of king, deity (esp. in 
PNs) S OB "cause s.o. to provide for, feed" 
Stn NB "cause to be fed regularly" St "forage; 
hurry about" (or — ► suteburuml); > ipru; 
epiru; neperetum 

eperu — ► also apdru; eberu I 

epesum "to be difficult" OB G stat. (epis) of 

decision (for = dat.) D "make difficulties" in 

contractual situation 

epesum I "action, behaviour" OB e. damqum 
"good behaviour"; < epesu II infin. 

epesu(m) II "to do; make; build" G (e/u, later 
Bab. ulu) [DU; occas. AK, Gl] 1. (without obj.) 
"act, behave"; "work"; of illness "be active, take 
effect"; math, "proceed" 2. "do" s.th.; OA, OB 
sa epalesim e. "do what has to be done"; good, 
evil (towards s.o.) 3. "do, carry out, exercise" a 
function, esp. with abstr. obj. (Akk. -utu(m), 
Hurr. -umma), e.g. abbutam, sarrutam e. 
"perform function of father, king"; with infin. 
OB aldkam e. "make a journey", NB naddnu u 
maharu e. "carry on commerce"; "commit" 
crime, "make" rebellion, battle, love; "render" 
help (usdtu); "carry out" act(ion), command, 
instruction; "realize" wish; "do" accounts; 
"effectuate" exchange; "perform" ritual, magic 
rites, incantation etc.; "try" a legal case 
4. idioms: kakki e. "take up arms"; Mari, Am. 
dla(m) e. "take" or "fortify a city"; Ug. ddma e. 
"spill blood"; jB sera e. "go hunting"; "offer 
up, sacrifice" animal (also absol. "make 
offering"); Mari awatam e. (also absol.) 
"speak". Bab.(lit.) pd{m) e. "speak (up)", OB 
"raise objections"; sipram e. "do (agricultural) 
work on" (+ 2nd ace); eqlam, kiriam e. "work 
field, orchard" (+ 2nd ace. for crop); "cultivate" 
crop; "manage" house, orchard; "process" 
wool, "work" metal 5. "(re)build" temple, 
house, room, wall, bridge, ship; "make" statue, 
furniture, garment etc.; food, drink; document; 
statement, contract; music; "put into effect" 
scheme; puzra e. "act secretively"; "cause" 
earthquake, wound, anxiety; bitam e. "form 



household, family"; "make profit in" gold, 
silver, stat. "is formed (like)" 6. "make into, 
convert"; Am., Nuzi, Bogh. ana mdrutti, 
sarruti "into son, king" etc.; jB/NA "convert" 
fields into (= ace.) own property Gtn iter. 
Gt "do thoroughly"? D OB "calculate" amount; 
"do up" hair; "treat, behave towards" s.o.; (in 
col.) "execute properly" tablet; Ass. often ~ G 
"practise" sorcery, "exercise" kingship etc., 
"conclude" agreement, "perform" prayer, 
"sacrifice" sheep, "operate" ferry, "work" gold; 
M/NA leg. in sale "carry out procedure"? S 
caus. of G St "be active, work on" s.th.; of 
demons "work against" s.o. (= ace. or dat.) N 
(OB mostly inneppes, ittenpes, innepis, later 
Bab. ulu) pass, of G siprum (ul) inneppelus 
"can(not) be done"; of person "be treated"; of 
document "be drawn up"; > epsu; ipsu, ipsis; 
epesu I; epistu, epusu, epustu; episu, epistu, 
episdnu, episdnutu; eppesu; upisu, upsassu; 
etpusu, itpesu, itepsu; uppusu, uppustu, 
muppisu, muppisiitu, muppisdnu; musepisu, 
musepisutu; mustepisu, mustepisutu; nepesu, 
nepisum, nepestu 

epidtum — ► apatu 

epinnu(m) m. & f. "(seed) plough" [(GIS.)APIN] 
OB alap e. "plough ox" [GU4.APIN(.HI.A)]; NB 
bit e. "ploughed plot"; OAkk SAG e ., NB rah(i) 
e. "official in charge of plough(-team)s"; astr. 
(a constellation) [MUL.APIN]; Nuzi (a surface 
measure = awiharu); < Sum. 

epiqtu — ► epqu I 

epirru (a bead)? jB lex. 

epiru "provider, feeder" jB lex.; < eperu 

epissu —* epistu 

episanu 1. NA "instigator" of revolt; NB 
"activist" 2. NB "confectioner" of sweetmeats 
3. NB of ox, donkey "working"; < episu + -an 

episanutu "agency" NB i.e. responsibility for 
carrying out tasks (house repairs, agriculture, 
brewing, prebends); < episanu 

epistu(m), ipistu(m), jB also epsetu "deed, 
action" Bab., NA [DU; also NiG.DiM.DiM.MA] 
"act(s), achievement(s)"; mag. "machinations"; 
"rites"; "work, (results of) labour": agricultural 
"works, operations"; "fabrication, creation" of 
ice, (artificial) precious stone; quality of "manu- 
facture, workmanship"; "building work, 
construction"; < epesu II 

epistu(m), NA epissu 1. OB "work team" 2. jB 
"sorceress" 3. NA "she who acts" (of 
goddess); < episu 

episum, ipisula (a kind of carpet)? OA in wool; 
also Bogh.? 



episu(m) 



76 



erbu(m) I 



episu — » upisu 

episu(m) 1. Bab. "doer; maker, builder, artisan" 
2.jB "sorcerer" 3. NA Id e. 'do-nothing', 
"idler"; < epesu II; > epistu, episdnu, episdnutu 

epitatu (a plant) jB lex. 

epitu(m) "baked product, pastry" O/MB, Ug.; 

< epu II 

epitum "female baker" OB; < epu 

eplu — » iplu 

eppesu "clever, effective" Bab. [DU] jB e. tdfodzi 

"skilled in battle"; < epesu II 
epqenu, epeqenu(m), epqennu (a skin complaint) 

O/jB; < epqu II 
epqu I "grown over" jB f. epiqtu, of part of liver, 

< epequ 

epqu(ni) II (a skin complaint, phps.) "leprosy" 
O/jB epqa(m) malu "to be afflicted with 
leprosy"; > epqenu 

epris — » eperis 

epru — » eperu 

epsetu — » epistu 

epsu(m); f. epilustu, NB also ipistu "made, built" 
[DU.A; NB also DU] bitu(m) e. "built-on 
house(-plot)"; "cultivated" field, orchard; 
"worked, prepared" metal, work, dates etc., NB 
Id epsetu "unworked items"; NB f. "adjusted, 
adjustment" of measures; < epesu II 

epsu — » also ipsu 

epu(m) I "baked" OAkk, jB; < epu II 

epu(m) II "to bake" Bab. G (Hi) bread, peaflour 
N pass., of bread; > epu I; epu, epitum; epitu; 
nepitu 

epu(m) "baker" Bab.; < epu II; > epitum 

epuqum mng. unci. Mari (quality/feature of a 
stone); < epequ ? 

epustu "(magical) procedure, ritual" j/NB 
[DU.DU.BI (= e.-su)]; < epesu II 

epusu "execution, carrying out" NB [DU] of 
work, accounts; < epesu II 

eqdbu — » ekepu 

eqbu(m), NA igbu> "heel" Bab., NA ? [MUD; 
MA.SIL; SIL.MUD ?] of human, demon, sheep; 
NB ina eqbinni "in succession to us" (Aram, 
usage); also NB mng. unkn. 

eqequ, egegu - "to paralyse" O/jB G (i/i?) stat. 
of person "is paralysed" Gtn iter., "be 
continuously unable to move" D stat. of tongue 
"is tied"; > uqqu; uqququ 

eqidu "cheese" jB, NA 

eqlu(m) m., OAkk f.; pi. f. "field; terrain" [A.SA; 
NA often A.SA.GA; OAkk, early OB, OA also 
GAN] "cultivated field"; OB e. sukusim "glebe, 
prebendary f.", e. akdlum "to enjoy usufruct of 



f."; Mari ina Id eqlim "on uncultivated land"; 
NB e. seri "f. in the desert"; "terrain, territory", 
e. sumdmiti "waterless terrain", e. tabu "easy 
terrain", e. namrasi, nukurti, sulmi "difficult, 
hostile, friendly terrain"; math, "area; squared 
total", also administrative; "distance" overland, 
Ass. eqla(m) "overland"; O/MA eqlam, ina 
eqlim "in the countryside" (opp. to (libbi) 
dli(m)); "wild" in names of plants, insects 

equ(m) "to anoint, smear on" OB lex., Bogh., jB 
G [MAR] eyes, with (= ace.) kohl, ointment; 
other parts of body Gtn iter. D stat., of part of 
body (mng. unci.) Dt "smear o.s. with" paste 
etc.; > mequ, meqitu; uqqu I; teqitu 

equ — ► also egu U 

equ (a cult object) M/NA, jB( Ass.); M/NA bit e. 
(a shrine); DN Belat-eqi; > equtu 

equrum — » ekurum 

equtu (a cultic practice) NA(Urar.) in ana e. 
sdluku; < equ 

era — » iria 

erdnu — ► ilidnum 

eratti(ya)nnu (part of a weapon)? Am.; < Hurr. 

erba, arbd "forty"; also jB lex. elep er-ba-ala'-ia 
"40 (gur) boat"; < erbe 

erbe, OA arbe, NA rabbi; f. erbet, Ass. arbet; 
nom. erbu(m); f. erbettu(m) "four", esp. erb- 
umi, erbe umi, erbet(ti) umu "four days"; NA 
rabbi urhi "four months"; OB erbinammatim 
"four cubits" (— » ammatul); kibrdt erbeml 
erbetti(m) [LIMMU(.BA)] "the four edges (of 
the world)" (-» arba'u); sari erbetti "the four 
winds"; suqi erbetti "four-ways, crossroads"; 
with pron. suff. erbettasu(nu) [LIMMU.BI/BA]; 
divide ana erbet "into four"; epin erbet 
"four(-ox) plough"; > erba; erbettum, 
erbettitum, erbenetum; erbesu, erbeserisu, 
erbeserU; rebu etc.; surbu'itum 

erbenetum — » erbettum 

erbeserisu "fourteen times" OB; < erbe + -serisu 
(-»GAG§71a) 

erbeseru "fourteenth" Am.; < erbe + -sera 

erbesu, erbisu, OA arbisu "four times" OA, 
O/jB; also analadi e.; < erbe ( -» GAG §71 a) 

erbet — ► erbe 

erbette — » erpette 

erbettitum "(cow) from a team of four" OB; 
< erbettum 

erbettum; pi. erbenetum "(team of) four" OB of 
plough oxen; < erbe; > erbettitum 

erbisu — » erbesu 

erbu(m) I, irbu "income" [KU4] of temple, 
palace, land, person; also pi., e.g. erbi se'im 



erbu(m) II 



77 



eresu(m) II 



"income (in) grain"; OA (as import-tax)?; NB 
"entry fee"? to temple; < erebu I; -» urbu I 

erbu(m) II, erebu "(sun)set" Bab. in ereb samsi 
[ d UTU.SU.A; SU.20] of time "sunset"; of place 
"the west", Mari also without samsi; < erebu I 

erbu(m), jB also eribu, M/NA ar(i)bu; st. constr. 
elarib "locust" [BURU5] tibut e. "locust swarm", 
also e. tibuti; eli e. mad "more numerous than 
locusts"; erib gardbi "leprosy-1." (a plant 
name); e. ndri "river-1." (a water insect)?; e. 
tdmti "sea-1." (a crustacean)?; e. turbu'ti "dust 
storm-1."; > eribts; sinnarabu 

erbu — » also erbe 

erebu — » erbu II 

erebu(m) I "to enter" G (Bab. u/u, Ass. alu; OB 
pert", occas. iterib) [KU4(.RA)] 1. "come in" 
(vent.), "go in" to (= ana) house, to (meet) 
s.o.; "enter" house (to take up residence; in 
marriage, adoption, servitude); land, city, 
heaven, underworld; e. u (w)asu(m) "go/come 
in and out" 2. "enter" new condition, e.g. ana 
wardutim/qdt PNIilkimlade e. "go into 
slavery /possession of PN/state service/sworn 
contract" 3. "report for duty, present o.s." to, 
before deity, king, lawcourt 4. of food, drink, 
incense "enter" the body; of work, lament ana 
libbi-lina karsi- e., i.e. be painful; of building, 
feature on liver "encroach, overlap" 5. of goods, 
money etc. "come in, arrive"; of water, caravan, 
month, season; of sun "set" Gtn iter. 
[KU4.KU4(.MES)], e.g. Lamastu muterribtum sa 
bitdti "who continually enters houses"; of 
caravans "arrive at different times, 
successively"; "get into" garment "repeatedly"; 
gramm. "occur" Gt O/jB "enter permanently"? 
D (rare) OB "enter" s.th. on (= ana) a tablet; 
Am.; NA stat. (pi. subj.) S caus. of G 
"introduce" into presence; "post, station" troops 
in town, land; "take into" temple as offering, 
house as present; "bring in" harvest, "import" 
goods; "deliver" letter, tablet etc.; "send in" 
news; "consign" stele etc. to darkness etc.; 
"insert", stat. of part of liver "is inserted" 
Stn iter, of S; > erbu I. II; eribu, eribtum, erib 
biti etc.; errebu, errebtu, errebutu; erubbdtum; 
urbu I, urubdtu I; nerebu, nerebtu, nerebutum; 
surubtu, museribtum; terubtu 

erebu(m) II, OB also herebum, jB usu. arebu 
"rook, jackdaw; crow, raven" O/jB 
[UGA.MUSEN; BURU4.MUSEN]; jB alereb zeri 
(a kind of crow) [jB BURU5 zeri]; sep(d) e.la. 
"crow's feet" (a plant) [U.GIR.UGA.MUSEN]; 
astr. (a star) "Corvus", also code name for 
Mars and Saturn [MUL.UGA.MUSEN; MUL.UG5. 



GA]; occas. hard to distinguish from erbu 
"locust" 

eredu — » warddum 

erelju ~ "to act aggressively" M/jB G (('/(') 

* towards s.o. (= dat.); "attack" s.o. (= ace.) 
S mng. unci.; > erhu, erhdnis, erhiitu; irhu; 
merehtu; — » ardhu I.II 

eremu — » ardmu 

erenu(m) I, erinnu, Nuzi also urinu "cedar" 
[(GIS.)EREN] OAkk qisti e. "cedar forest"; 
"cedar (logs)" for roof, column, door etc.; as 
aromatic wood (OA by weight); med. in 
recipes; saman e. "cedar oil"; dam e. "cedar 
blood" (i.e. resin); ash, powder of c; e. pesu 
"white c." (= tiydru); jB qissi e. "cucumber of 
c." (a stone); sumkinnu e. "cedar shavings"?; 
< Sum.; -» umu II 

erenu II "root" jB comm.; < Sum. 

erepu(m), ardpu "to cloud over" (intrans.) O/jB, 
NA G (u/u) [SO; Su.SU.RU; SU.uS.RU] of day, 
of light "grow dark"; transf. of face (pdnu) 
D stat. "is darkened" of demon, face, eyes; 
> erpu, erpetu; urrupu; urpu, urpatu I; urpdnis 

ereqqu(m) f. "cart, waggon" [(GIS.)MAR.GID. 
DA] (later only lit.); OA, MB, Nuzi "waggon 
(-load)"; astr. "Ursa Major", also desig. of 
Venus; e. same "Ursa Minor" [MUL.MAR. 
GID.DA.AN.NA] 

ereru(m) "to be parched"? O/jB G of drugs "be 
dry" D "parch" drugs etc. N ? jB stat. of star, 
planet; > erru I 

eressanu "naked" jB lex.; < erissi- 

erestum — » eristu II 

eresu "lady, queen" jB lex.; < Sum. 

eresu(m) I, OAkk elardsum. Ass. ardsu(m) "to 
sow; cultivate" G (Bab. ('/(', OB pres. also irrus; 
OAkk, Ass. alu) [URU4] "cultivate, plough" a 
field; with plough (agadibbu), jB lex.; "plant, 
grow, cultivate" crop (sesame, wheat, millet 
etc.) Gtn iter., often over X years D ~ G jB 
"carry out cultivation of S caus. of G Stn jB 
lex. N pass, of G [URU 4 ] of field "be tilled"; of 
crop "be grown"; > ersu II, drisutu, arsdtum; 
eristum I; erisu I, erisdnu; erresu, erresutu; 
meresu I, merestu I; muserisu; terusum 

eresu(m) II, Ass. erdsu(m) "to request, wish for" 
G (('/(') [URU4; KAM (esp. in PN)] "request, 
demand" s.th. from s.o. (= 2 ace); or from = 
isti, itti, Bogh. ana, Nuzi asar; of deity "desire, 
request" offering, prayer, temple etc.; stat. 
isti/itti Him e. "is desired, requested by god"; of 
heart, person "desire, want" (obj. unexpressed); 
freq. in PNs Gtn iter. [URU4.ME(S); 
URU4.URU4], e.g. statue muterris baldtiya 



ergididu 



78 



erkallu 



"constantly requesting (long) life for me" 

Dt MA pass, "be requested, wanted" N pass, of 

G "be demanded"; "be wanted, desired"; 

> ersu III; eristu II; ursu II; erisu II; erresu; 

meresu III, merestu II 
eresu — ► also erisu 
ergididu (a lament accompanied on the flute) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
ergilu, ergisu (a type of locust) jB lex. 
erginu (a colour of horses, phps.) "brown" NA 
ergisu (a flute-accompanied dirge) jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
ergisu — ► ergilu 

erhanis "provocatively" jB; < erhu + -an + -is 
erhdnu — ► arhdnu 
erhu ~ "aggressive" M/jB of soldiers, enemy; 

transf. of mouth "provocative"; OB of bull ?; 

< erehu; > erhanis; erhutu 
erhutu "aggressiveness" MB; < erhu 
eria muri —* erium 

eridnum — ► ilidnum 

eridtu — ► eriydtu 

erib — ► erhu 

erib blti(m) 'temple-enterer' Bab., NA [(LU.) 

KU4.E] (member of temple personnel); < eribu 

+ bitu; > erib-bitutu 
erib-bit-piristutu "office carrying access to bit- 

piristi" NB [(LU.)KU4.E-b.-p.] as prebend; 

< eribu; — ► bitu 5 

erib-bitutu "status of 'temple-enterer'" NB 
[(LU.)KU4.E- ] as prebend; < erib hiti 

erib-ekalli(m) 'palace-enterer' (a palace official) 
O/jB; < eribu + ekallu 

eribis, aribis "like locusts" jB(NA); < erbu 

eribtum "import tax" OA; < eribu 

eribu — ► erbu 

eribu(m) "entering; enterer" Bab., NA 1. OB 
erib ana sarrim irubu "'enterer' who had 
access to the king"; NA eribute 
'(palace-)enterers' 2. "(in)coming" [KU4] of 
day, month, year; < erebu I; > erib-. . .; eribtum 

eridatum pi. (a container for fish)? OB 

erim "side, arm-rest" jB lex. of bed, chair; 

< Sum.; -> erimmum II ? 

erimmatu(m) 1. "(egg-shaped) bead" O/jB; 
"(stone) bead" [(NA4.)NUNUZ] of lapis lazuli 
etc.; in mag.; also of metal, wood; pi. necklace 
of e. beads (-» irimmu) 2.jB lex. (part of a 
plough), also dalat e.; NB boxwood for making 
e. [GIS.NUNUZ] ( -» erimtu II 4) 3. jB (part of 
liver); — > rimmatum ? 

erimmu I, erimu, irimmu 1. "mole (on skin)" jB 
on face, body; white, yellow, red; MA, jB 



"discoloration" of flesh 2. jB lex., also erimtu 

(a red berry) 
erimmum II mng. unkn. Mari (or = erim ?) 
erimtu I "baked brick" OB(Susa) 
erimtu II "cover(ing)" M/NA, j/NB 1. "cover, 

holder" for axe; of stone 2.jB lex. "(leather) 

cover" for chair 3. j/NB, also urindu "tablet 

envelope" 4.jB lex. (part of a plough) (— ► 

erimmatu 2); < ermu 
erimtu — » also erimmu I 2 
erimu — ► erimmu I 

erinakku (part of a building) MB( Ass.) 
erinnu "neck-stock, halter" jB for prisoner; 

transf. e. mdti held by gods; < Sum. 
erinnu — » also erenu I 

eriptu (a colourful garment) jB lex.; -> erpu 
eripu, iripu (a copper object) Nuzi 
eriqa'u (a table) jB lex. 
eriru (a garment) jB lex. 
eris "like an eagle" jB; < eru I 
erisanu "cultivator" MA of field; < erisu I + -an 
erissi- "in nakedness" OA, O/jB with pron. suff. 

e. aldku(m) "to go naked", "in destitution"; 

< erium (— ► GAG §67f); > eressdnu; erissuttu; 
— ► meressu 

erissuttu, errisuttu "destitution" Bogh.; < erissi- 
eristum I "cultivation" OB also "crop"; < eresu I 
eristu(m) II, erestum, iristu "demand, request, 

need" [KAM; KAM; MB Su.KAM.MA/Ml] 

"request" by s.o. (=gen.); "desire, request" for 

(= gen.); "desire, urge" for reproduction, in 

sheep, goat eristi "on heat"; "requirement, 

need"; e. eqli, musari, kasi etc. (plant names); 

'request' (desig. of ominous sign, feature on 

liver); < eresu II 
eristu — » also ersu I 
erisu(m), eresu(m), irisu "scent, fragrance" Bab. 

of person, meal, water, house; esp. of aromatic 

woods, incense 
erisu(m) I "ploughing" Mari, of oxen; O/jB lex. 

"cultivator"; < eresu I 
erisu II "bridegroom" jB (liter, 'one who 

requests'); < eresu II 
eritu — ► aritu I 
erium "naked" OA, of person "destitute", of 

hand, house "empty" (OB -» erissi-); O/jB lex. 

eria(m) muri(m), aria muri (a disease); 

< eru III 

eriu — ► also werum 

eri(y)atu(m), ariydtu, iriydtu "cold weather" jB 

dunnuldandn(a) e. "depths of winter" 
erkabu — » argabu 
erkallu, erkalla "underworld" jB; < Sum. 



erkitusu 



79 



ersu(m) III 



erkitusu (a lament) jB; < Sum. 

erku (a garment) jB lex. 

erku (a kind of tyre) jB lex., of wood; jB(Ass.) 

pi. f. erkdti in desig. of papyrus boats ? 
erkulla (a plant) M/jB med. 
ermu(m), OB also hermum "cover(ing)" O/jB; 

"envelope" of tablet; "case" of tool; jB lex. (a 

word for cultivated land); e. Ani 'Anu's 

canopy' = "sky", also wooden "baldachin" 

(£'%.); <ardmu 
ernama mng. unkn. jB 
ernamtaggadu (a dirge) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ernettu. ernintu — ► ernittu 
erninum (a drug) OB med. 
ernittu(m), emettu(m), ernintu, Bogh. ennettu 

"triumph, battle objective" Bab.(lit-), NB 

[U/U.MA] e. kasddu "to achieve victory" 
erpette; pi. erpettena mng. unkn. Nuzi; grain for 

<?.; < Hurr. 
erpetu(m) "cloud" Bab. [DUNGU] red, black etc.; 

thick; floating; transf. ref. to sorceress's 

activity; e. muti "cloud of death"; < erepu 
erpu, arpu "clouded over" j/NB, NA [Su.A] usu. 

umu e. "cloudy day" [U4.Su.Su.RU]; < erepu; 

— > eriptu 
erqu — > warqum 
erratum — » erretu I 
errebtu "immigrant (group)" NB/NA; also sdbe 

e.; < errebu 
errebu(m) "intruder, new arrival" OAkk, jB; of 

usurper; of new member of household; also jB 

lex. for arbu "fugitive"; < erebu I; > errebtu, 

errebutu 
errebutu "status as new member" jB lex. of 

family, household; < errebu 
erreru(m) "given to cursing" OB lex.; < ardru II 
erresu(m), OAkk also arrdsum "cultivator" 

OAkk, Bab. [Bogh. LU.APIN.LA] esp. of tenant; 

also as PN; < eresu I 
erresu "(persistently) demanding" jB lex.; 

< eresu II 

erresutu(m) "cultivation (contract)" Bab. 
[NAM.(GIS.)AP1N.LA/LA] OB ana e. 
susiimllequm "to rent" a field; ana e. naddnum 
"to lease" etc.; kariik e. "tenancy contract"; 

< erresu 

erretu(m) I, OAkk erratum "curse" OAkk, O/jB 
e. ardru "to curse (s.o.)"; < ardru II; — ► arratu 

erretu(m) II ~ "weir, barrage" O/jB of reeds, 
stone; also jB, Nuzi "pigsty" of reeds; < erru II 

errisuttu — ^ erissuttu 

erru(m) I ~ "parched" O/jB of wood, malt, 
aromatic; < ereru 



erru(m) II, eru ~ "ring, band" OAkk, Bab. 

1. "ring, washer" for peg 2. also am, 
"headband" in metal, cloth (-> waruml); jB 
also pi. f. erret qaqqade 3. Nuzi "(animal) 
enclosure, pen" 4. (enclosed plot of land); 

< Sum.; > erretu II 

erru(m)III "intestine(s)" Bab, NA [(UZU.)SA] 
of human, animal; diviner mude e. "who knows 
the entrails"; e. qatnulkabru "small/large intes- 
tine"; e. gamertu [NB UZU.SA.TIL] "rectum"; 
ext. pi. erru sdhiriitu [SA.NIGIN] "intestines 
encircling" the liver; transf. "tendrils" of 
cucumber; e. nuni, kalbi, tamti "intestine of fish, 
dog, sea" (plant names) 

erru —* also eru II; werrum 

erru "colocynth"? M/jB [(u.)UKUS.LAGAB 
(.SAR)] also as drug; aban e. = hard kernel of 
e.l; — » merru 

ersaharhubbu (a lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ersiskurru (a sacrificial lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ersu(m), ersu "ready" OA, O/jB "prepared" of 
animals, goods, flour etc.; of person "trained"; 
OB sa ersim "(cloth) finisher"; > sutersu; 
tersitu 

ersuppu — > arsuppu 

ersetu(m), OAkk arsatum "earth, land; 
underworld" OAkk, Bab., NA [KI (often KI- 
tumltim etc.)] 1. "the earth" (as opp. to heaven) 

2. the earth beneath the surface, i.e. "under- 
world"; DN A Belet-e. "Mistress of the 
Underworld"; also in PNs 3. "ground",- soaked; 
ploughed; quakes; for burial 4. politically "land, 
territory", jB "district", NB "city quarter" 5. ext. 
(area of liver); -> ursu II 

ersu —* ursu I 

ersabadaru (a lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ersahungu (an Emesal cultic prayer) M/jB 

[6r.Sa.FJUN.gA] also associated ritual; < Sum.; 

— » ersemsahungu 
ersannesakku, ersannasakku (a lament) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

ersemmakku (or ersemmu) (an Emesal cult 

song) jB [ER.SEM/SEM4.MA]; < Sum. 
ersemsahungu (var. of ersahungu) jB; < Sum. 
ersu(m) I; f. eristu "wise" OAkk, O/jB of deity, 

king etc.; > ersutu; meresu II 
ersu(m) II, NA arsu "tilled; cultivated" OAkk, 

O/jB, NA of field, "tilled", also subst. 

"cultivated plot"; of plant "cultivated", jB pi. 

ersutu "vegetables"; < eresu I 
ersu(m) III "demanded, desired" OAkk, O/MB 

"wanted, requested" of things; Nuzi "claimed" 

property; in PNs, of persons; < eresu II 



ersu(m) IV 

ersu(m) IV f. "bed" [GIS.NA]; of sickbed e. 

sabdtu(m) "the bed holds" s.o., i.e. person is 

confined to bed; bit e. "bedroom"; "(marriage) 

bed"; — » ursu I 
ersu — » ersu 

ersutu "wisdom" jB; < ersu I 
ertabadaru (a lament) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ertum — » irtu I 
ertu — » eru II 
ertu — » urtu 

erum mng. unkn. OAkk 
eru — » also aru I; citk II 
eru(m) I, aru, lex. also r« "eagle" Bab. 

[Tls.MUSEN] also vulture?; Qatna "eagle 

(figure)" of gold; astr. "constellation Aquila" 

[MUL.TI8-MUSEN]; >ardnis, ens 
eru(m) II, am, irum, jB also erru; pi. m. & f. 

"grindstone" Bab., M/NA [NA4.UR5; NA4.UR5. 

UR5]; of atbaru stone; for grain, cumin etc.; for 

grinding potsherds (for grog) 
eru(m) III, aru "to be naked" G OA stat. "is 

destitute" D "strip bare" head (of hair); of 

wind, "strip" trees, ground; OA "empty, clear 

out" container {qablitum); "strip, prepare" 

mother (for childbirth); > erium, erutum III; 

erissi-, erissuttu, eressdnu; risummdni 1 -; uru II, 

uratu n -\ merenu, merenu, meressu; murrum II 
eru — » also aru IV. VI; iri'u; werfim 
eru(m) I "awake" O/jB; < iru; > erutu 
eru(m) II, Ass. e'ru; jB lex. ertu (a tree) Bab., 

M/NA [GIS.MA.NU] in fields, mountain; esp. 

mag., med., wood for stick, stave; tdbat e. (a 

kind of salt); — » manu III 
eru(m) "to be(come) awake" G (pret. ier) of 

person; jB med. of s.o.'s heart "be awake", i.e. 

conscious D "waken"; stat. of weapon "is 

aroused" against s.o.; > eru I, erutu; mustertum 
e'ru — » eru II 
erubbatum pi. tant. "pledge, security" OA of 

person, house, tablet; < erebu I 
eruhlu, uruhlu (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
erullu (a bird) M/jB med. as ingredient 
eriitu — » ariitu 

erutu I, ariitu "back" jB lex. (part of body) 
erutu II, u(r)rutu, uruttu "fish spawn" jB; 

< arii IV 
erutum III "nakedness" OB lex. in sa e. 

"destitute person"?; < erium 
erutu(m) "wakefulness" O/jB; < eru I 
eru um — » werum 
erwissu "royal service" Nuzi with nasu "to bear 

(liability for)"; < Hurr. 
esadu mng. unkn. jB med. 



80 esigu 

esallu (an irrigation construction) NB 
[E.SAL(.A)];<Sum.? 

esamum (a topog. term) OB 

esdydtu — » asa'itu 

esehu(m), Man, M/NA eseku(m) "to assign, 
allocate" O/jB, M/NA G (('//) field, workers, 
rations D - G S Mari "have s.o. assign" field 
N pass, of G, of field; > ishu II, isihtu, isiktum; 
mesehtu; ussuhum; ussuktu, ussuku ?; — » esequ 

esehu — » also ezehu 

eseku — » esehu; esequ 

eselu ~ "to blow up, inflate" M/jB G stat. 
libbuJsuburru e. "inner body/anus is 
constipated" D, Dt -» eselu D, Dt N "become 
inflated; be constipated" Ntn iter., of fish "be 
bloated"?; > eslu; isiltu 

esepu(m) "to gather together, collect up" OAkk, 
O/jB, M/NA G {Hi) earth, dust; OB grain at 
harvest; burning coals; locusts; "collect up" 
powder, liquid (into vessel); Ug. of demon 
"gather up" victim D - G "scrape up" earth 
from furrows S "have s.o. scrape, gather up" 
Stn "have s.o. repeatedly scrape up" N of beer 
"be decanted"; > mussipu; nesepu, neseptu 

esequ(m), eseku, lex. also ezlsequ "to incise, 
carve" Bab. G (('/(') images in stone D (mostly 
written with k) 1. < isqu denom. "assign, 
distribute" lots 2. of bones, stat. "are etched"? in 
flesh Dt pass, of D 1; > isiqtu; ussuku 1 - 

esertu, OB(poet.) esratum, jB also esettu 
"confined woman, concubine" O/jB, MA; sons 
of e.; Nuzi bit e. "harem"; < esru 

eseru(m) I "confinement" O/jB in bit e. "cage"; 
< eseru II infin. 

eseru(m) II, eslzeru, asdru "to enclose, confine" 
Bab., M/NA G {Hi) bird; person, enemy, army; 
Nuzi eserta e. "take a concubine"; "hold back" 
water, disease, shout; of design "frame" D - G 
persons, army; stat., of gall bladder "is 
enclosed" Dt pass, of D N 1. "shut o.s. in" 
2. of windpipe "be constricted"; > esru, esertu; 
asiru I, asirtu, asirutu; eseru I; isirtu I; meseru, 
mesertu; mussiru 1 ; usurtu 

eseru(m) III "to exact payment" G {Hi) from s.o. 
(= ace); of silver, grain etc.; "demand" 
document; Nuzi awilu sa eseri "debt 
collectors"; OB more gener. "put pressure on", 
stat. "is under pressure" D - G N of copper "be 
exacted"; > ism II; isirtu II; usertu, esirratu 1 - 

esettu — » esertu 

esigu "ebb, low water" jB lex.; < Sum. 

esihtu — » isihtu 



esikillu 



81 



esikillu (a temple building) O/jB lex.; also sa e. 

(a temple official); < Sum. 
esiktum — » isiktum 
esiltu — » isiltu 
esirratu ~ "pressing stone"? NB for beer; 

< eseru III ? 

esirtu — » esertu; isirtu II 

esittu(m)I "pestle" O/jB [Gis.GAZ] of wood, 

stone; for grain, sesame, bitumen etc. 
esittu II (a date-palm tax) NB(Uruk) c. 6% 
esittu — » also esertu; isittu I 
esitu — » esitu 
eslu "constipated" jB of invalid; sdru e. "air 

(causing) flatulence"; < eselu 
esratum — » esertu 
esru(m) "confined" O/jB lex. "captive" bird; of 

street "enclosed", i.e. cul-de-sac; < eseru II; 

> esertu 
essesum — » essesu 
essu, esu "hole in ground, clay pit" jB [TUL.LA] 

earth from "pits"; e. dli "town pit"; sam(mi) e. 

(kind of plant) 
esu — » essu II 
esu ~ "to effectuate, bring to pass"? jB G {Hi) 

word D ~ G Gula mussdt kaldma "who brings 

everything to pass", also m. ptcp.; > isitu* 
esu — » also asu II; essu 
esadu — » esedu I. II 
esaduhlu "harvester" Nuzi; < esedu II Ass. + 

Hurr. -uhlu 
*esdu, eldu "harvested" jB lex. of grain; 

< esedu II 

esedu(m) I, Ass. esadu "harvest" Bab., NA [SE. 
KlN(GURio ? ).KU5] "harvested crop)"; "(time 
of) harvest"; "(activity of) harvest"; < esedu II 
infin. 

esedu(m) II, Ass. esddu(m) "to harvest" G (('/(') 
[SE.KIN(GURio ? ).KU5] "reap" grain, field; also 
reeds, grass; plenty; transf. of battle "mow 
down" enemy Gtn "harvest" each year S caus. 
of G N pass. NB of harvest {eburu) "be 
harvested"; > esdu; esedu I; esidu, esid pan me, 
esidanum; esaduhlu 

eselu(m) ~ "to paralyse" O/jB G (('/(') esp. stat. of 
parts of body; OA qdtum eslat of slowness to 
pay D ~ G (also ussulu) of sheep; of parts of 
body Dt pass, (also utassulu) "become 
paralysed" N - Dt Ntn iter, of N, of hands, feet 
etc.; > ussulu, tissulu 1 

esemseru(m), esenseru(m) "backbone" O/jB, 
NA [GU.MUR7/8 7 ] of human, animal; OB idi e. 
= ribs; "(area of) spine" on back of animal, 
human; as cut of meat "chine"; transf. e. eleppi 



"keel of boat"; of battering ram; < esem(t)u + 
seru 

esemtu(m), esenlttu, poet, esmetu "bone" Bab., 
M/NA [GIR.PAD.DU; OCCas. GIR.PAD.DA] of 
human, animal; esmetum sehheretum "car- 
tilage"; aza e. as offering to dead; "bony 
(structure), skeleton" of dead persons; of wood 
= "bone" of divine statues; "bodily frame"; 
M/NA (a linear measure); > esemseru 

esennii "tube, spout" on vessel jB lex. 
esenseru — » esemseru 
esentu — » esemtu 

esenu(m) "to smell" (trans.) O/jB G (//(') [IR] 
scent {erisa), incense, wind; OB oil ana esenim 
ul natu "unpleasant to smell", transf. of 
impudence D "sniff at" incense, stench; 
"snuffle" like a mongoose S caus. of G N "be 
smelled" of scent ( erisu ) 

esepu(m) "to double" Bab., NA G (('/(') 
[TAB(.BA)] math, often ana sina e. "multiply 
by two"; stat. "is double", of parts of body; in 
hendiad. e. + sardkum, NA e. + taddnu 
"give/pay twofold"; "twine" thread, two- and 
also three-ply {ana 3-su); "plait" reed mat; 
Mari, of message - "come in confirmation"; 
> espu 

eseru(m) "to draw, design" G (//(') [HUR] freq. 
with usurtu; "make (magical) drawing" on 
wall, of flour etc.; "draw" plan of, "plan" 
building; "depict" on a bas-relief; stat., "is/are 
drawn", of stars in sky, markings on liver; 
"plan, design" favourable schemes for s.o.; 
"form" (or "plan"?) wall, city; "prescribe" death 
(as punishment)?; OB ~ "cross out" a tablet 
D (OB also wussurum) - G; > esru; isurtu, 
usurtu, isratu; esiru; mesiru; ussuru I 

eseru — » also eseru II 

esettu — » esemtu 

esidanum 'reaper' OB lex., syn. of esid pan me, 
also as PN; < esidu 

esiddnu — » also esidu 

esiditu "provisions" NA; = siditu ? 

esid pan me 'reaper of the water's surface', 

"water-boatman" (an aquatic insect) jB; < esidu 

+ pdnu I + mu I 

esidu(m); Nuzi pi. esiddnu "reaper, harvester" 
[LU.SE.KIN(GURi ? )!ku 5 ; Susa also LU.SE.KU5. 
KIN]; OAkk as PN; < esedu II; > esid pan me, 
esidanum 

esiru "(stone) carver" Bogh., jB; < eseru 

esis "soon, shortly" OA; < wisum 

esmetu — » esemtu 



espu(m) 

espu(m) "doubled" jB "twin" of metal vessels; 

"twined" of thread; "double" of onions; OB ext. 

of trachea; < esepu 
esru "drawn" jB i.e. shown in relief carving; 

< eseru 
essu —» isu 

essu f. "(small) gecko" jB lex. 
esu — ► isu 
esu "to slit, cut into" jB G {Hi) forehead, head; 

with blade, wheel 
esu — ► wisum 
esum — ► widsum 
esurtu — ► isurtu 

es "whither?" OB; < ayyis; — ► is; mes 
esam "whither?" OB; < ayyisa 
esam ma "in any direction" jB; < ayyisamma 
esar — ► eser 
esartu(m) "group of ten" Ass. 1. OA 'a tenner', 

i.e. ten shekels of silver [10 GlN-tum] 2. OA 

"decemvirate" [\0-tum] 3. NA in rab e. "chief 

of a group of ten" officials, scribes [LU.GAL 10- 

tile\, < eser; — ► esertu II 
esaru — ► isaru I 
esaru — ► eseru 
esdtu — ► isdtu 
esdtu — ► esitu 

esawa "(on) the other side" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
esbum — ► isbum 
esdu — ► isdu 
esebu "to flourish" M/jB G (;'/;') of plants; Ug. 

transf., of house D lex. fact, of G ? N lex. Ntn 

(Gtn ?) lex.; > ussuhu 
esegu — ► asdgu 
esequ — ► esequ 
eser, Ass. esar; f. eseret "ten" (before m. subst. 

eseret, eselarti; before f. subst. eser); -(e)seret 

"-teen" (-► GAG §69d); > asirtum II; esertu II, 

esartu; esrum, esru II; esretu; esrisu, esridtu; 

isrum HI; usurtum; usurd; -ser, -seret, -serisu, 

-serii etc.; esrd etc. 
eseris — ► isaris 
esertu(m) I, iselirtu(m), jB also aselirtu; pi. usu. 

esretu, also asrdtu, isretu, OB isrdletum 

"chapel, shrine" post-OB only lit. [ZAG. 

GAR.RA] "shrine" within temple; "chapel" of 

prince, of people, of family deity (e. bit ilisu, e. 

il biti); of gods gener. (but not e. + DN); on 

kudurru, divine "shrine", i.e. symbol; also 

"pious donation" 
esertu II "group of ten" Nuzi, NB ? [lO(.MES)-f;] 

esp. rab e,\ < eser; — ► esartu 
esertu — ► also isaru I f. 
eseru — ► also isaru I 



82 esitu(m) 

eseru(m), Ass. ilesdru(m) "to be/go well; be 
straight, fair; direct o.s. (towards)" G (;'/;') 
[SI.SA; NA, NB also Gis] "go well, be 
successful" of crop, harvest, animal breeding; 
human reproduction, birth; "be(come) healthy"; 
of house, city, land, journey "prosper"; of 
person "be successful"; of divination, omens, 
wind "be favourable"; "be(come) right, 
normal"; of gut, i.e. be evacuated; of sceptre; 
(neg.) of Lamastu; "direct o.s. towards, make 
straight for" (+ ana/dat.), of demon to person, 
army to destruction; also + ana pdn/mahar, eli; 
"go straight along" street (= ace); OA of goods 
"come straight to" s.o. S (pret. usesir, OAkk, 
OB(poet.) ususir) [SI.SA; GIS] "put in good 
condition, in order" plough, cart, house; Am. 
"prepare, get ready"; MA "process" food; 
"direct" water, canal; "sweep (out)" house, 
ground; "purge" intestines; "direct aright" feet, 
person, person's way; "make successful, cause 
to prosper"; "put right, make straight", stat. of 
parts of liver; "steer" s.o. (on right way); "make 
straight" the way, also ellipt. "go straight ahead" 
St 1 pass, of S [SI.SA] "be put in order"; of 
person "be guided aright"; of cattle "be steered 
straight"; "have straightforward (childbirth)" 
St 2 "put, keep in order", "get ready" weapons; 
house, road; "flatten out" unevennesses; "give 
correct decision", "formulate correct" plans; 
"get right" text, language; "carry out correctly" 
ritual, work; "cause to go well" animal, human 
procreation; "guide (o.'s hand) aright"; "lead" 
person, people "aright", "secure justice for" 
s.o.; harrdna (etc.) s. "take to the road"; ellipt. 
"go off, start out"; of birth "be (born) 
straightforwardly" N ~ G "become prosper- 
ous", "become successful"; "make towards, go 
for" s.o.; > isaru I.H, isaris, isartu, isarutu; 
isertunp; misaru, misaris, misartu, misarutu; 
misertu; musaru n -; museseru, musesertu, 
mustesertu; susuru, susuris; sutesuru; tesertu 1 

esestu mng. unkn. jB in mukkalli e. (a title of 
NabQ) 

esesu —> asdsu IV 

eseum — ► esu I 

ese'u(m) ~ "to muzzle"? OB lex., jB 

esgallu "great shrine" j/NB [ES.GAL] as cosmic 
domain; temple of Anu at Uruk; lex. (a name 
for the underworld); < Sum. 

esigillu — ► sikillu 

esitin —» usu 

esittu — ► isittu I 

esitu(m), isitu(m), NB also esitu "confusion" 
Bab. "(political) disorder(s)" (sg. & pi.); 



esmahu 



83 



etebranni 



"blurring" of the vision; "wildness" of terrain; 
pi. also asdtu (a term for eclipse) astr., lex.; 
<esu I 

esium —» usu 

eskdru —> iskdru 

eskuru — ► iskuru 

esmahu "great shrine" jB lex.; < Sum. 

esmaru, ilasmaru (a silver alloy) j/NB for 
casting and overlay [GU.AN.NA ?] 

esmekku, is/smekku (a stone, phps.) "malachite" 
Qatna, Am., jB 

espum — ► isbum 

esqarrurtu — ► isqarrurtu 

esqu "solid, massive" jB of building stone 

esqu — ► also isqu 

esra, ilasra "twenty"; < eser; > imhur-esrd; 
esru I, esru'u 

esretu(m), isretum, OA ilusrdtum, j/NB also 
usretu pi. tant. "one-tenth" 1. as fraction, OB 
isret siddim "one-tenth of the side", OA ki isrdt 
(st. abs.) "at one-tenth" 2. "payment of one- 
tenth, tithe" OA, OB, Ug. [Ug. ZAG.10]; 

< esrum f. pi. 
esretu — ► also esertu I 

esriatu "tenfold" NA in ana e. [\0(MES)-te/i]; 

< eser 
esris —> isaris 

esrisu, isrisu "ten times" OB, Ass.; also analadi 

e.; < eser 
esrum; f. esurtum "tenth" OA, OB; < eser 
esru —> also isaru I; isru II 
esru(m) I, isru(m) "20th day (of month)" Bab. 

[UD.20.KAM] as special day; also in PNs; < esrd 
esru II "tenth; one-tenth" M/NB, esp. NB 

"(temple) tithe", "tithe(-land)", sa muhhi e. 

"tithe official"; < eser 
esru'u "a twentieth" NB; < esrd 
essanna —> essesu 

essatu "headband; bandage" jB comm. 
essebitu — ► essebu 
essebu(m), essebu(m), issebulu(m) (a kind of 

owl)? M/jB, NA; OAkk as PN; > essebvP- 
essebu(m), issebu(m); f. essebilutu(m) (an 

ecstatic) O/jB, sdratllubus e. "hair/dress of 

ecstatic"; m. & f. often in mag.; < essebu ? 
essebu — ► also essebu 
essesu(m), isse(s)su(m), Mari also essesum; NB 

pi. essanna, sessannalu, e/issessdni (a feast 

day) Bab. [(UD.)ES.ES] OB essesam (ace.) etc. 

"on the holiday"; jB of Nabu (and Tasmetu); 

occasion of offerings, ritual; < Sum. 
essetit —> essu I 
esse'u, isse'u, essu "touchwood, tinder" jB lex. 



essis "anew" [GIBIL(.BI)]; also essisamma; 

< essu I 

essu(m) I; f. edistu(m), more freq. essetu(m) 
"new" [GIBIL; GIBIL4] of building, ship, tool, 
clothing etc.; of year, month, day; OB adilina 
essetim, essetamma, M/NB inalana essi "(up 
till) recently"; of people "fresh" arrivals, 
departures; of dates, grain "fresh(ly harves- 
ted)"; < edesu; > essis, essiitu; ussusu III 

essu II, esu "shrine" jB lex.; < Sum. 

essu I "cold weather"? jB lex. 

essu II (a word for a door) jB lex. 

essu —> also esse'u 

essutu, Ass. elissuttu in ana e. "anew, newly" 
M/jB(Ass.), Bogh. [GIBIL- ] of new building, 
appointment, settlement, name; ana e. sabdtu 
"to reorganize"; Bogh. "recently"; < essu I 

estagurru — ► istagurru 

estalu — ► astalu 

estu — ► istu 

estuhhu —> istuhhu 

esu(m) I, eseum, asu, isu "confused" Bab. [SUH 
in NA PNs] of thread "tangled"; of person, 
mind, face; of omens; of eyes "blurred"; also 
NA [SUH]? in PN; < esu IV; > asitu I, esitu 

esum II "confusion" Mari of political conditions; 

< esu IV infin. 

esu HI (a loincloth or kilt) jB lex. 

esu(m) IV, asu "to confuse, make unclear" Bab., 
NA G [SUH] person, road; eyes, sight; medical 
diagnosis D "confuse, throw into confusion", 
"make unclear" Dt pass, of D S ~ D "confuse, 
make uncertain" person, understanding N "be 
confused, in state of uncertainty" of person, 
land; > esu I.H, asitu I, esitu; nensum; sdsu, 
susdtu; tesu; —> misitum 

esu V mng. unkn. NA (activity connected with 
sand, ground) 

etaku "to be on guard" NA G of soldiers; stat. 
"is alert"; of king "is aware" of s.th. D "alert" 
s.o.; stat. "is alerted" 

etallu —> etellu 

etallutu —> etellutu 

etamdu, etandu "touching, laid against each 
other" OA, NA; of presents "piled up"; OA of 
silver "amassed", of witnesses "in collusion"; 
lex. of beads etandetu "strung together"?; 

< emedu I Gt; Bab. — ► etmudu 
etamsu —> eparsu 

etandu — ► etamdu 

etebranni (or etepranni) "humanity, mankind" 

jB lex. "all people" 
eteku — ► etaku 



etelletu 

etelletu, etellatu "pre-eminent; lady" O/jB as title 
of goddesses, e. ahhesa "supreme (among) her 
brothers"; < etellu 

etellis "as a lord" O/jB of gods, kings, persons; 
esp. e. + alaku Gtn "to proceed, walk in a lordly 
way"; < etellu 

etellu(m), Ass. etallu(m), OB also helium, Bogh. 
itillu; OAkk st. constr. eteal "pre-eminent; lord" 
[NIR.GAL] of gods, kings; of commands, esp. in 
PNs (Etel-pull-DN); OA "independent"; 
> etellu, etellis, etelletu, etellutu; metellu, 
metellutu 

etellutu(m), Ass. etallutu(m) "supremacy" Bab., 
OA, NA; OA "independence", e. epdsum "to 
act on own authority", ana e.- "on o.'s own 
authority"; < etellu; — ► telutu 

etemu(m), etenu(m) "to be smitten, affected"? 
Bab. G stat. of person, house, part of lung 
D "bring into contact, mix together"? St "bring 
against each other" ingredients; of deity "set" 
enemies "against each other"; > etimtum*; 
netentu 

etenniwa mng. unkn. MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

eteimu — ► itinnu 

eteiiu — ► etemu 

etepvanni — ► etebranni 

etequ(m) "to go past; go through; cross over" G 
(Hi, Mari pret. also ituq) [DIB] 1. "proceed 
along, through" street, land; ellipt. of person, 
letter "move on" from one place to another 
2. "proceed further, move onward" 3. "pass by, 
go past" king (in parade), city; of bird "fly 
past" ship etc.; of demon, causing illness; of 
time (year, month, day); fixed time (a/eddnu), 
offering, eclipse (intrans.); NB (also trans.) 
"miss" date (for payment etc.), ellipt. "be late in 
payment" 4. "cross (over)" mountain, 
watercourse, boundary; ext., astr. "stretch 
across, overlie" of part of liver, astronomical 
feature; transf. "transgress" moral limit, "break" 
oath, treaty, law etc.; OB "ignore" regulation 
Gtn iter. [DIB.MES], e.g. of sun "constantly 
pass across" heaven Gt OA "proceed further 
onwards" S caus. of G [DIB] "channel" water- 
flow; "pass" ship through control; OB stat. of 
slave "is made to step over" pestle; NA "carry 
out" ritual (takpertu), also ellipt.; "send, carry 
past" in parade; NB "make s.o. pass on (empty- 
handed)"; "make" evil, bad luck, illness "pass 
on, pass by"; "allow" time "to go past", "miss 
time for" offering, also ellipt. "miss (date)"; of 
sun "miss" eclipse; "make transcend, exceed" in 
quality, rank, size etc. Stn iter, of S; or St ? N 
pass, of G; of word, boundary "be 



84 eteru(m) I 

transgressed"; jB "be made to move on, be 
resettled"; > etiqu, etiqtum; metequ, meteqtu; 
mutaqu; musetiqtu; sutuqu, sutuqtu, sutuqutu 
etguru "crossed over, intertwined" jB [GIL] of 
figures, snakes, cuneiform signs etc.; transf. 
"complicated" of speech, calculations; 

< egeru Gt 
etillu "dropsy" jB lex.; < Sum. 
etimtum mng. unkn. OAkk, item assoc. with 

flour; < etemu ? 
etiqtum "delegation in transit" Mari; < etiqu 
etiqu "passer-by" jB; also f. etiqtu; < etequ 
etlupu "bound cross-wise" jB lex.; < elepu Gt 
etmudu "touching, laid against each other" jB of 

clouds "massed up"; < emedu Gt; Ass. — » 

etamdu 
etnakapu (a tree, or timber) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
etnu mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
etnusu "very weak" jB; < enesu Gt 
etpuqu "grown together"? jB mng. unci.; 

< epequ Gt 
etpusu "effective"? jB of men, women; 

< epesu II Gt 
etqu — ► itqu 2 
ettitu — ► ettutu 
ettu — ► ittu II; wedum 
ettutu(m), ettitu(m), uttutum, lex. also ettuwatum 

"spider" O/jB [AS5; AS-tu] qe e. "spider web"; 
compare Uttu (Sum. goddess of textile 
manufacture; — ► utu) 

etu — ► itu 

etudum — ► atudu 

etammum — ► etemmu 

etelu(m) "to be a man, manly" O/jB G Mari stat. 
"is a man"; jB "reach manhood" D jB "bring up 
to manhood" Dt jB "become full-grown man"; 
> etlu, etlis, etlutu; metlutu 

etemmu(m), itemmum, OA also etammum 
"ghost" (of dead person) [GIDIM1/2/4; OB also 
KI.DlM; jB also GU4; Bogh. usu. d GIDIM] 
receiving libations, offerings; OA treated 
well/badly, interrogated; OB in PNs, of king; 
MB e. kimtisu "ghost of his family", d e. 
muttaggisu "wandering ghost"; Nuzi oath by 
ghost; in qdt e. [SU.GIDIM(.MA); SU.GU4 
(.MA)]; e. sulu "to raise a ghost (from 
underworld)"; sa e. "necromancer"; < Sum. 

etemmutu "state of ghost" jB in e. alaku "to 
become a ghost"; < etemmu 

eteru(m) I "to take away; save" G (Hi) [KAR; 
later also SUR] 1. "take s.th. from (= ace.)" s.o.; 
"deny" s.o. heir, wisdom; "remove, separate 
off in glass recipe 2. "save, spare" s.o., freq. in 



eteru II 



85 



ezezu(m) 



PNs; OA also napastam e. "save s.o.'s life" 
(financially); life (napistu) in battle, war, by 
medicine; from hardship, death, hand of death 
etc. Gtn iter. N pass, "be taken away", "be 
rescued"; > etru I; etiru; etteru, etteru 

eteru II "to pay" NB, D also NA G (Hi) [KAR; 
SUR] "pay" person, "pay" silver; infin. eteru sa 
eqlilagurru "payment for field/bricks"; stat. of 
person "is paid off, of commodity "is paid for" 
D "pay off" (fully); NA stat. utturu issu pan 
aha' is "they are mutually paid off, quit" 
Dt pass, of D NB of silver "be fully paid" 
N pass, of G, of person "be paid (off with 
respect to = ace.)" silver, o.'s credit (rdsussu); 
by means of (= ace.) field, dates etc. Ntn iter, 
of N "be paid off in instalments"; > etru U 

etirtu mng. unkn. jB lex.; — ► etru I.II 

etiru; f. etirtu "saviour" M/NB, NA in PNs 
[KAR; SUR]; < eteru I ptcp. 

etlis "manly" OB; < etlu 

etlu(m) "manly; young man" (pi. as adj. and 
subst.) [(LU.)GURUS; OB also SUL] 1. (as opp. 
to woman) 2. "(mature) young man" (as opp. 
to old man) 3. "man" gener.; of king, of god; 
< etelu; > etlis; etlutu 

etlutu(m) "manliness" O/jB esp. implying 
strength, bravery in battle; < etlu 

etru I "taken away" jB lex.; < eteru I 

etru II "paid (off)" NA of grain debt; NB of 
promissory note (uiltu); < eteru U 

etteru "eager to save" jB of fDN; < eteru I 

etteru "escaper, deserter" jB; < eteru I 

etu I "dark" jB of day, house; "extinguished" of 
hearth; OA etiutum of textiles ?; < etu II; 
> etutu 

etu II "to be(come) dark, dim" Bab. G (pret. iti; 
stat. etu) of day, sun, moon, star; of torch "burn 
dimly"; of building "be dimly lit"; transf. of face 
Gtn iter. D "darken, make obscure" day; transf. 
face, eyes; "make (situation) unclear" Dt "be 
darkened" of the earth; light; eyes; > etu I, etutu 

etutu "darkness" M/NB, NA esp. ana e. "into 
darkness"; < etu I 

e'u — ► ya'u 

ewisum (or ewaslsum, ewisum); pi. f. (a tool)? 
OA 

ewum I, emu "to become" Bab., OA G (Hi, jB 
usu. ele) with ace, of day "turn into" darkness, 
of loan into grain; freq. with -is, e.g. awilis 
"into a man", kisubbis "into waste land"; with 
ki(ma) "become like", with -is, e.g. kima issuris 
"like a bird"; stat. "is (like)" D with -is "make 



s.o./s.th. like"; "falsify"? tablet S with ki(ma), 

-is "make s.o./s.th. like" or "into" 
ewum II ~ "to impose on" OB G (pret. iwi) sins 

on (= ace.) s.o.; > iwitu 
ewuru "heir" Nuzi; < Hurr.; > ewwumma, 

ewurutu 
ewurumma in e. epesu "to inherit" Nuzi; 

< ewuru 

ewurutu "inheritance" Nuzi; < ewuru 

eyakku — ► ayyakku 

ezbu "abandoned" jB of child; also NA in PN ?; 

< ezebu 

ezebu(m) "to leave, leave behind" G (Hi; imper. 
ezuh, ezih) [TAG4] 1. "leave, go away (from)" 
house, land; person, esp. spouse = "divorce"; 
"quit, give up" work; city, property; ext. of 
feature "be out of place 2. "leave behind, 
abandon" child, boat; "leave, put aside" to 
reserve s.th.; math, "keep back" a remainder 
[(JB.)TAG4] 3. "leave (behind one), bequeath" 
property; OB kanikam, kunukkam (etc.) e. 
"draw up" document 4. "set aside, ignore" 
command, decision; "give up, cease to do" 
S. "let go, spare" enemy etc. 6. "allow to 
remain, hold over", esp. with neg. "leave 
no ..."; "leave s.th." for, with (= dat./ana), "put 
at s.o.'s disposal" Gtn OA ? Gt OA "separate 
from one another, get divorced" D ~ G (rare) 
jB, Nuzi, M/NA S [KAR] 1. caus. of G tuppam 
s. "have a document drawn up" 2. "save, 
rescue" people, city; napista/napsdti s. "save 
life/lives" (of o.s./others); also in PNs Stn iter, 
of S 2 St pass, of S 2 N pass, of G [TAG4] of 
land "be left" unfilled; of person "be delayed"; 
"be left over, survive"; of goods "be deposited" 
(with = dat); "be divorced"; > ezib; ezbu; izhu; 
izibtu; azibatu, azzuhutum; uzibu; uzubbu, 
uzuhhatu, uzzubu; musezibu, musezibtu; 
sezubtum, suzubu, suzubtu; tezubtum 

ezehu(m), esehu(m) "to gird on" O/jB, NA 
G (///) "strap on, tie on" weapon, belt to 
(= ace.) s.o.; pouch, wings, fish-cloak; "gird" 
loins D ~ G stat. "is girt" with belt N "gird o.s." 
with (= ace); > ezhu; izhu; mezehu; — » ishu I 

ezennu (a kind of stone) jB; < Sum. 

ezequ — » esequ 

ezeru "to curse" M/NA, jB G (Hi) s.o. with 
(=acc.) a curse (izru) D - G; > izru; — » 
nazdru 

ezeru — » also eseru II 

ezezu(m) "to be(come) angry, rage" Bab. G (ulu, 
later mostly Hi; stat. eziz, also ez(i)) [SUR; BUS] 
of god, person; heart, liver etc. Gt OB "rage at 



CZ IHL 



86 



ezzussihe 



one another" D "make furious", stat. "is 
infuriated" S jB "make s.o. furious"; > ezzu, 
ezzetu, ezzis; uzzu, uzzatu; mezezu; sezuzu, 
suzuzu 

ezhu "tied round" jB lex.; < ezehu 

ezib, O/jB also ezub "except (that)" Bab., O/MA 

1. as prep, "except", "but for"; "apart from", 
e.g. ezub Id sapdrika "despite your not writing" 

2. as conj., also e. sa "apart from the fact 
that ...", ext. "disregard (the fact) that ..." 3. as 
interj. "never mind!"; < ezebu G imper. 

ezibtu — ► izibtu 

ezizzu(m) (an alliaceous vegetable) OA, O/jB 

ezum I "to defecate" OB lex.; -► tesu; zu I 



ezu(m) II "to hurry, be hasty" O/jB stat. only; 
OB ezi aldkam, jB ina aldkisu ezi "is quick in 
going" 

ezub — ► ezib 

ezzetu "fury" jB; < ezzu 

ezzis "furiously, fiercely" Bab. [SUR-w] of 
shouting, frowning (nekelmu); < ezzu 

ezzu(m) "furious, angry" Bab., NA [SUR] of 
deity, person, animal, fire, wind; battle, weapon, 
divine attributes; < ezezu; > ezzis, ezzetu 

ezzu — ► also enzu 

ezzussihe mng. unkn. Nuzi desig. of field; 
< Hurr. 



G 



gabdbu — ► kabdbu I.II 

gabadibbu(m), gabandibb(a)u "parapet, 
crenellation" M/NA, j/NB [GAB.DIB (mixes 
with syll. writings)]; < Sum. 

gabagallu(m) (part of chariot, phps.) "box" 
O/jB; < Sum. 

gabandibb(a)u -► gabadibbu 

gabarahbu(m), OB also kabarahhum 'breast- 
beating', "panic"? O/jB [GABA.RAH; GABA.Ra] 
of communal dismay; g. haldqisu "lamentation 
for his loss"; < Sum. 

gabaru, gabru m. & f. "copy; reply; opponent" 
M/NB, NA [GABA.RI] 1. "copy, duplicate" of 
document; NB pi. gabardne 2. "reply" to a 
letter NA, NB, esp. g. (sa) egirti 3.JB med. 
"equivalent" of herbs (sammi) 4. astr. "epact", 
"equivalence" between solar and lunar years? 
5. M/jB "opponent" [once GAB.A.RI.A]; < Sum. 

gabasu "contraction" of eye jB(Ass.) in g. 
issakin "contraction took place"; < kapdsu U 
Ass. 

gaba'u — ► gab'u 

gabbasu (or qabbasu) mng. unkn. jB in sen 
("shoes") gabbasdti 

ga(b)batinnu "female pudenda" jB lex. 

gabbul "the totality, all (of)" M/NA, M/NB 
(OB(Esn.) qabbuml) [DU] (absol.) "all, 
everything"; (in appos., after subst.) gabbulali; 
(before pron. suff.) MB gabbasunu (ace), 
otherwise gabbi- (all cases); (st. constr. before 
gen.) usu. gabbi; NB f. (in appos.) gabbutu 

gabbu II ~ "(animal's) brain"? j/NB as meat 
offering 

gabbu — ► gabu 



gabbubu "grilled" NA of sheep; < kabdbu II D 

Ass. 
gabbutu — ► gabbu I 
gabdibbu — ► gabadibbu 
gabgabu (a thorn bush) jB lex. 
gabibu (a kind of pastureland) NB 
gabidu, kabidu "liver" M/jB of person, animal; 

g.lk. barbari "wolf's liver" (a plant); — » kabdtu 
gabiu — ► gabu 
gabru — ► gabaru 
gabsidum — ► qapsidum 
gabu, MA gabiu, NB gabbu "alum" M/NA, 

j/NB [IM.SAHAR.NA4.KUR.RA] in ab(a)n(a) 

gabe/iu used in glass-making, tanning; med. as 

drug or salve 
gab'u "(mountain) peak, hill" (pi. Mari gaba'i, 

MA/MB gab'dni) Mari, M/NA, Emar 
gabudu (a food) NA 

gadadu ~ "to separate off ' jB lex., NA G (a/u) 
gadalallu 'linen wearer' jB lex., a temple 

functionary; < Sum. 
gadalalu "linen fabric" jB [(TUG.)GADA.LAL], 

used as curtain in temple; < Sum. 
gadamahu(m), gadmdhu "superior linen 

garment" O/jB [GADA.MAH] jB used on demon 

figurines; < Sum. 
gadamu "to cut off MA G (Hi) part of body, as 

punishment 
gadaru (a cloth cover) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
gaddaya — ► gatta'a 

gade "I'm going, I'm off!" OB lex.; < Sum. 
gadibbu —* agadibbu 
gadmdhu —* gadamdhu 
gadu "young goat" NA, NB of 1-2 years' age; 

< Aram. 



ga'esmahu 



gamaru I 



gddu — ► gattu II 

ga'esmahu (a shrine) jB lex.; < Sum. 

ga'essu — ► ka'issum 

gagadd — ► kaqda 

gdgamu —* gayydnu 

gagddm —* kaqda 

gagu(m) "cloister" O/jB [GA.GI4/GI.A] for 
priestesses, esp. naditum at Sippar; ana g. 
erebum "to enter the cloister"; as institution; 
transactions ina bdb g. "at the cloister gate"; sa 
or atu bdb g. "cloister porter"; < Sum. 

gagu ~ "ring, tore" NA of gold, silver 

gabhu —* guhhu 

ga'issu — » ka'issum 

galddu — ► galdtu 

galalanu "gravelly" NB as PN; < galdlu I 

galalu I "stone(s)" NB building stone (for stele 
etc.); "gravel"; < Aram. 

galalu II "to roll" (trans.) Bab., M/NA G infin. 
in drug preparations D ~ G of river water; "roll" 
eyes (or "blind"?); > gallu; gillu 1 

galamahu(m), galmdhu(m), kalamdhu(m) "chief 
lamentation-priest" Bab. [GALA.MAtf; j/NB 
LU.GALA.MAtf, once SVj.MAH]; of specific deity 
(Enlil, Istar etc.); performing in cult; < Sum.; — ► 
kalu III 

galasu ~ "to flatten off? jB G stat., of moon 
D mng. unkn. lex. 

galatu(m), NA galddu "to tremble, be afraid" 
Bab., NA G {ulu, rarely Hi) [HULUH] med. of 
person, part of body, cow "tremble, shiver"; 
from fear; "be afraid of (= ace.)"; "ejaculate"; 
stat., of god, sea, sunrise etc. "is frightful, 
frightening" Gtn iter, of G [tfULUy.tfULUtf] "be 
repeatedly scared" D "frighten" s.o., of snake, 
fortification wall Dtn iter, of D of demon, ghost 
Dt pass, of D OB "be frightened" SD - D 
S 1. "make frightening" divine statue; stat. "is 
very frightening" 2. "terrify, scare off; > galtu, 
gain's; gilittu; mugallitu; suglutu 

galaturru "junior lamentation-priest" jB [LU. 
GALA.TUR; LU.SU.TUR]; < Sum.; -► kalu III 

galaussu "second-ranking lamentation-priest" jB 
lex.; < Sum.; — ► kalu III 

galdanibdtu —* kalteniwe 

galdu (a vessel) Am.; < Eg.? 

galgaltu I, galgallatu "hunger" jB lex. 

galgaltu II (a plant) jB lex. 

galittu —* galtu 

galitu "deportation"; coll. "deportees" NA; 
< galu II 

gallabtu(m) "female barber" OAkk, O/jB 
[(MUNUS.)SU.I]; < galldbu 



gallabu(m) "barber, hairdresser" [(LU.)SU.I; 
KINDA] also as family name, as PN; mar 
galldbl "member of the barbers", wakil g. 
"overseer of the barbers"; of the king, of 
Samas, of the market; transf. desig. of north 
wind g. same; naglabu, mustu (etc.) g. "razor, 
comb etc. of barber"; < gullubu II; > gallabtu; 
galldbutu 

gallabutu "function of barber" Ass., j/NB 
[(LU.)SU.I- ] g. epesu "to act as barber", also 
cultically of king; < galldbu 

gallanis "like a gallu-demon" jB; < gallu I 

gallittu —* galtu 

gallu ~ "rolling"? j/NB in tdmtu gallatu, also 
ellipt., without tdmtu; < galdlu II 

gallu(m) (a demon) Bab. [GAL5.LA] also transf., 
as desig. of enemy; hiris g. lemni "scion of or 
"sliver from an evil demon"; "constable" as 
divine title; < Sum.; > gallanis 

gallu — ► also qallu 

galmdhu — ► galamdhu 

galpurhu — ► kalpurhu 

galtappu —* gistappu 

galteniwe —* kalteniwe 

galtis "fearfully" jB; < galtu 

galtu; f. galittu "fearful" jB; "fearsome" of noise, 
light etc.; of snake; sea; storm-chariot; < galdtu 

galu I "banished, deported" NB; < galu II 

galu II "to be deported" NA, NB G (NA Hi) 
S "take/send into exile" (partly taken as sgl 
D ?); < Aram.; > galu I; galitu; suglu, sagalutu 

gam "also" NB; < W.Sem. 

gamagallum (a ring) OB of carnelian; < Sum. 

gamalu(m) "to do a favour; spare" G {Hi, OAkk 
also alu) "do s.o. a favour, be kind to"; gimilla 
g. "do favour"; NB "give s.th. as a favour"; 
"consent"; of deity "spare, save", esp. in PN; of 
king etc.; napista g. "spare life"; OAkk Id 
gamdl of silver/gold payment, mng. unci. 
Gt "agree to, accommodate each other" St OB 
"reach agreement about" field (=acc); 
> gdmilu, gammalu I, gammalu, gammilu; 
gimlu, gimiltu, gimillu; gitmdlu, gitmdlis, 
gitmdlutu; humdlu'-, humalitu 1 

gamamu "to cut off jB lex. G 

gamarru, NA kimarru "infantry" M/NA 

gamartu(m) "totality" O/jB 1. Mari of troops 
"whole force" 2. OB kannu gamartim "signs of 
completion"? 3.jB gramm., of Sum. 
morphemes, incl. prospective u- [TIL- ] (— ► 
gamertu 4); < gamaru II 

gamaru I "completeness" MB 1. ana g. 
"completely" 2. Nuzi "end, completion" of 
month; < gamaru II infin. 



gamaru(m) II 



89 



ganahu 



gamaru(m) II "to bring to conclusion, complete" 
G {alu) [TIL] "destroy, finish off people, city, 
land; "use up completely" corn etc.; "pay out 
all" silver; "finish, get to end of month, year 
etc.; stat. of days etc. "are ended, used up"; 
"complete" work, building, object; eqlam ina 
epesim g. "finish working field"; "finish, settle" 
a lawsuit, account(s); stat. of royal command 
"is final"; "finalize" decision etc.; in hendiad. 
"(do s.th.) completely", OA "satisfy s.o. 
entirely"; "control, own s.th. entirely"; "totally 
occupy" space, time; astr. of halo "be complete" 
Gt OB of persons' hearts, stat. "are entirely 
(devoted) to each other" D ~ G esp. OB 
"assemble" workers etc. "in their entirety", 
"include s.o. in a group", "collect" water, 
"assign" a field "entirely" to s.o., "pay, supply 
in full" silver, offering; M/jB "be totally in 
control of lands etc.; also abstr. obj., wisdom, 
strength; libba g. "give (o.'s) heart entirely to" 
s.o., "be fully loyal to"; in hendiad. "do 
completely"; inalana + infin. + g. "finish 
(doing s.th.)" Dt (NA Dtt) pass, of D OB of 
troops "be completely assembled"; "be finished, 
used up" etc. S 1. OA "cause to pay out all" 
silver 2. in hendiad. "do to the full"; stat. "is in 
complete control" 3. NB "cause to encompass" 
all wisdom 4. "have s.o. prepare" account 
"completely" N pass, of G 1. "be annihilated" 
of people, animals 2. "be fully used up" 3. of 
speech, illness "come to an end" 4. of dispute 
etc., of work, oath "be concluded" 5. of house, 
family "be fully assembled"; math, of measure 
"be filled up" 6. Nuzi, of months "pass, be 
completed"; > gamaru I; gamru I.II, gamertu, 
gamrutum; gimru, gimirtu, gimratu, gamartu; 
gamiru, gamirutu; gummurtu; mugammerum, 
mugammertu; nagmaru, nagmuru; tagmertu 

gamatu (a measure)? jB lex. 

gama'u vb. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

gamertu(m), gamirtu(m) "completeness" 1. OA 
"communal regulation" 2. "totality, everything", 
ana g. "in full"; NB kasap g. "full price"; NB 
[TIL- ] "complete amount"; erru g. — * erru III 
3. OB "destruction" 4. gramm. = gamartu 3; 

< gamru I 
gameru —* gamru I 

gamesu (a stone) NA for — ► algamisu ? 
gamgammu (a bird) jB [GAM.GAM.MUSEN]; 

< Sum. 

gamidu —* gammidatu 

gamilu(m) "merciful, sparing" O/jB in PNs, also 

fPN Gdmiltum; "pardoner"; la g. "merciless" of 

soldiers, lion; < gamdlu 



gamirtu — ► gamertu 

gamiru(m) 1. "strong, effective" OAkk, O/jB of 
king; as PN 2. OA gdmir awdtim "mediator, 
arbitrator" 3. (a kind of bolt)? O/jB, NA; 

< gamaru II; — ► kamiru ? 

gamirutu(m) "strength, efficacy" O/jB of king; 
jB g. epesu "to act effectively"; g. aldku "to be 
effective"; < gamiru 

gamlis "like a bent (throwing-)stick" jB; < gamlu 

gamlu(m); pi. f. ~ "bent stick (as projectile), 
throwing-stick" OAkk, Bab. [GIS.ZUBI] as 
weapon, of wood; epith. of gods, attribute of 
gods; d g."divine g. symbol"; om. of features 
kima g., i.e. curved, bent; astr. "constellation 
Auriga" (also code name for Jupiter) 
[MUL.ZUBI]; > gamlis 

gammalis "like a camel" jB; < gammalu II 

gammalu I "very merciful" jB; < gamdlu 

gammalu II "camel" NA [ANSE.A.AB.BA; 
ANSE.GAM.MAL]; < W.Sem.; > gammalis 

gammalu "very merciful" jB; < gammalu I + -7 

gammaru — ► gamru I 

gammidatu, NA also ga(m)midu (a garment) 
NA, NB; < kamddu ? 

gammilu "friendly, accommodating" jB; 

< gamdlu 
gammirtu —* gamru I 
gammis (a plant) jB lex., NB 
gammistu —* gamru I 
gammurtu — ► gummurtu 

gamru(m) I, gameru(m), NA, NB also 
gammaru, with f. gammirlstu "complete, total" 
[TIL; NA also PAP ?] of price, commodities etc.; 
of quantity, number; temu(m) g. "the entire 
matter", "full report"; with libbu, e.g. ina l.-su 
gamrim "whole-heartedly"; of lawsuit, 
accounts, work "completed"; OB as subst. 
"totality", "all (of ...)", analadi gamrisu "in its 
entirety", ana gamrim "totally, finally"; 

< gamaru II 

gamrum II "outlay, expenses" OA heavy 

{mddum), of trip {sa harrdnim); g. gamdrum, 

g. lamddum "to incur expenses"; < gamaru II; 

— ► gimru 3 
gamrutum "entirety" Mari ana g-su 

"completely"; < gamru I 
gamuzu mng. unkn. NA of horses 
gana "come on; yallah!" O/jB before imper.; 

before 1 sg. prec.; < Sum.; — ► agana; ingana; 

magana 
ganaddu —* ganandu 
ganahu "to cough" M/jB G {Hi) D "cough and 

retch"; — ► guhhu 



ganandu 

ganandu, ganaddu (an ornament) MB of gold, 

lapis lazuli; < Kass.? 
gananu, kandnu(m) ~ "to encircle, shut in" O/jB 

G (a/u) troops D ~ G stat. "is encircled"; 

> ginnatu 
ganasu "to lift (nose, lip)" jB G lex., med. D ~ G 

of sheep, of diviner (obj. KA.MES, appu) 
Dt "wrinkle o.'s nose", "sneer"; > gunnusum, 
mugannisum; — ► hanasu 
gandarasanu (linen from Gandhara) NB; 

< OPers. 
gangittu (a type of song) jB in Akkadian; 

< Sum.? 
ganinu — » ganunu I 
gannu I (part of insides of a sheep) NB, as cut 

of meat, left/right 
gannu II; pi. ganndtu/i "garden" NB; < Aram.; 

— ► hagani 
gannu — » also kannu; qannu 
ganungurru (a storeroom) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ganunmahu(m) "principal storeroom" O/jB 

[GA.NUN.MAH]; < Sum. 
ganunu(m) I, galininu(m) "storeroom" [GA.NUN 

(.NA)] OAkk, OB in private houses; Ass., O/jB 

in temple; j/NB "private chamber" in palace, 

house; < Sum. 
ganunum II (or klqanunum) (a weight or 

measure) OAkk 
ganzabaru "treasurer" NB; < OPers. 
ganzazu "dripper" jB lex.; < Sum. 
ganzer "underworld" jB; < Sum. 
gapahsu (a child's game) MB 
gapanu (or kapdnu) "bulb"? Bogh. of leek etc.; 

— ► gapnu ? 
gaparu(in) "to be superior" O/jB G — ► gapru 

D "overcome"? Dt "contend, match strengths"? 

N — ► mungapru 
gapasu(m) "to rise up, swell" O/jB G (ulu) of 

hero, heart "be(come) proud, swollen"; stat. of 

demon, part of liver, river "is enlarged, huge" 

D "enlarge", "swell number of allies; stat. "is 

enlarged, swollen" Dt of army "be enlarged"; 

"be swollen, proud" N of water-table "rise up"; 

> gapsu, gapsis, gapsiitu; gipsu, gipsutu; 
gupsu; guppusum; gitpdsu 

gapnu "bush" j/NB in wild; in gardens; of figs, 
pomegranates, apples; g. sa kardni "vine"; NB 
hit g. "vineyard"; — ► gapanu; gupnu 

gappu "wing" MA, jB of bird, ghost, winged 
beasts; pi. sir ga(p)pdni "winged snake"?; -> 
agappu; kappu I 

gapru "superior" jB; < gapdru 

gapsidum — » qapsidum 

gapsis "in spate" jB of high water; < gapsu 



90 garis(t)u 

gapsu; f. gapustu "arisen, proud" O/jB [MA{J] of 
flood waters "risen in spate"; of troops 
"numerous"; transf. of heart, person, goddess, 
animal "proud, swollen"; also as PN; < gapdsu; 

> gapsis, gapsiitu 
gapsutu "numerousness" jB in gapsiissunu "in 

their great numbers" of troops; < gapsu; — » 

gipsutu 
garahdnu — ► garhdnu 
garabu(m) "mange, scab" O/jB med., mag.; sa g. 

"leper"; samnulahanlereh g. (kinds of plant/ 

stone/locust); > garhu, garhdnu; gurruhu'- 
garadu(m), qarddu "to pluck, tear out" (hair 

etc.) O/jB, NA G OB lex. "pluck" wool; 

transf., of pig "root out" bricks; Am. (imper. 

qurud) mng. unci. Gt "pluck beard of s.o. 

D "pluck out" hair; stat., of hair "is mangy"; 

> gardu I; gerdu; gurrudu 
gardhu — ► gardsu 

garakku, girakku (small brick altar) jB 
garamu "to follow course" G (Hi) jB of planet 
garannu — ► garunnu 
gardnu — » qardnu 
gardru — ► qardru; sugarruru 
garasum (a skin complaint) OB lex.; > garsu, 

gerrisdnu; gurrusu 
gardsu — » also kardsu 
garasgaras — ► gurusgaraS 
garasu(m), jB lex. also gardhu "to move 

towards" OAkk, O/jB, MA G (pret. igrus) 

1. OAkk, OB of person, god "go towards" s.o. 

(=dat.); MA of animal figures "stride" (or 

G2?) 2.jB lex., comm. "copulate", as euph. 

N of women "be made love to"; > gursu V; 

guristu, gurusgaras 1 ; — » nagarsu 
gardsu — » also qardsu 
gard'um — ► gerU 

garbanu, garahdnu "leprous" j/NB; < garhu 
garbu "leprous" M/jB; < gardhu 
gardapatu — ► gardupatu 

gardu(m) I, qardu(m) "mangy"? O/jB; < g'arddu 
gardu II ~ "state worker(s)" NB coll. term; 

< OPers.?; — ► gardupatu 
gardumum (or qardumum) (a prof, desig.)? 

OB 
gardupatu, gardapatu "leader of gardu" NB; 

< OPers. 
garidu "beaver"? jB med., testicle of g. 
garinnu — » agarinnu 
garis(t)u, giris(t)u "loaf (of bread)" NA, NB; 

< Aram. 
garmartu — » kanwartu 
garrdnu — ► gerrdnu 



garru(m) 



91 



germadu 



garru(m) (a box) O/jB for bread; medicines 
garsu(m) "leprous" MB lex.; < garasum 
garum "cream" OB lex.; < Sum. 

garu — ► also geru 
gdru — > giru 

garunnu, garannu, gurunnu, agrunnu (small 

cultic vessel) jB [(DUG.)SAB.TUR] 
Gasur Salul — ► Saliltum 
gasdsu — > gazdzu; kasdsu I 
gasisu "gnashing, grinding" jB of teeth; 

< kasdsu I 

gassanu "calcareous" NA of limestone; 

< gassu III 

gassatu "firewood" NA; sa gassdtisu "firewood 

man"; < kasdsu I ? 
gassu(m) I ~ "cruel, murderous" O/jB of deities, 

demons 
gassu II ~ "chopped" NB of beams; < kasdsu I 
gassu(m) III "gypsum" Bab, NA [IM.BABBAR] 

as raw material, mineral; as building material; 

mag., esp. for figurines; me g. "lime wash"; 

> gassanu 
gassu — > also gazzu 

gasaru(m) "to be(come) strong, powerful" 
OAkk, Bab., M/NA(lit.) G (///) of deity, king; 
of command, cult-ordinance Gtn infin. 
gitassuru = Dt gutassuru ? D "make" troops 
"dominant"; stat. "is very powerful, more 
powerful" than s.o. Dt "strike with great force", 
"bully" of gods, men; NA of trees "vie with 
each other"?; > gasru, Gasrdnu, gasrutu; 
magsaru; mugdasru 

gasasu(m) "to cut off G (pret. u) Bogh. (or — ► 
kasdsu ?); > gasisu, gasisis 

gasirutu "appurtenances" jB in g. sarruti "royal 
paraphernalia" 

gasisis "on stakes" jB 

gasisu(m) "stake, pole" O/jB, NA for military, 
legal impalement; < gasdsu 

gasmushu — > kasmushu 

Gasranu "strong" M/NA as DN; < gasru 

gasru(m), M/NA gesru "very strong, powerful" 
Bab., M/NA(lit.) of deity, king, lion; weapon; 
imuq(i) g. "great strength"; < gasdru; 

> Gasrdnu, gasrutu 

gasrutu, gesrutu "great strength, power" jB, NA 

of deity, king; < gasru 
gasu(m) I, NA gudsu ~ "to run, hasten" O/jB, 

NA(lit.) G (u) of deity; > gustu 
gasu II "to vomit" jB G not attested D absol. 

"vomit" S "make s.o. vomit"? 
gasilru — ► gusuru 



gattu(m) I, kattu "form, physical build" of deity, 

divine statue, human; Mari of donkeys gattam 

sehhird "of very small build" 
gattu II, gddu (name for Euphrates) j/NB 
gatta'a "reed- or wood-cutter"? NA, NB; 

< Aram. 
ga'um "to be superior" OB over s.o.; < W.Sem. 
ga'um, gawum "people, tribe" Mari; < W.Sem. 
ga'u, kau, qd'u "to spit, spew" jB, NA G 
gawum — » ga'um 
gayyanu, gdgamu mng. unkn. jB lex., archit. 

term 
gayydtu —* qayydtu 
gazamanu(m), gazimdnu (a pole) O/jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
gazazu(m), kazdzu, glkasdsu "to shear" OAkk, 

Bab. G (a/u) sheep N pass, of G, NB; > gazzu; 

kaziztu, kizzatu; gizzu, gizzatu; gdzizu; kuzdzu 1 -; 

magzazu; — > kizzu I 
gazimdnu — > gazamdnu 
gazizu "shearer" NB pi. gdzizi; < gazdzu 
gazzu(m), OAkk gezzum (or glkassu(m)l) 

"shorn" OAkk(Elam), Bab. of sheep; < gazdzu 
gegu(n)nu(m), OB also kikunnum, Elam 

kukunnu(m); pi. f. "raised temple" OAkk, Bab. 

often in appos. to ziqqurratu(m); < Sum. 
gelduhlu, keltuhlu, MA gelzulu "bowyer, bow- 
maker" MA, Nuzi 
gelletu -* gillatu 
gelzulu -* gelduhlu 
gennu -* kinnu 

genu ~ "to thrust, butt" M/jB G; D 
ginu — ► ginu I 
gepu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gerdu, qerdu "plucked, carded 7 wool" jB, NA 

[SU.TAB.BA] eaten as punishment; < garddu 
gerdudum mng. unkn. OB silver for g.; < Sum. 
gergiltu (ring-shaped part of plough) jB lex. 
gergilu(m) (a bird) O/jB; also OAkk (a city 

name) 
gerginakku "library" jB [IM.GU.LA; IM.LA.A] for 

tablets; < Sum. 
gerginnum (part of liver) OB; < Sum.? 
gergiru -* egemgiru 
gergisu/u (a plant) jB lex. 
gergi(s)su ~ (a small batteringTram) jB lex. 
gergissu(m) 1. "strawberry tree" jB lex. 2. (a red 

skin complaint) O/jB; sa g. "sufferer from g"; 

— ► qerqisu 
gergu — ► gerrigu 

geriddakku (a river fish) jB lex.; < Sum. 
germadu "floor-timbers (of ship)"? jB 

[GE.ER.MA.DU]; < Sum. 



gerrabbakku(m) 



92 



gilimmum 



germahhu — * kirmahhu 

gerrabbakku(m) (a sea-fish) jB lex.; < Sum. 

gerranu(m), jB also garrdnu "wailing, 
lamentation" OAkk, O/jB 

gerridir, kerridir (a leather item) MB; < Kass.? 

gerrigu, gergi) (a reed rope) jB lex. 

gerrisanu "mangy (sheep)" jB lex.; < gardsum 

gerru(m) I, OB also kerrum m. & f. "way; 
caravan; (military) campaign" Bab., M/NA 
[kaskal; Mari also KASKAL.a] 1. topog. 
"road, path" to (sa) PIN; difficult, narrow etc.; 
jB g. sarri "royal road"; transf. "way of life"; 
tappi g. "travelling companion" 2. Bab. 
"caravan" 3. OB "journey"; passur g. "picnic 
table" 4. military "march, campaign"; "(troops 
on) campaign" 5. "(religious) procession"; NB 
g. massartu "patrol"; astr. rikis g. (an excerpt 
from series) 6. jB pi. kerretu "marching-song"? 

gerru II "lion cub, puppy" jB 

genu — * egerru 

gerseqqu(m) (palace, temple attendant) Bab. 
[(LU.)GlR.SIG.v6/SE(.GA); MB also KI.IR.SI. 
GA]; < Sum. 

gerseqqutu "post of attendant" Bogh., NB; in 
palace; NB as prebend in temple; < gerseqqu 

gersu — * kersu 

gersanu(m), girisdnu (a kind of leek) O/jB 
[GA.RAS.SAG.SAR]; < Sum. 

gersippum (a tame bird) OB 

geru(m), gam, OA gard'um "to be hostile to, 
attack" G (///) with ace. "attack" opponent; salta 
g. "start fight with" s.o. (= ace); leg. "initiate 
proceedings against" s.o. (= ace), also dina g., 
NA denu dabdbu issi PN g.; NB bel gerisu 
(infin.) "legal opponent" Gtn iter, of G OA; jB 
stat. of Lamastu gitarrdtu Gt OB "start 
hostilities against each other" D ~ G Dtn iter, of 
D N "start hostilities, get into a fight", esp. leg.; 
> girutu; gem; magru, magritu; tagrlturrP 

geru(m), gdrd "opponent, enemy" Bab., M/NA 
in battle; of animals; in law; < gem 

gerzizu — * kerzizu 

gesu(m) "to assign to, confer on" O/jB G (pret. 
iges); > gisu 

gesu —* also gesu I 

gesru —* gasru 

gesriitu —* gasrutu 

gestu "very first, leading" jB epith. of god 
[IGI.DU-ji]; < Sum.; — ► igistum 

gesu "to belch" jB G wind, water, bile as obj. 
D ~ G wind, blood; like ox; > gisutu 

gesu(m) I, gesu "to turn over, grub up" O/jB soil 

gesu II "to spend the night" jB lex. 



gezzu —* gazzu; gizzu 

giammalu ~ "sprout, shoot" jB lex. 

giaru(m) mng. unci. O/jB G "to challenge"? 

person, "demand"? work D "demand"? s.th., 

field; > magirtum 
giballum (a kind of reed) OB lex.; < Sum. 
gibarru, gibarbarru "reed fibres" jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

gibbaru, gibbum ~~ "hired shepherd"? MA, 

Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
gibbum (or gippum) (a sacrificial rite) Mari 
gibbum -* gibbaru 
gibetum (class of soldier) Mari 
gibillu/u ~ "touch-wood, tinder" jB lex. 
giddagiddu (an eye complaint)? jB med.; 

< Sum. 
gidde -* budu 
gi(d)dil — ► gidlu 

gidimduhum (an alcoholic drink) Mari; < Sum. 
gidimmu I; pi. f. ~ "water scoop" jB, NA 
gidimmu II (a bundle of reeds) jB lex.; < Sum.; 

-♦ gidmu 
gidlu(m), freq. wr. gi(d)dil "plaited string" Bab., 

NA 1. Bab. "plait" of onions etc., used as 

measure 2. NA (kind of gold ornament) 
gidmu, gidi(m)mu "bunch, spray of dates" NB as 

measure; < Aram.; — ► gidimmu II 
gidu(m); NB pi. f. "sinew, gristle" Bab., M/NA 

[UZU.SA] usu. of sheep; weighed; for chariot 

manufacture etc. 
gigallutu -* igigallutu 
gigiruhhe adj. mng. unci. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
gigitu (or gizitu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gigunu —* gegunnu 

gigurbalu (kind of basket) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gigurdu (a carrying basket) jB lex.; < Sum.; -♦ 

massu I 1 
gigurkigubbu (kind of basket) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gigurru(m) (a basket) OAkk, jB ? ; < Sum. 
gigursugubbu (kind of basket) jB lex.; < Sum. 
giguru 1. "(the cuneiform sign) U" jB [u] 2. (a 

kind of torch) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gigurzidakum "flour basket" OB; < Sum. 
gihannu(m), gihennu(m) (basket for wool) O/jB 

[Gl.BE.EN(.yi.A); GI.BA.an(.BI.a)]; < Sum. 
gihlu(m), guhlu (a mourning ceremony) O/jB 

[GI.HUL]; < Sum.; -♦ kihullu 
giladu — ► gildu 
gilammu -* gislammu 
gilamu, kildmu (a kind of ivory) Am., Nuzi 
gildu, giladu "(animal) hide, skin" NB; < Aram. 
gilgidanu "bat" (Fledermaus) jB lex. 
gilimmum mng. unkn. OB lex.; < Sum.? 



gilittu(m) 



93 



giru(m) 



gilittu(m) "terror" Bab. [SA.MUD] g. rasu "to 
become terrified"; < galdtu 

gillatu(m), gelletu "sin, sacrilege" Bab.; bel g. 
"sinner"; > gullulu 

gillu (a piece of reed) jB lex.; < galdlu II ? 

gilsu, gissu(m), m. & f. ~ "hip(-bone)" O/jB, NA 
[TUGUL] left/right; is broken; child carried ina 
muhhi g.-ya; NB abul g. (a gate in Babylon) 

giltiu, giltu —* gistum 

gimdhu -* kimahhu 

gimgiru — * egemgiru 

gimillu(m), OAkk, NA gimlu{m)\ pi. f. "requital, 
favour" [Su] "friendly deed (for/as reward)"; 
OA awil g. "one who can do a favour"; jB bel 
g.-su "one owing him a favour"; OA, OB g. 
sakdnumlepesumlgamalum "to do a favour" to 
(= elili(na) sir) s.o.; freq. in PNs; g. turru "to 
return a favour", also "avenge" s.o.; < gamdlu 

gimiltu "act of friendliness, favour" M/NB(Ass.) 
g. sakdnu "to do a favour"; < gamdlu 

gimirtu(m) "totality" OAkk, Ass., NB esp. 
inalana gimirtisu etc. "in its totality, all of it"; in 
appos. "all", "wholly"; Mari "entire body" of 
army; < gamdru II 

gimlu(m) "spare (ox)" O/jB to be kept in 
reserve; < gamdlu 

gimlu -* also gimillu 

gimratu(m) "totality" Bab.(poet.) "all" gods, 
men etc.; < gamdru II 

gimru(m), OB also kimrum "totality; costs, 
expenses" Bab., M/NA 1. "totality", before 
gen./pron. suff., in appos. 2. pi. f. "everything, 
whole world" 3. m. "outlay, expenses" incurred 
in business, labour, travel etc. (— ► gamrum II); 

< gamdru II 

gimussu "reed pole" jB for boat; < Sum. 

gina, ginu adv. "constantly; usually" M/NB 

[DlS- ] 1. "always, permanently", NB ana g. 

"for ever" 2. "regularly, normally", kT(ma) sa g. 

"as usual"; NB astr. nasdru sa ginS "regular 

observation"; jB subdt g. "everyday clothing"?; 

< Akk. lw. in Sum. 
gingiru -* egemgiru 
ginigginakku (a reed) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ginindanakku "measuring rod" j/NB for 

surveying [GI.NlNDA.NA- ; NINDA ? (for NINDA 

as capacity measure -♦ akalu 2)]; < Sum. 
ginindanginakku (a reed) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gininu — * ganunu I 
ginnatu "enclosure" MB in g. gandnu "to hem 

in" (troops); < gandnu 
ginnu (a hallmark for silver) NB in kaspu sa g. 

"stamped silver", also kaspu sa lag. 
ginnu — * kinnti 



ginu(m) I, M/NB also genu; pi. MA gind'e, NB 
gindne "regular contribution (to temple)" Bab., 
M/NA [GI.NA; Dig- ] of wool, bread, sheep etc.; 
g. sa DN; sut g. "offerings Mta-measure"; in 
appos. sattukke g.; officials: MA rab gind'e, 
NB re'i g. "shepherd of g. sheep", sdhit g. "oil- 
presser of regular offerings" (-♦ sdhit-ginutu); 

< Sum. 

ginu II "child" jB in col.; < Sum. 

ginu -* also gina 

ginutu — * sdhit-ginutu 

giparu, giparru, also mipdru (<Emesal?) 
1. M/NB "residence of en(t)u in temple" [Gl6. 
PAR] en(t)u enters, leaves g.; g. sa fDN; also 
part of dwelling house 2.jB ~ "pastureland"; 

< Sum. 
gippum — * gibbum 

gipsu(m) "uprising, welling up" Bab., NA of 
water; transf. g. ummdni etc. "massed body of 
troops", g. libbi "pride"; ext. "thickening"? on 
liver, lung; < gapdsu 

gipsutu "fullness, numerousness" jB in 
gipsussun "in their multitude"; < gipsu; -* 
gapsutu 

gipu "date basket" j/NB; < Sum. 

girakku — ► garakku 

girdnis —* giris 

girberushe (a wall ornament)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 

giridu(m) "access road"? O/jB; < Sum.? 

girigubbu "footboard of chariot, cart". M/jB 

[GIR.GUB]; < Sum. 
girim hilibe —* girimmu 2 
girimmis mng. unci. OB 
girimmu, girimiu 1. M/jB, NA lex., med. (a kind 

of fruit) 2. Nuzi, Bogh. (glkirinnu) (a precious 

stone), NA/jB girim hilibe "underworld g" (a 

precious stone) 3. OB as PN ?; < Sum. 
girisu-akarranu (a prof, desig.) NB; < OPers. 
giristu —* garistu 
girisu (a kind of fruit) jB lex. 
girisu -* also garistu 
giris, girdnis "like Gira, like fire" jB [ d GlS.BAR- 

is]; < giru 
girisdnu — * gersdnu 

giritu(m) (a kind of fish, phps.) "muraena" O/jB 
girratu — * kirratu 
girru —* giru 
girtablilu "scorpion-man" jB [GiR.TAB.LU.Ui8. 

LU]; < Sum. 
giru; pi. gire, giretum "'/24 shekel" NB; < Aram. 

"carob-seed" 
giru(m), girru "fire(-god)" O/jB [ d GIS.BAR; 

d GIBIL6] as DN; meaning "fire", g. ittanpah 



girutu 



94 



gitmalis 



"fire was ignited", ina g. aqmu "I burnt with 

fire"; < DN Gira; > giris 
girutu "hostility" NA; < gem 
gisallu(m) (part of roof, phps.) "eaves" Bab.; of 

domestic house; OB transf. g. mutim "g. of 

death"; MB(Ass.) pi. f. gisallat sade "g. of the 

mountains"; < Sum. 
gisandassu, gisandussu "reed figure" jB lex., 

mag. [GI.SAG.DA.SA-m]; < Sum. 
gisappum (a basket) OB; with handle; < Sum. 
gisgallu, gisgallu "station (of stars)" jB g. 

sursudu "to fix (their) station"; < Sum. 
gisgimmaru — ♦ gisimmaru 
gisitu — ♦ kisitu 
giskimmu(m), iskimmu(m), iskimbu "sign, 

omen" Bab. g. damiqti "good sign"; defined by 

gods; "brought" by heaven and earth; rdg. of 

initial GlS- uncert. (gis- or is- ?); < Sum. 
gissiu — ♦ gistum 
gisu — ♦ igisii 

glsu "endowed with" jB; < gesu 
gislsu (desig. of enemy) NA; < kasdsu I ? 
gisitu — ♦ kisitu 
gisscitu — ♦ kissatu 

gissiS "into thorn-bushes" OB of pasture 
gissu(m) "thom(-bush)" Bab., NA 1. "thorny 

bush" in steppe etc. 2. transf, of word ki gissi 

"like a thorn" 3. NA bit gissi(te) mng. unci.; 

> gissis 
gisallu "boat-pole, rudder" O/jB [GISAL]; < Sum. 
gisburru 'releasing wood' jB lex. 1. (part of 

door) 2. mag. (a ritual instrument); < Sum. 
gisdabtu (a kind of door)? jB lex.; < Sum. 
gisdedu (a musical instrument)? jB lex.; < Sum. 
gisdilu (or zagingisdilu) (a string of beads) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
gisgallu "throne-base" jB of column "bases"; 

<Sum. 
gisgallu — ♦ also gisgallu 
gisgimmaru — ♦ gisimmaru 
gisginis "like a clamp 7 " jB; < gisginu 
gisginu (a wooden closure, phps.) "clamp" jB as 

descr. of king g. dannu; < Sum.; > gisginis 
gisgi(r)ru "(wooden) spill" NA for lighting fire; 

or is girri ? 
gisgissu "yoke" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gishassu "wooden mace" jB; < Sum. 
gishummu "bench" jB in vehicles; < Sum. 
gishu(r)ru "plan, design, blueprint" M/NB 

[GlS.HUR] for building; of cosmic scheme; mag. 

"design" in flour; < Sum. 
gisimmaru(m), lex. var. gis/sgimmaru, 

gisnimmaru etc. m. & f "date palm" [(GlS.) 

GISIMMAR] in plantations; g. sarru "false d."; 



products of d.; door, bowl, images of wood of 

d.; < Sum. 
giskallu (a heavy stick) jB lex.; < Sum. 
giskanakku (part of doorframe) j/NB; < Sum. 
giskurru (a mountain tree) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gislammu, gilammu "mullein" jB lex. used for 

wicks; < Sum. 
gismahhu "tree-trunk" or "long beam" jB(Ass.) 

of cedars; < Sum. 
gisnimmaru — ♦ gisimmaru 
gisnu "bed" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gisnugallu — ♦ asnugallu 
gisparru, OB gisperrum "trap, snare" O/jB, NA 

transf. esp. of Samas; in similes; < Sum. 
gisrinnu(m) "scales" OAkk, O/jB [GlS.ERlN] of 

Samas in judgement; also (part of door); OAkk 

as deified symbol; < Sum. 
gisru(m) "(wooden) bar; bridge" Bab., NA 

1. "bar" to close door; "barrier" 2. NA, NB 

"bridge" 3. NB "(bridge) toll"; rab g. "toll- 
collector" 
gissappum — ♦ gistappu 
gissakanakku (part of doorframe) j/NB; coated 

with bitumen; < Sum. 
gissasku (a pole) jB lex; < Sum. 
gissu mng. unkn. NB in abut g. (a gate at 

Babylon) 
gissu — ♦ also gilsu 

gistaggu "offering" NB(roy. inscr.); < Sum. 
gistalgiddu "barrier" jB; < Sum. 
gistallu ~ "cross-bar" j/NB, NA [GIS.DAL] on 

door; as carrying pole for divine statue ?; ext. — ♦ 

tallu I; < Sum. 
gistalu "cross-bar"? Mari, of wooden vessel- 
stand; < Sum. 
gistappu(m), OAkk glkissappum, galtappu(m), 

jB kersappu, kilzappu Bogh., Syria also 

kiltappu "footstool" OAkk, Bab. [GIR.GUB; NB 

also GIR.GUB.BU]; also "threshing-sledge"; 

Qatna, Am. as element of ornament; Am. 

transf, ref to pharaoh's subjects; — ♦ kaltappu 
gistelu (a dignitary) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
gistum, giltu, MA giltiu, NA gissiu "cross-bar" 

O/jB, M/NA of table, throne etc.; < Sum.; -♦ 

helta'u ? 
gistuppu(m) "plaque" O/jB [(NA4.)GIS.DUB] i.e. 

flat ornament of precious stone or metal; 

< Sum. 
gistu "(writing) board" jB; < Sum. 
gisubbu — ♦ kisubbu 

gisutu "eructation, belch" M/jB; < gesu 
gitepatu (a Persian official) NB; < OPers. 
gitmalis "perfectly" jB; < gitmdlu 



gitmalu(m) 



95 



guhsu(m) 



gitmalu(m), lex. also gittamlu "perfect, ideal"? 

Bab. epith. of gods, warriors; Gilgames g. 

emuqi "perfect in strength"; of animals, palm- 
fronds, parts of liver; < gamdlu 
gitmalutu "perfection" jB in g. epesu "to act 

perfectly"; < gitmdlu 
gitnu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gitpasu in emiiqi g. "fully supplied with troops" 

jB; < gapdsu 
gitrunu — ♦ qitrunu 
gittamlu — ♦ gitmdlu 

gitipu "fresh-pulled stems" of leek NB; < Aram. 
gittu "oblong tablet" NB [(iM.)GfD.DA; IM.GI.DA] 

in lit. col. etc.; leg. as receipt; also ref. to 

parchment document [KUS.GID.DA]; < Sum.; — ♦ 

imgiddu 
giwara, giwarumma "tanning"? Nuzi, bag of g. 

"tanning 7 agent"; giwarumma epesu "to tan 7 " 

leather; < Hurr. 
gizgazu "beater" jB lex. stick for fulling; < Sum. 
gizgizu (a prof, desig.)? jB 
gizillu "torch, brand" Bab., NA [GI.IZI.LA], esp. 

rit.; < Sum. 
gizinakku(m), kizind "offering place for Sin" 

O/jB; < Sum. 
gizitu — ♦ gigitu 
gizzdnu — ♦ kizzdnu 
gizzatu "shearing, wool yield" NB of sheep, 

goat; < gazdzu 
gizzatu — ♦ also kizzatu 
gizzu(m) "shearing" Bab., NA "(activity, process 

of) shearing"; bit g. "shearing shed"; Bab. pi. 

"(product, yield of) shearing"; < gazdzu 
gizzu — ♦ also kizzu I 
gudsu — ♦ gasu I 
gubabtu — ♦ ugbabtu 

gubarum, kubdrum ~ "(metal) bar, ingot" OB 
gubdru — ♦ also gupdru II 
gubbu "cistern" NA, NB g. (sa) me "water 

cistern"; < Aram.? 
gubbuhu, qubbuhu "bald" O/jB, also as PN 
gubgubu (a part of the body) jB 
gubgubu — ♦ also guggubu 
gubibatu pi. tant. "roasted grain" NA; 

< kabdbu II 
gubnatu "(a) cheese" NB; < Aram. 
gubru(m) (a kind of lance) O/jB lex.; -♦ gupru 
gudddu — ♦ kudddu 

gu(d)danagadu "ox-herd" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gudapsu(m) (a priest) O/jB [GUDU4.ABZU] of 

Nanna, Nusku etc.; < Sum. 
guddanagadu — ♦ gudanagadd 



gudgudu; pi. f (side-toes of animals)? MA in 

descr. of animals' feet 
gudu; pi. guddnu "leather bag, waterskin" NB; 

< Aram. 

guduballata'u "off-duty pasis u-priest" jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

guduballaturru, guduballu "(junior) on-duty 

paiwu-priest" jB lex.; < Sum. 
gududu "battle troop" NB; < Aram. 
gudugu (a kind of door) jB lex. 
guduttu, dugudu (an offering table) jB lex.; 

< Sum.? 

guennakku (the governor of Nippur) Bab., NA 

[GU.EN.NA]; < Sum. 
guennakkutu "governorship (of Nippur)" MB 

[GU.EN.NA- ]; < guennakku 
gugallu(m) I "irrigation controller" OAkk, Bab., 

NA [(LU.)GU.GAL; OAkk KU.gAl; jB once 

UGU.GAL] as official, also PN; as epith. of king; 

of god; < Sum.; > gugallutu 
gugallu II 'big ox' jB desig. of drum; < Sum. 
gugallutu "post of irrigation controller" Nuzi, 

NB [LU.GU.GAL- ]; also "payment to irrigation 

controller"; < gugallu I 
gugamlu — ♦ kigamlum 
gugaru mng. unkn. jB desig. of stone 
guggalipu — ♦ gungulipu 
guggubu, gubgubu (a precious ornament or 

gemstone) Qatna, Am., of lapis lazuli 
gugguru(m), gukkurum; pi. f (a clay vessel) 

O/jB, holding lard; sealed; < Sum. 
gugittu (a shout)? jB lex. 
gugu "shout(ing), cry(ing)" jB lex. 
gugudum — ♦ gugutum 
gugupinnu — ♦ gungupinnu 
gugutum (or gugudum, ku(k)kutidum) (a fodder 

plant) OAkk(Ur III) 
guhassum, guhassu, guhalsu "wire; cord; 

trimming" Bab., MA [GU.yAS] "wire" of gold, 

copper etc.; for lyre; mag. "string, cord"; 

"fringe, trimming" of carpet, garment 
guhhu, gahhu "cough(ing)" jB; -♦ gandhu 
guhhubu D "to cough" jB 
guhlu "kohl, antimony paste" j/NB [SIM.BI.ZI.DA 

(— ♦ simbizidu)] as raw material; med.; as eye 

make-up 
guhlu — ♦ gihlu 
guhsu(m), OB, MA also gusu (a reed altar) 

O/jB, MA [OB GI.GUHSU; jB Gl.GUtJSU] 

loaded with bread; < Sum. 
gukallu — ♦ mukkallu 
gukkalldnu — ♦ kukkalldnu 
gukkallu — ♦ kukkallu 
gukku — ♦ kukku I 



gulbutu 

gukkurum — ► gugguru 

gulanu — ► gulenu 

gulbutu, gulubiitu; OB pi. gulbdtum ? (a kind of 
cereal) O/jB lex.; < gullubu II 

gulenu, gulinu, gulanu; pi. m. & f. (an over- 
garment) NA, NB 

gulgullu(m), gulgullatu(m); pi. m. & f. "skull" 
Bab., NA of humans; dog, bird; NB 
"skull( -shaped vessel)" 

gullbatu pi. tant. "hair-trimmings, clippings" jB 
from armpit; < gullubu II 

gulinnu mng. unkn. NB 

gulinu — ► gulenu 

gullenu "man" jB lex. 

gullu(m); pi. f. "bowl" Bab., NA of metal; Mari, 
Qatna "bowl( -shaped ornament)" in gold; NA 
"(column) bases" in copper; NB (iron part of 
defensive grating) 

gullubu(m) I "shorn, shaved" Bab.; OB as PN; 
j/NB cultically "shaven" priest, also as subst., 
pi. gullubutu; f. gulubtu (desig. of wool) lex.; 

< gullubu II; > gullubutu 
gullubu(m) II D "to shear; shave" Bab., M/NA 

[SAR] muttata(m) g. "shave half (head)" as 
punishment; as sign of slavery, esp. abbutta(m) 
g:. also lips, cheeks, temples etc.; "excise" 
tattoo ?; animal, plant; j/NB, NA "shave" as part 
of cultic dedication; Nuzi, NA "clear" crop from 
field; Nuzi "plunder, clear out" house S OB 
uncert.; > galldbu, gallabtu, galldbutu; 
gullubu I, gullubutu; gullbatu; gulbutu; naglabu 
gullubutu "(cultic) shaving, i.e. ordination" NB; 

< gullubu I 
gullultu(m) "sin, sacrilegious act" Bab. g. 

epesu(m), g. rasu(m) "to commit sin"; < gullulu 
gullulu(in) D "to sin, commit sacrilege" Bab. 

towards (= ana) s.o.; annl g. "commit sins" 

Dtn iter, of D; < gillatu denom.; > gullultu 
gullusu D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
gulubtu — ► gullubu I 
gulubiitu — ► gulbutu 
gumahu(m), gummahu "prize bull" Bab. 

[GU4.MAH; NB also GU4.MAtJ.EJ for offerings; 

transf. ref. to king; < Sum. 
gumaki(l)lu (a wooden item) NA 
gumalu (a kind of tamarisk) jB lex. 
gumanu (part of a plant)? jB lex. 
gumaru "carbonized wood, charcoal" NA 
gumgumsu (an altar) jB lex.; < Sum. 
gummahu — ► gumdhu 
gummatu "summer" NB; < Aram. 
gummurtu(m), Ass. gammurtu "totality, 

completion" O/jB, NA 1. ana g. "at all, 

altogether" 2. jB gummurta "altogether" 3. NA 



96 guristu 

in ilana g. libbi "whole-heartedly, i.e. loyally" 

(also abbr. gu-um /.); < gamdru II D 
gummutu D "to anger" NB; stat. "is very 

angry"; < Aram. 
gum'u mng. unkn. NA (part of an ornament) 
gumuru (or kumuru) "sword-hilt" Am. 
gunakku (an animal-skin skirt) NB (= Gk. 

kaunakes ?); < OPers. 
gungitu (a net)? jB lex. 
gungu — ► kungu II 
gungubinnu — ► gungupinnu 
gungubu (or gungupu) (part of a chariot) Am. 
gungulipu, gu(g)galipu "(camel's) hump" NA 
gungupinnu, gungubinnu, gugupinnu (an 

ornament) NA, NB [GU.GAB(-w-/jm)?] 
gungupu — ► gungubu 
gunnu ~ "mass, bulk" M/NA, jB of troops; 

"main force"? [GU ?] 
gunnu — ► also gurnu 
gunnusum adj. "nose-wrinkling, sneering" OB 

lex., also as PN; < gandsu 
gunte memetu (an object) Am., in large 

numbers 
-gunu — ► -kunu 

gunum (a storeroom) OB [E.GU.NA]; < Sum. 
-guniisu — » -kunusi 
guparum I mng. unkn. Mari 
guparu II, gupdru, gubdru "neck; mane" jB also 

of stone/gold ornament; < Sum. 
gupnu "tree( -trunk )"jB, NA; -» gapnu 
guppusum "very proud"? OB as PN: < gapdsu 
gupru(m) "shepherd's hut" OA, O/jB; also lex. 

(a table)?; — > gubrum 
gupsu "surge, swell (of water)" jB; < gapdsu 
guqdnu — ► quqdnu 
guqqu; pi. guqqdnu (a monthly offering) j/NB 

[GUG] of sheep, oxen, beer, dates; for specific 

day, month; < Sum. 
gurabu "sack, wrapping" NB for alum; for large 

pot; < Aram. 
gurartu — ► kurartu 
gurdru — ► kurdru 
gurasu — ► gurusgaras 
gurastu — ► kurartu 
gurduppum, kurduppum "basket (for fish)" 

OB; < Sum. 
gurgugu "roller"? jB for moving ship; < Sum.? 
gurgurratu — ► qurqurratu 
gurgurru (a plant) jB lex. 
gurgurru — ► also qurqurru 
gurgussu (a big offering-vessel) jB lex. 
guristu, kuristu "vulva" M/jB; < gardsu; — ► 

gurusgaras 



gurnu(m) 



97 



guzu 



guristu — ► also kurartu 

gurnu(m), gunnu(m) "of average quality" O/jB 

of copper, wool, dates etc. 
gurpi(s)su — ► qurpissu 

gu(r)rutu, NA agurrutu "ewe" M/NA [UDU.Us] 
gurru(m), gurru (a metal object) O/jB, MA 
gurru — > gurru 
gurrubu mng. unci. NB in ZA.GIN.KUR.RA 

("blue dye") gurrubtum; < gardbu ? 
gurrudu(m), qurrudu "mangy" O/jB lex.; of 

fish; as PN; desig. of clay lump'; < garddu 
gurruru — > qurruru 

gurrusu "scabrous"? NB of skull; < gardsum 
gursd/enum — > gusdnu 
gursi(p)pu — » qurpissu 
gursu I, qursu - "chapel" NA (or "(ritual) 

sexual congress" < gardsu ?); also bit g. (part 

of a house); or = hursu ? 
gursu II (or qursu) (a peg)? jB lex. 
guru ~ "foliage, leaves (of reed-plants)" jB 

[GI.GIL ?] g. (sa) qani "g. of reed" 
gurummaru(m) (a kind of tree) Bab. 

[GIS.GISIMMAR.KUR.RA (liter, "foreign date 

palm")]; MB terinndt g. "cones of g." as drug; 

<Sum. 
gurummu, gurunnu (a reed object) jB 
gurunnis — ► qurunnis 
gurunnu — ► garunnu; qurunnu 
gurunnu — > gurummu 
gurusgaras, garasgaras, gurusu-gurulasu etc. 

"vulva" jB lex., comm., of pig; med. as drug; 

< gardsu or Sum.?; — > guristu 
gurussu — » kurustu 

gusanu(m), kusdnu(m), OA k/gursd/enum, 
kursinnum, Nuzi kusannu; MA pi. f. (a leather 
sack) O/MA, O/jB often containing wool; 

< Hitt.? 
gusigu — > husigu 

gusu mng. uncert. jB as destination of boat ? 
gussu mng. unkn. jB (desig. of snake) 
gustappu, kustappu mng. unkn. Am. in pairs, 
part of harness ? 



gustu(m) ~ "whirling dance"? jB with gdsu, of 
Gusea; < gdsu I 

gusu (a god's garment) jB lex. 

gusu — > also guhsu 

gusum (a sheep-offering) OB(Elam) 

gusubbu — > kisubbu 

gusuru(m), NA gasuru "tree-trunk, beam" 
[GlS.UR; OB also GIS.UR.RA, GIS.SU.UR] "tree- 
trunk, felled log" of cedar etc.; "beams" often 
for roof; NA transf. g. mes sa libbi "beams of 
heart"; < Sum. 

gutaku (a high official) MB of PIN (or error for 
guennakku ?) 

gutappu(m) (part of donkey harness) O/jB 
[GU.TAB- ]; < Sum. 

gutarru "back" jB lex.; < Sum. 

gutezzu Dt ~ "to take refuge"? jB lex.; — ► guzu 

gutu — » qutu 

guzalitu — » guzalutu 

guzallu "ruffian, scoundrel" M/jB lex., also as 

PN; < Sum. 
guzalu(m), kuzzalum; OB pi. f. "chair-carrier, 

throne-bearer" O/jB [GU.ZA.LA] OB (an 

official); later as epith. of deities and demons; 

<Sum. 
guzdlum — > kuzallu 
guzalutu, guzalilitu "female throne-bearer" jB 

[(MUNUS.)GU.ZA.LA] of humans, goddesses; 

< guzalu 
guzazu (a kind of lettuce)? jB lex. 
guzguzu (a garment) NB 
guzi "stable-lad" Am. as self-debasing desig.; 

<Eg. 
guzilitu — ► guzalutu 
guzippu —» kusippum; kuzippu 
guzlru mng. unkn. NA 
guziu "drinking cup" jB lex.; < Sum. 
guzu (a medicinal plant) MB 
guzu "refuge" NB in PNs; < OPers.?: -+ gutezzu 
guzullu — ► kuzullu 



H 



hababu(m) "to murmur, chirp, twitter" Bab. 
G (ulu) of water; flies "buzz"; birds; lovers; 
lightning "hiss" D of snake "hiss at" s.o. 
(= ace); of lover ~ "croon at"; absol., of flies 
S "make" water "gurgle", cow "low"; > hubbu; 
habibu, hdbibum; hibabitu; habubitu; habbubu 1 

habad? (part of a chariot) M/jB; < Kass.? 

habdldtu — ► habdlu I 

habalginnu, habalkinnu (a kind of iron) MA, 
Am., jB; < proto-Hattic ? 

habalum "strap" Mari; <W.Sem.; -» eblu; 
habanum 

habalu I; pi. often f. "act of violence, wrong- 
doing" M/jB, NA; NA pi. f. also "wrongs, 
injustices"; < habdlu II infin. 

habalu(m) II "to do wrong, violence to" s.o. 
G {Hi, OB mostly alu) "do wrong to, oppress" 
the weak, the poor; "take s.th. from s.o. (= 2 
ace.) by force, wrongly" D ~ G "do wrong to" 
s.o.; hibiltam h. "do an injustice" (to s.o.) 
Dt NB "be wrongly taken" N "be treated 
unjustly"; of fields "be ruined"; >hablu, 
habiltu; hibiltu; habdlu I; hdbilu I; muhabbiltu 

habalu(m) III "to be in debt; borrow" Ass., 
O/MB G {alu) OA "borrow" (silver etc.) from 
(=arca/dat.) s.o.; NA "owe" s.th. "to" s.o. 
D "lend"; stat. "is in debt" to (= dat./ana) s.o. 
Dt "be indebted" to s.o. for (= ace.) s.th. N O A 
"be in debt" to s.o. for (= ace.) s.th.; < hubullu 
denom.; > hubbulu, hubbultu 

habalu(m) IV "to bind, harness" O/jB G {a/a) 
waggons; > hdbilu II ? ; nahbalu, nahbaltu; — ► 
habalum 

habalum — ► also habanum 

habannanu "water-tub"? jB 



habannatu(m), NA habnutu (a container) O/jB, 

Mari, NA of silver, bronze; Am., Bogh. of 

stone, for oil; jB, NA of clay; < Eg. 
habanum (or habalum) (a wooden object) 

OAkk(Ur III); "-> habalum 
habaquku — » habbaququ 
habarahhu (a box) NA containing vegetables; 

— » abarahhum 
habaranu, habrdnu (a plant) jB, oil of h. 
habarattu(m) "noise, clamour" OB "clamour" of 

mankind; jB "noise, rattling" in chest?; 

< habdru I 
habaru(m) I "to make noise, clamour" O/jB, N A 

G {ulu) "be noisy; be busy" of people; stat. 

habur "is noisy"; jB of house "creak" D lex. 

only Dt jB "(merrily) create a noise"? S jB 

"cause to make (joyful) clamour"; "instigate 

disruption"; > habrum; habbiru; habarattu; 

hubu.ru II; habburtu 1 - 
habaru(m) II "to be thick, solid" O/jB G (f. stat. 

also abrat) of part of body; stat. of sky, earth; 

transf. of command "is weighty, authoritative" 

D "make" (silver X cubits) "thick"; stat. of 

parts of body; > habbartu*; — » kabdru D 
habdru — ► also hamdru D 
habarzinanum (a bird) OB 
habasillatu ~ "reed shoot" jB lex. 1. (part of 

reed) 2. " r udu/, (desig. of a drum); — ► basillatu 
habasiranu (a constellation) jB [mul.EN.TE.NA. 

BAR.LUM/SIG4]; < habasiru 
habasirtu — » humsirtu 
habasiru — ► humsiru 
habasu(m) I ~ "to be distended" O/jB G {ulu) 

stat. "is distended" through drinking; "be 



habasu(m) II 



99 



habsurukku 



enlarged" with prosperity Gtn iter, of G, of 
body D lex. only Dt "be dilated (with joy)" 
S "make rejoice"; "make pleasing" to s.o.; 

> habsu, babsutu; hibsu; hubdsu; humbisiitu; 
hubbusu; hitbdsu; tahbasu 1 - 

habasu(m) II "to smite down"? O/jB G {ulu) of 
god; "pulverize" with (upper) grindstone; 

> hdbisu; nahbasu*; tahbdsu* 
habastum (an object) OA 
habasu — » habsu I 

habasu(m) I "to become hard, swollen" O/jB 
G {ulu) stat. of part of body, liver D stat. "is 
swollen" of head; > habsu II ? ; hibsu; hubbusu; 
habsdnu; hubsasif- 

habasu(m) II "to crush, comminute" Bab. 
G {alu) straw, pot, malt etc. D, Dt jB lex. only 
N transf. of breast "be shattered"; > habsu I; 
hibistu; hubsu I ? ; habbdsu; nahbasu, 
nahbastum 

habatu(m) I "to rob, plunder" OAkk, Bab., 
M/NA G {alu, OB pret. occas. ihbit) [NB SAR] 
"rob (on road, in countryside)" (ace. = thing, 
person taken); "rustle, steal" cattle etc.; hubta h. 
"carry out a robbery" but also "take (as) 
plunder"; "raid, plunder" a land etc., caravan; 
OB math, "dig" clay for bricks; OB also 
"thresh" Gtn iter, of G Dt ~ N "be taken as 
plunder" S MB mng. unci. N pass, of G, of 
people "be carried off, plundered"; of a robbery 
"be perpetrated"; > habtu, hdbitu; hibtu; hubtu; 
habbdtu I; nahbutu II 

habatu(m) II "to loan (interest-free)" OAkk, 
O/jB G {alu) OB grain, bricks D OAkk stat., 
of recipient "is loaned, owes"; < hubuttu 
denom. 

habatu(m) III ~ "to wander, roam through" O/jB 
G {alu) with ana; with ace. "roam through" 
mountain, darkness, trouble S "make s.o. 
wander through" N ~ G with ana; absol. 
"wander"; > habbdtu II; nahbutum I 

habatu IV, qabdtu MB(Ass.) G {alu) "to clear 
away" building Gt {Hi) - "decay", of building 

habatu — » also abdtu I; hapdtu 

habazum in sa h. (an agricultural worker) OB 
lex.; < Sum. 

habazz(at)u (a vessel) NB; < Aram.? 

habbaququ, hamba/uququ, NA habaquku (a 
garden herb) j/NB, NA 

habbartu (a kind of garment) jB lex.; liter, 
"thick (garment)"?; < habdru U 1 

habbasu "crusher, chopper" NB (a worker); as 
PN (also Hambdsu); < habasu II 



habbatu(m) I "plunderer, bandit" Bab. 

[lO.SA.GAZ (-► h. II)]; astr. also desig. of 

planet Mars; < habatu I 
habbatu(m) II "migrant worker" O/jB, NA 

[Lrj.SA.GAZ (-► h. I)]; < habatu III 
habbilu — » hdbilu I 

habbiru (part of a loom) jB lex.; < habdru I 
habbistu — * kdpisum 
habbitu — » hdmitu 
habbu(apit)?Ug.,jB 
habbubu ~ "lover"? jB; < habdbu ? 
habbulu — » hubbulu 
habburru — * habburu 
ha(b)burtu ~ "roaring"? NA (epith. of Istar); 

< habdru I ? 

habburu (a kind of wine) NA in kardn h. 
habburu(m), habburru, OB lex. hebburum 

"sprout, shoot" Bab. [yENBUR] used in beer, 

growing out of wall; of various plants, reed; 

transf. of person "scion", as PN; < Sum.? 
habhayu "from gablju" MA, desig. of sheep 
hablbu(m) "happy hubbub" O/jB of people, 

lands; < habdbu 
habibu(m) "murmurer" OB, as PN; NB f. (a 

clay vessel); < habdbu 
habigalzu (a medicinal plant) jB; < Kass. 
habiltu — ► hablu; hibiltu 
habilu(m) I, jB habbilu "criminal, wrongdoer" 

O/jB; OB sab h. "criminal band"; desig. of 

demons; < habdlu II 
habilu II ~ "trapper" jB; desig. of hunter, h. 

amelu; < habdlu IV ? 
habinnis ~ "secretly"? jB 
hdbiru — » hdpiru; hdwirum 
habisu "pulverizing" jB, of grindstone; 

< habasu II 
habitu — » haM I 

habitu "plunderer" NB; < habatu I 

habitu m "(female) drawer of water" Mari in h. 
me; < habu III 

hablu(m) adj. and subst. "wronged (person)" [f. 
habiltum MUNUS.SAGA.RA], esp. hablu(m) u 
habiltu(m); utuk/ddm h. "ghost/blood of 
wronged person"; NA denu sa hablute 
"judgement for the wronged"; h. sutesurufm) 
"to restore rights to the wronged"; < habdlu U 

habnutu — * habannatu 

habrdnu —* habaranu 

habrdtu —* babrum 

habrum "clamorous, busy" OB of people; 

< habdru I 
habsukku —* kilsukku 

habsurukku (kind of offering meat) NB 



habsu 



100 



hadutu 



habsirtu — » humsirtu 

habsiru — » humsiru 

habsu "plentiful" M/jB of gifts; "fertile" of 

fields; < habdsu I; > habsutu 
habsutu "luxuriance" O/jB lex.; < /lafosu 
habsallurhu, hapsallurhu, hapsilurgu, 

hup(pa)silurg/hu (an oil plant) jB lex., med; 

< Elam. 

habsanu (a desig. of wool) jB lex., in f. pi.; 

< habdsu I 

habsarru (or hablpserru) mng. unkn. jB lex. 
habsitri (or hapsitri) (a vessel)? Mari, for ice 
habsu I, NA habasu "chopped, crushed" M/jB, 
NA esp. of straw; as subst. "chopped (straw)"; 

< habdsu II 

habsu(m) II (or hapsu(m)) (a vessel) 

MB(Alal.), jB lex.; OB also as emblem tyabis; 

< habdsu I ? 
habtu(m) "robbed" O/jB of man; "taken as 

plunder"; "having suffered robbery"; < habdtu I 
ha bum — » ha'u 
habu I; f. habitu(m) "soft" j/NB of garment; 

(desig. of pottery vessel); NB in hab(i) uhini/u 

"over-ripe dates"; < habu U 
habu II "to be soft" O/jB, of season "be mild"; 

jB of gall; > habu I 
habu(m) III "to draw (water)" O/jB, NA 

G (ulu) obj. usu. me; jB wine; > frebu; 

habit um; nahbu 
habu IV "to give refuge" NA G or D; > hibutu; 

habu; nahbdtu; tahbdtu 
habum (or hdpum) (a kind of gazelle)? 

OAkk(Ur III); also as PN 
habu — » also hapu 
habu, hapu (a storage jar) M/NB, NA of 

brewer; < habu IV 
habu "to love" jB lex.; > hlbum 
habu — » also hidpum 
habubitu "bee" NB pi. habubeti, liter, "buzzer"; 

< habdbu 

habulillu (a stone) Nuzi; -* hublillu ? 

habullu — » hubullu 

habunu "fold, flounce" of garment jB, NA esp. 

transf. as protection 
haburathu (a tree) jB lex. 
habutum — » Ijaputum 
hadadu I "to rustle, roar" jB G (ulu) of storm, 

flood; of camp, gecko 
hadadu II "to incise deeply" Bab. G stat., of 

weight "is incised" D ~ G stat., of gully in 

mountain "is cut in"; of part of body "is 

fissured"; > huddudu 
hadadu — » also kadddu 



hadalu I ~ "to tie up, knot" M/jB G (a/u) 

"attach" oxen ?; of spider "tie up" fly Gt stat. 

"are tied together" St "knot (i.e. plot) together" 

iniquity; > hddilu; mahdalu 
hadalu(m) II - "to retreat, go back"? O/jB G (;'/;') 

math, of projection on bank D "hold back"? 

water S caus. lex. only 
hadanu (a wooden appliance) jB lex. 
haddnum — » also addnum 
hadaqu "to press together" jB G coram., stat. of 

part of body; < Aram. 
haddru — » addru I; hatdru 
hadassatu "bride" jB lex.; < haddsu 
hadassu "bridegroom" jB lex.; < haddsu 
hadassutu "marriage (ceremony)" M/jB; 

< haddsu 

hadasu D, Dtn "to rejoice (repeatedly)" jB lex.; 

> hadassu, hadassatu, hadassutu; hudussum; 

— » kaddsu 
haddanu, hadidnu "(malevolent) rejoicer, 

gloater" NA pi. hadddnu, hdd(i)dnute; 

< hadA III 
haddilu — » hddilu 

haddu "very joyful" NA; < hadu III 

hadidnu — » hadddnu 

hadilu, haddilu "knotter" jB desig. of spider; h. 

appi desig. of fisherman; < hadalu I 
hadis "happily, joyfully" Bab., NA; < hadu I 
hadi-u'a-amelu "joy-woe-man" jB i.e. of fickle 

mood 
hadqum (topog. desig., phps.) "steppe" OB 
hadu I "joyful" j/NB of news; of face, person; 

< hadu III 

hadu(m) II "joy" Bab., esp. bussuratlawdtl 
temam (sa) hadem ref. to good news; NB ina 

' h. libbisu "voluntarily"; < hadu III infin. 

hadu(m) III "to be joyful, rejoice" G {ulu, jB 
also ;'/;') [HUL] about = ana/dat; of person; of 
heart, face etc.; "be willing, wish", "be content 
with" an action Gtn iter, of G D "make happy" 
person, heart etc. Dt(n) lex. only S jB "make 
s.o. rejoice" N NB "reach an agreement 
together'?; > hadu I.II, hadis, hadutu; hadi- 
u'a-amelu; hadu, haddu, hadddnu; hidAtu, 
hididtum; hudu; muhaddum; tahditu 

hadu IV "to cut off' NB D transf. "cut off' 
crossing-place (neberu); < Aram. 

hadu; f. hdditu "(malevolent) rejoicing, gloating" 
jB, NA, e~:g. hadu! a "those who gloat over me"; 

< hadu III 

hddu — » hiddu; hidtu 

hadutu, NA also hudAtu "joy, rejoicing" M/NB, 
NA;<W«III 



haerushu 



101 



halasu(m) 



haerushu (a wild beast) NA 

hahhalum; pi. f. mng. unkn. OA; < Hitt.? 

hahharum — » harharru 

hahhasum "hot, burning (with fever)" O/jB of 

part of body 
hahhitu(m) "(garment of) yahhum" OA, Bogh.; 

< IJahhum (in Anatolia) 

hahhu I "phlegm, mucus" M/jB of human; 

" Bogh. of bull ?; > hahu U ? 

hahhu(m) II (a fruit (tree), phps.) "plum" or 

"peach" O/jB, NA 
hahhu III mng. unci. jB after iron (parzillu); 

< Aram.? 

hahhuratta "like a raven" jB, i.e. stiff-legged, of 

gait ?; < hahhuru 
hahhuru(m); f. hahhurtu "raven" Bab. also as 

PN; OB transf. "spy"; > hahhuratta 
hahinnu, /ia/»"n«, NA hihinnu (a thorny plant) 

jB, NA lex., med.; NA also as descr. of god's 

weapon 
hahu I, huhu(m) "slag, clinker" O/jB, of potter; 

from oven 
hahu II, ahu, a'u "to spew, spit out" M/jB 

G (pres. ihahhu, i-'a-ha, i-a-u) blood, bile etc. 

Gtn iter.; < hahhu I denom.?; > huhhitu 
hd'idu — » hd'itu 
haigallathe — » ayyigalluhu 
hd'iru — » hdwiru 

ha'irutu "status of consort" jB; < hdwiru 
ha'itanu "the one who weighed out" (silver) 

NB; < hidtu 
ha'itu(m), hayyitu, hd'idu "watcher" O/jB 

1. "night-watchman" [(LU.)GE6.(A.)LAy5], also 

epith. of gods, demons; h. sa musldli "w. of 

siesta-time" 2. jB (an official who weighs out); 

< hidtu 

ha'itutu "function of night-watchman" jB [GEg. 

LAH5- ]; < hd'itu 
hakammum "expert" Mari, of doctor; < W.Sem. 
hakamu(m) "to understand, apprehend" O/jB, 

NA G (//;') of person D ~ G S NA "let s.o. 

know, inform" St NA "be informed, 

acquainted" N pass, "be understood"; of star 

"be recognized"; — » hakammum 
hakaru(m) ~ "to comminute" O/jB G (///) 
hake adv. ~ "crooked, askew"? jB comm., ref. to 

birth 
hakum ~ "to take thought"? Mari; < W.Sem. 
hakurratu (a cut of meat) Bogh. in Hitt. rit. 
halabu "to milk" NA G milk, breast; < Sem. 
halahlu — » halhallu I 
halahwu — » hawalhu 



halalum I "to confine, shut away" OA, OB 
G (a/u) person; silver Gtn infin. "continued 
confinement" D OA stat. "is confined" Stn OA 
"have s.o. continuously confined"; > hillu 1 

halalu II ~ "to pipe; murmur" j/NB, NA G {ulu) 
of flute, birds, human lungs; of spring water 
D "make emit sound, sound" bell Dtn iter, of 
D; > halilu I ? 

halalu(m) III "to creep, slink" O/jB, NA G (a/u) 
of person, animal; transf. of death Gtn "crawl 
through, continually" N (nahallulu) ~ G lex. 
only Ntn "creep round, continually"; 

> hdlilum II; hillatu; muttahallilu; — » halluldya 
halalum — » also aldlu II 

haldnu — » huldlu 

halapu(m) I "to slip into, through" Bab., NA 
G (ulu) "slip into, through" s.th. (= ace./ 
inal-is); stat. "is 'slipped into'", i.e. "clad in" 
garment, transf. radiance, battle etc. Gtn "creep, 
slip repeatedly into" Gt stat. "is clad in, mantled 
with" radiance etc.; "are tangled" of trees, 
intestines D "clothe s.o. with" (= 2 ace.) [GIR6] 
garments; leprosy; "overlay" with metal S lex. 
only N "clothe o.s. with" (= ace.) armour etc.; 

> hdliptu 1 ; huldpu, huluptu; hallupu, halluptu; 
hitldpu, hitlupdtu; nahlaptu; tahlappdnu; 
tahluptu, tahlipu 

halapu II "to accuse"? OB G not attested 
S "indict" s.o.; > halpu I, haliptum, halputum; 
halipu 

halaqis "into flight" OB; < haldqu 

halaqu(m), NB helequ "to be lost; be(come) 
fugitive" G (//;') [ZAH; ZAy] 1. "disappear, get 
lost" of goods, animals; of road "be lost" by 
s.o. (=acc); math, "be unknown" of number 
2. "be destroyed" of ship, walls, goods; 
animals, people 3. stat. of part of body "is 
absent" 4. "escape, flee" of slaves etc. Gtn jB 
of s.o.'s mouth (i.e. words) "repeatedly get 
lost" D fact, of G [ZAH] "lose"; OA "owe a 
loss"; "allow" slave "to escape"; "banish, 
abolish" irrigation buckets; "destroy" enemy, 
land etc.; "ruin" s.o. Dtn iter, of D Dt pass, of 
D S "help, allow s.o. to escape" St pass, of S; 
of property "become lost" SD jB "destroy" 
N NA, NB "escape" of workers etc. Ntn NA 
"continually disappear, be lost", of commodity; 

> halqu, haliqtu, halqutum, helgenP; hulqu; 
huldqu; huluqqd'um; halaqis, hulluqis; 
sahluqtu; mustahalqu 

halasu(m) "to comb out, filter" O/jB G (a/u) 
wool, goat hair; "strain, filter" sesame (oil); 



halasu(m) 



102 



balqu(m) 



stat. "seeps out"? of bile Gtn lex. only Gt OB; 

> halsu I; hilsu I; hdlistu; huldsum 
haldsu -* also hardsu N; kaldsu Gtn 
halasu(m) "to scrape off, grub up" O/jB G (alu) 

fungus, wall-plaster, door-jamb D ~ G ?; 

> hilsu, hilistu; mahlasu 
halatum mng. unkn. OA = aldtu ? 
hald'um -* halu I; helu II 
Halbatum (a month) OB(EIam) 
halbum "forest" O/jB 

halbukkatu (or halpukkatu) (a plant) jB lex. 
haldimmanu (or haltimmdnu) "master"? jB lex. 
halhallatu(m) "(a kind of) drum" Bab. [MEN; 

MEN4] of copper; accompanying song; thunder 

like h. 
halhallu(m) I, NA, NB halahlu adj. and subst. 

(a comestible) M/NA, NB; in basket; NB 

desig. of flour 
halhallu(m) II (a basket) OAkk, jB 
haliltu mng. unkn. jB in h. sa ndri "h. of river" 
halilu(m) I (or halilu(m)) mng. unci. Bab. in 

desig. of canal, of beer; OB as PN; < haldlu II ? 
halilum II ~ "spy" Mari; < haldlu III 
halilu III, hallilu (an iron tool) NB for digging; 

< Aram.? 

Iialiptum "accusation" OA, also awdtum h. 

"accusing word(s)"; < halpu I 
haliptu (an object) NA, NB; < haldpu I ? 
halipu "prosecutor" Bogh. in Hitt. laws; 

< haldpu II 

haliqtu(m) "lost" O/jB 1. "lost (item), s.th. lost" 
2. "loss, item/amount lost" 3. (desig. of part of 
liver); < halqu 

halistu, hdlistu "(female) wool-comber" jB lex.; 

< haldsu 

halisu; pi. halisidnu "flayed (animal) skin" j/NB 

halisiknum (a fabric) OB, for bed 

hdlistu —* hdlistu 

halla "(dung) pellet" NB of bird; h. issur(i) (a 

plant name); < Aram. 
halla -* also hallu IV 
hallalanis, halldlatti "like a centipede"? O/jB; 

< halluldya 

hallalitu; pi. halldlidtu (an object, phps.) "link 

(of a chain)" MA 
hallalu' a — » halluldya 
hallainastu (a kind of legume) jB lex. 
hallamislsu — » hulamisu 
hallam(u?) (desig. of meat) NA 
ha I lam —* halluru 
hallatu I "garden yield tax" NB esp. kiri h. 

(privately owned orchard); < Aram.? 



hallatu II (a kind of basket) NB for dates, silver; 

on ship; < Aram. 
hallatu — » also hallu I 
hallatussu(m) "apprentice" O/jB [HAL.LA. 

TUS.A]; < Sum. 
hallilu — » halilu III 
hallimu; pi. hallimdnu "raft" NB 
hallu(m) I, lex also hallatu 1 "(upper) thigh" 

O/jB, NA [HAL] in du.; of men, women; subdt 

h. "loincloth"; h. petit "to open thighs", i.e. sit 

astride horse, ride; of animals; NA uzu halldnu 

(a cut of meat); Mari on chariot, mng. unci.; 

</> Sum.; > hallutdnu; pethallu 
hallu II (a clay vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 
hallu(m) III "(the cuneiform sign) HAL" O/jB 

[HAL] as mark on liver etc. 
hallu IV, halla "vinegar" NA, NB; < Aram. 
halluhum mng. unkn. OA D action towards girl 
hallulaya, hallalu a etc. "centipede"? jB med., 

lex.; also as name of demon; > hallalanis; — » 

haldlu III 
halluptu "armour" NA of soldiers, horses; sa 

halluptisunu "armour suppliers"; < hallupu 
hallupu "armoured" NA in supdlitu h. 

"armoured tunic 7 "; < haldpu I D 
hallurtu(m) "a (single) pea" O/jB [GU.GAL] in 

similes; < halluru 
halluru(m), hulluru, hilluru, halldru "peas" 

OAkk, Bab. [GU.GAL; pi. OAkk GU.GU.GAL 

(.GAL)] phps. "chick-pea"; NB = '/'0 shekel 

weight; > hallurtu 
Hallut (a month) OAkk 
hallutanu (black patch on donkey's leg) jB lex., 

med.; < hallu I 
halmahhu (big Aa//«-container) jB lex.; < Sum. 
halmatru, Nuzi halwat(ar)ru (a kind of wood) 

Nuzi, NB used for chariot parts 
halpatanu mng. unkn. Bogh. med.; < halpu ? 
*halpatu, NA gen. halpete mng. unkn. NA, of 

eunuchs 
halpium, halpu (a kind of cistern) O/jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
halpu(m) I "accused, prosecuted" OA, OB; OB 

also "concealed, furtive"?; < haldpu II; 

> haliptum, halputum 
halpu II "substitute (person)" NB; < Aram. 
halpu(m) "frost, ice" Bab.; < Sum.; > halpatanu 1 - 
halpu -* also halpium 
halpukkatu — » halbukkatu 
halputum "state of being accused" OA; 

< halpu I 
halqu(m) "lost; fugitive" Bab., M/NA [ZAH; 

zAh; Mari also BA.tfA] "lost" property; math. 



halqu turn 



103 



hamatu(m) II 



"unknown" value; "fled, fugitive", esp. as 

subst.; j/NB zer halqdti "nomads"; of field 

"ruined"; < haldqu; > haliqtu; halqutum; 

helgenf 
halqutum "loss" OB of grain; < halqu 
halsu(m) I, MB occas. harsu "combed, filtered" 

Bab., M/NA [bAra(.GA/GA); occas. BARA.AG, 

bAra.GE] of sesame, sesame oil "filtered"; of 

perfumes (riqqu), flax; < haldsu 
halsu(m) II m., j/NB also f. "fortress; district" 

Bab., M/NA "fort, fortification"; esp. Mari, 

Bogh., M/NA (wr. hal-zu/zi) "district, 

province"; rah h. "fortress commander"; [NA 

(URU.)HAL.SU = log. for birtull]; > halsutu; 

halzuhlu 
halsum -* also harsu 
halsutu "fortified state" NA; < halsu II 
haltappanu (a plant) M/jB, NA lex., med. 
haltappdtu — » katappdtu 
haltappii -* hultuppu 
haltib, hatih (a magical formula) jB 
haltikku, haltikkutu (a vessel) Bogh., jB lex. 
haltimmdnu — » haldimmanu 
haltu — » hastu I.II 

halu(m) I, OAkk hald'um (a woollen garment) 
" OAkk, O/MB 

halum II "to be(come) ill" Mari G stat., of lion; 
" < W.Sem. 
halu — » also halu II 
halu(m) I "maternal uncle" also ref. to 

(protective) deity, esp. in PNs 
halu(m) II, halu "(black) mole" on skin O/jB 
halu III in kardn h. "vinegar"? NA 
halu, OA hudlum "to melt (away)" OA, jB 

G usu. with zdbu, intrans. of figurines, enemies 

D "dissolve" jB med. 
halu -* also Malum 
halulu (a fruit) Nuzi 
haluppu(m), huluppu(m), NA also hiluppu* (a 

tree) OAkk, O/jB, NA [GIS.HA.LU.UB; occas. 

tJU.LU.UB]; wood for vessel, furniture; mag., 

med., seed, twig, bark etc. of h. 
haluqqd'u, haluqqu — » huluqqd'um 
halwat(ar)ru — » halmatru 
halwu, ha(l)wumma "boundary wall" Nuzi, esp. 

ha(l)wumma epesu "to build boundary wall 

round" field etc.; < Hurr. 
halziqqu (a container) jB, in reed or leather, 

<Sum. 
halzu -* halsu II 
halzuhlu, MA hassihlu; Am. pi. halzuhluti 

"district governor" MA, MB(AIal.), Am., 

Nuzi, of PIN; < halsu II + Hurr. -uhlu 



hamadlru(m), hamaddrum "parched" OAkk, 
O/jB of grain; "withered" of tree; OAkk as PN 

hamadirutu in h. suluku "to make withered" 
M/jB; < hamadiru 

hamadu(m) "to hide away, hoard" OB, NB 
G {Hi) grain, stones N OA "excuse o.s."; 

> hamdum; himittum I 

hamalu "to plan, plot" MB G (///) wickedness; 

> himiltu 

hamamu(m) "to gather, collect" Bab. G {alu) 
grain, reeds; transf., "concentrate (in oneself)" 
ritual offices {parse), wisdom etc., battles D ~ 
G Dt "be assembled" of building stones; 

> hdmimu; himmatu, himmum'-; humdmdtu 
Hamannu (a month) Nuzi; also Alal., a copper 

item? 

hamarhu mng. unkn. Nuzi, grain ana h:, < Hurr. 

hamaru(m) "to become dry" O/jB G (stat. 
hamar) of field, eyes, vessel "dry out" 
(intrans.) D fact, "dry out" eyes; lex. infin. also 
hubburu, of penis Dt "be dried out"; 

> hamru II; humiru; hummuru'-; hammurtu'- 
hamasiru — » humsiru 

hamasu(m) "to tear off, away" Bab., O/MA G 
{alu) "tear" clothing "off s.o. (= 2 ace); Mari 
"plunder" (after infin. abs. hamusam); OB stat. 
of glance, mng. unci. D ~ G, clothing, metal 
sheeting; "strip" palm tree, "flay" hide; 
"plunder, ransack" land, temple, house, emblem 
S NB "(allow to) despoil" person; > hamsum; 
himsu I; hammusu, hummusum; nahmasu; — » 
amdsu 

hamasiu "fifth" MA; < hamis 

hamasu(m) I "to snap off O/jB G (///) reed, 
tooth, finger D ~ G ?; > hamsu II, himsu; 
himistu; hdmisum; hummusu II 

hamasu II "to be fifth; do as fifth action" O/jB 
G {ulu); also "become one-fifth" in size 
D "quintuple"; < hamis denom. 

hamasu -* also kamdsu II 

hamdti — » hammu II 

hamatu pi. tant. "help, assistance" M/NB ana h.- 
aldku "to go to aid" of s.o.; < W.Sem. 

hamatum I "haste, urgency" OB esp. Mari tern 
h. "pressing matter"; < hamatu II infin. 

hamatu(m) II "to hasten, be quick" Bab. G {ulu) 
[astr. TAB] "go/come in haste"; in hendiad. "(do 
s.th.) hastily"; "be hasty" while doing s.th.; "be 
(too) early", also astr. of heavenly bodies Gtn 
Mari "be constantly in haste" Gt MB stat. "is 
very hasty" D Am. "hurry" troops etc. "up" 
S "send" s.th./s.o. "quickly"; "bring" offering 
etc. "in good time, early"; "hasten, bring 



hamatu(m) in 



104 



hamsu(m) I 



forward time of s.th. St pass, of S "be brought 
early, in good time"; > hamtu, hamtis, hamtutu, 
hamuttu, hamutta; hamdtum I; humtum I; 
hitmutis; hummutu I, hummutis 

hamatu(m) III "to burn (up)" O/jB, MA 
G (a/u) [TAB] of fire, Gira, hot weather, transf. 
of anger "burn" heart; of fever "burn" parts of 
body; "etch" leather, "cauterize" like saltpetre 
Gt transf. of pain "burn right up" wicked 
D "burn up, make burn" enemy; of fever "burn 
up" sick person; of fire "burn up" frost; of gods 
"bum up" land; "fire" pottery; stat. "is roasted", 
of bird, fish Dt pass, "be burnt up" by demons 
S "» D "burn up" land, enemy Stn jB ptcp. 
mustahmitu "ever-ignited"? N of heart "be 
burned, seared"; > himtu, himittu II; humtu II; 
hummutu II; handutu^ 

hama'u "to see" jB lex. G; < Aram. 

hambanu "of Hamban" NB of leather items; 

< PIN Hamban 
hambaququ — ► habbaququ 
hambasusu (a garden herb) NB 
hambdsu — > habbdsu 
hambequ pi. (a child's game) MB 
hambuququ — » habbaququ 
hamdagar (a high official) OB(Susa) 
hamdum "hoarded, hidden away" OA transf. of 

words, matters; < hamddu 

hamdum (a kind of headdress) Mari 

hamiltu — ► hamis; hamistu 

hamiluhhu — » hawalhu 

hamimu (an aromatic plant) "Amomum" MA, jB 
med. 

hamimu(m) "(grain) gatherer" O/jB phps. 
"gleaner"; < hamdmu 

hdmiru — » hdwiru 

hamissdti — ► hamis 

hamis st. abs.; f. hamlnsalet, OA also hassat; 
nom. f. hamistu(m), hami/ultu "five"; OB 
hamis ubdndtim "five fingers", hamissdti "five 
siitu", hamset qani "five reeds"; hamistumi 
"five days"; NB hamis qdtdtu "five-sixths"; 
> hamdsu II; hamistu, hamustu; hamsu I, 
hamsis, hamsutu, hamdsiu, hamsisu; humsu; 
hamisseret; hummusu I, humusu, humusd, 
humusum; hamsd 

hamis — » also ahdmis 

hamisseret "fifteen" jB lex.; < hamis + -seret 

hamistu(m), hamiltu, OA also hamustum 
"group of five" OA, O/jB [NAM.5] OA (a body 
of five officials); OB wakil h. "overseer of a 
group of five (merchants)"; MB rab h.; 

< hamis 



hamisum "(stalk-)snapper"? OB agricultural 

worker; < hamdsu I 
hamittu — ► hamutta 
hamitu, NA habbitu "hummer; sand-wasp" jB, 

NA; < hawu 
hammdmu — » hammd'u 
hammardkdra — » ammarkarra 
hammaru (a tree)? jB/NA lex. in h. tidi 
hammatu — ► hammu I 
hamma'u(m), hammu(m), hammdmu "rebel; 

usurper" Bab. [IM.GI] 1. sar h. "usurper" 2. of 

king, "rebel" 
hammis — ► ahdmis 
hammu(m) I; f. hammatu "family head" Bab., 

NA epith. of deities, usu. in PNs; > hammutu 
hammu II, OB ammum, amum O/jB, NA 

l."pond, puddle"?, Nuzi, NA pi. hamdti 2.jB 

med. (algae on water)? 3. jB lex. (an aquatic 

animal, phps.) "jellyfish" 
hammu — » also ammu I 
hammu (a garment) jB 
hammu — ► also hammd'u 
hammurtu (a kind of beer) NA; < hummuru ? 
hammuru — » hummuru 
hammusu (desig. of low grade of copper) Nuzi; 

< hamdsu D Ass. form 

hammutu, NA ha'utu "function of family head" 
j/NB, NA esp. bit h. "family head's room" [NB 
E.UR4.UR4]; < hammu I 

hampatalli (an object) MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

hamqum "valley" Mari; < W.Sem. 

hamru(m) I "holy place (of Adad, Assur)" 
occas. d #.; M/NB tdmirti h. (a type of irrigated 
field); bit h.\ also in PNs 

hamru II "dry, dried out"? O/jB; < hamdru 

hamrushum (a metal vessel) Mari; < Hurr. 

hamsu ~ "maltreated" MA; f. pi. "mistreat- 
ments"; — » hummusum 

hamsum "bald( -headed)" OB lex.; also as PN; 

< hamdsu 

hamsa, hansd, hassd "fifty" st. abs.; before suff. 
hamsdtsunu/sina etc.; NB (bit) 50-e "plot of 
land held by (group of) fifty"; NA, NB rab 50 
"captain of fifty"; jB 50-a-a "fifty each"; 

< hamis 
hamsat — » hamis 
hamsdtu — » hamsd; hamsu I 
hamset — ► hamil 

hamsis, hassis "fifthly" jB; < hamsu I 

hamsisu "five times" OA, O/MB; OA adi h.\ 

OB [A.RA 5-su]; < hamis 
hamsu(m) I, hansu, hassu, NB hanzu; f. 

hamus/ltu(m) "fifth"; f. "one-fifth" [IGI.5.GAL]; 



hamsutu 



105 



hanigalbatutu 



pi. "fifth part(s)" [ZAG.5]; NB hansu zittu "fifth 

part"; NB hamul " [ /5mina"; m. "fifth" string of 

lyre; < hamis 
hamsu II, hansu "snapped off' jB of stalks etc.; 

of deformed foot; < hamdsu I 
hamsutu, hansutu in 5-te-su "for the fifth time" 

NA; < hamsu I 
hamtis, hantis, hamta "quickly, immediately" 

Bab.; < hamtu 
hamtu, hantu "quick, sudden" M/NB of 

messenger, death, weapon; "fast-acting" of 

drug; "quickly cooked"; jB gramm., of Sum. 

vb. forms (opp. — » maru I); < hamdtu II; 

> hamtis, hamtutu, hamutta, hamuttu 
hamtutu, hantutu in hantussu "hastily, at once" 

jB; < hamtu 
hamtutu — > also handutu 
hamu I "» "to paralyse" jB G (Hi) humans, flesh 

(siru); transf. of army Gt "thoroughly 

paralyse" D ~ G "render" s.o. "paralysed" S of 

disease "make" flesh "paralysed" N "be 

paralysed" of flesh 
hamu II "to trust" j/NB G (///, occas. ulu) esp. 

prec. and stat. "is secure" D "make confident, 

(re)assure" 
hamu — » also hawu 

hamu(m) "raft" O/jB lex. (var. of amu) 
hamu pi. tant. "chaff, rubbish" O/jB of corn; of 

wood; esp. h. u husdbu "scpurings and 

shavings", i.e. valueless property 
hamuhhum mng. unkn. Mari, in desig. of 

chariot 
hamuk (a garden herb) NB 
hamul(tu) —* hamsu 
hamuritu "throat" jB lex. 
hamussu — » hamustu 
hamusu — » hamdsu G 
hamustu(m), NA hamussu subst. "a fifth" 

1. OB (desig. of a container) 2. OA (a time 

period, phps.) "one-fifth" of a month, "week"; 

sa PN, as dating mechanism 3. NA "(payment 

for) one-fifth period"; < hamsu I 
hamustum — » also hamistu 
hamutta(m), Am. also hamittu, hamuttis "at 

once, soon" O/MB; < hamtu 
hamuttu(m) "haste" O/jB of chariot sa h. 

"express"; Am., jB ana/ina h. "hastily, 

quickly"; < hamtu 
hamutu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
hanabu(m) "to sprout, flourish" O/jB G (ulu) of 

trees, grain etc.; transf. of divine splendour Gtn 

iter, of G of plants, trees D "make flourish" 

Dt of hair "grow luxuriantly" S "make grow 



luxuriantly"; > hanbu; hdnibu; hundbu, 
hunibum; hannabu; hunnubu; muhtanbu 

hanamum "to thrive, be luxuriant" OAkk, OB 
G (Hi) of sheep; transf. of laughter "flourish" 
Dt "be (made) luxuriant" of clouds, plenty; 
> hanndmu 

hananabum (a sweet fruit)? OB 

hananu mng. unkn. G lex. only D stat. in desig. 
of part of body; > hunnunu'- 

hananu — » also enenu I 

hanapu I "to act basely, impiously"? Am. 
G (pret. u) in hanpa h.; < W.Sem.; > hanpu; 
hannipu 

hanapu II - "to flatter, fawn" NA G (Hi) of fDN 

hanaqu(m) "to press, throttle" Bab., NA G (a/u) 
stat. of part of body "is constricted"; "wind" 
s.th. "round tightly"; "throttle, kill by thrott- 
ling"; NB stat. "is angry" Gtn lex. only 
Gt "suffocate" D ~ G "throttle, suffocate"; stat. 
"is constricted" Dt pass, of D S caus. of G 
N pass, of G; NB "be(come) angry" Ntn iter, 
of N; > hanqu; hinqu; hiniqtu; hanndqu, 
hanniqu; mahnaqu 

hanasu "mourning"? jB comm. 

hanasu "to lift lips, bare teeth" M/jB G (1V1) of 
ox Gt lex. only D ~ G "contort" part of face 
(nose, lip etc.); "scowl"; "grimace"; of animal 
"bare teeth" Dt ~ D of demon "bare teeth"; -» 
gandsu 

hanasu — » kandsu I 

handtu — » hand I 

hanbara "granary" NB; < OPers. 

hanbu(m) "luxuriant" Bab. in PNs; mar d h. 
desig. of Pazuzu; < handbu 

handabillu (a kind of shell) jB lex. 

handabtu (a plant) jB lex. 

handaspiru, handaspuru, Emar hannaspiru (a 
thorny plant) Emar, jB lex. 

handu, hanzlsu "reed pith" jB [GI.SA.Gl] 

handuhu, hin/dduhhu f. (part of a lock)? M/NB 
in metal; transf., astr. h. same 

handuru, hinduru, hi(d)ddru "spur"? Bab., of 
birds; transf. "projection" on wall 

handuttu "vulva" jB lex. 

handutu "roasting"? OB(Alal.) in se'i sa h. 
(= *hamtutu < hamdtu III ?) 

hangaru ~ "dagger"? NA; < Aram. 

haniahhu — » hanu I 

hanibu "luxuriant" jB lex. of fruit tree; < handbu 

hanigalbatu "(Hanigalbataean =) charioteer" jB 
lex.; < PIN 

hanigalbatutu "status of a Hanigalbataean" 
MB(Alal.) 



banizarrum 



106 



harabu 



hdniqu -* hanniqu 1 

hanizarrum (a functionary) OB(Shemshara); 

" < Hurr.? 

hannabu "with luxuriant (hair)" MB in PNs; 

< handbu 
hannahuru (a stone) jB lex. 
hannak(a) -* annaka 
hannamu(m) "very luxuriant" O/jB of women; 

clouds ?; < handmu 
hannaqu 1. jB lex. "strangler" 2.jB lex. (a kind 

of clasp) of reed or wood 3. NB adj. "very 

angry"; < handqu 
hannasru mng. unkn. jB lex. 
hannaspiru -* handaspiru 
hannatu mng. unkn. jB 

hannipu "baseness, impiety"? Am.; < hanapu I 
hanniqu l.jB "strangler" (or hdniqul); 2.jB 
" lex. (part of funnel on seed-plough); < handqu 
hannisa — ► annisa 
hanniu — ► annu I 

hanpu "baseness" Am.; < hanapu I 
hanqu "strangled" M/NB 1. Bogh. lex. 

"strangled" 2. NB "tightly attached" of neck 

bands ?; < handqu 
hanqullatu (a kind of oil) jB lex. 
hansu — ► handu 
hansupu (an implement) MA 
hansatu "hips" jB lex.; < Aram. 
hansd — » hamsd 
hansa/et — ► hamis 
hansu -* hamsu I.II; kansu I 
hansutu — ► hamsutu 
hands -* hamtis 
hantu — ► hamtu 
hantutu — ► hamtutu 
hanu(m) I, Alal. haniahhu "from Hana" Bab. 

[HA.NA] of tribe; MB(Alal.) of social class; 

Nuzi (pi. handti ); NB of type of soldier, lex. of 

sheep, wool 
hanu(m) II "to pressurize, browbeat" O/jB G 

" m 

hanunu (a box) Am.; < Eg. 

hanutu "a shop" NB in bit h.; < Aram. 

hanzabu (potter's waste product) jB, NA 

hanzartum -* hasartu 

hanzetu — ► hanzizitu 

hanzibatu -* hazzabatu 

hanzizitu, hanzetu (a flying insect) jB 

hanzu "goat" jB lex.; < W.Sem.; -♦ enzu 

hanzu — ► also hamsu I 

hanzu — ► handu 

hapddu — ► kapddu Dtn 



hapalu (or hapallu); pi. f. (a container) NA 

hapalu — ► also apdlu I G 

hapapu I ~ "to break up, smash" jB G (a/u) 

"pound" paste D ~ G stat. of door "is 

smashed"; transf. of witch "shatter" s.o. 
hapapu II "to wash, clean" NB; < Aram. 
haparu(m) I "to surround, encircle" OB, Bogh. 

G stat. of oil round water D of army "encircle" 

enemy etc.; > haprdtu; nahparum 1 - 
haparum II "to decamp, become vagrant" Mari 

G (pret. ihpur) D "get" troops "underway"?; 

> hdpiru 
hapdru — ► also heperu 
hapatum "to triumph, prevail" OB G (Hi, also 

ulu) esp. in PNs Gtn iter (ulu) OB; > huptu I 
hapd'u — ► hepu II 

haphappu(m) (base of door post) O/jB lex. 
hapiru(m) "(class of) vagrant" OA, O/MB 
" [LU.SA.GAZ; Am., Ug. also SAG.GAZ]; 

< haparum II 
happarru -* apparru 

happu ~ "stinking, foetid" jB, NA of plants; of 

man; < Sum.? 
happu -* huppu I 
hapratu "visible surface" of moon, sun j/NB 

astr. in h. Sin/Samas; NB often abbr. hap; 

< hapdru I, orig. pi. tant. 
haptara(ma)nnu (desig. of horses) Nuzi; 

< Indo-Iran.? 

hapte (desig. of animal's foot) Nuzi "front" or 

"rear" side ?; < Hurr.? 
hapum "to wrap up"? G unattested D Mari, 

bows 
hapu — ► also hepu U 
hapu, hdbu (a dark earth) M/jB for dyeing; also 

OAkk im ha-um ? 
hapum -* also hdbum 
hapu -* hdbu 
hapu "to fear" O/jB G stat. (hip) "is afraid" 

D "terrify"; also in DN Hip-raggu "Terrify the 

wicked"; > hupu II 
hapu -* also hidpum 
hapum -* hepu I 
haputum, habutum (an agricultural tool) OAkk, 

" OB [URUDU.fJA.BU.DA] 

haqaru "to investigate"? jB; < Aram.? 

haqu, hudqu mng. unkn. jB lex. G, vb. of 
motion 

hdqu -* also hidqum 

harabu "to be(come) deserted" M/NB G (ulu, 
NB ill) [A.RI.A] of land, settlements, palace, 
temple S "devastate, lay waste" land, mountain 



haradum I 



107 



harbis 



St pass, of S; > harbu I, harbis, harbdnu, 

harbdndti, harbutu; haribum, haribatu; 

huribtu; hitrubu; sahrabbutu; suhrubtu 
harabu -* also hardpu I 
haradum I "desert place"? OA 
haradu(m) II "onager, wild ass" O/jB; 

< W.Sem. 
haradu(m) III ~ "to fit together, fabricate"? O/jB, 

NA G mat, battering ram D mng. unci.; 

> hurdu I 

haradu IV "to be awake, on guard" NA G (Hi) 
also trans, "guard" s.o. D "place on guard, 
alert" N "be (put) on o.'s guard"; >hardu\, 
harduttu; hurddu V 

haragabas (a container) Am. in stone, metal 

haragu f. (container used in glass-making) NA 

hard' is -* heru II 

haraku "to post" troops NB G stat. only D lex. 
only; < Aram. 

harali "door" jB lex.; < 'Subartu' 

harambi (a plant) jB lex. 

haramma, haramme, occas. haremma "later, 
thereafter" M/NA often h.-ma; also inalih-h., 
issu h:, < *ahar + amma; -* ahdru 

haramum I "to cover, envelop" OA, OB G (///) 
with 2 ace.; parts of liver, tablet, with clay 
envelope; OA also "write on envelope" D OB 
"cover up, conceal"; OA ~ G "write on 
envelopes" N "be enveloped" OA; > harmum I; 
hermum; harrumum; nahramum; jB etc. —► 
ardmu 

haramu II "to separate, cut off jB lex. G and D; 

> harmu II, harimtu, harimtutu 
hardnu -* hard I 

haraptum "autumn" Mari; < hardpu I 

harapu(m) I, NA harabu "to be early" Bab., NA 
G (ulu) [NIM] of meteor, phenomena; of hair, 
of lactation ? (sa tule); esp. in hendiad. "(do 
s.th.) early" D ~ G NA "(do s.th.) early" 
S "make" s.o./s.th. "do" s.th. "early", e.g. palm 
tree ripen; > harpu, harpis, harputu; harpu; 
haraptum; hdripdnu; haripum II; hurpu; 
hurdpu; hurrupu; musahripu 

harapu II "to cut away" jB G (/'//) door, with 
weapon; > haripu I, hariptu, hurpu 

harara, harrara, harharra "objection, protest" 
NB leg.; < Aram. 

hararnu (surface measure) Nuzi = '/2 awiharu; 
< Hurr. 

hararu(m) "to dig, hollow out" O/jB G (a/u) 
"dig over" field; ext., stat. of part of body "is 
hollow" D of part of body, stat. "is hollowed 



out"; "make incisions in" s.th.; > harru I; 
herru; harriru; hurruru; -* hurru 

hardru -* also ardru III; na'arrurum; 
suharruru II 

harasapanu -* harsapnu 

harasu "to itch, scratch" G infin. "an itch, 
scabies" D lex. only; > harsu'- 

harasu(m) "to break off, deduct; incise; make 
clear" G (a/u) 1. math, "subtract" measured 
length; in commerce, accounting "deduct"; of 
furrow "reduce" yield 2. "snap off plant 3. "cut 
in, excavate" ditch, furrow ?; stat., of part of 
liver "is incised" 4. "define precisely, 
make/become clear"; "fix, define" value; of 
illness, stat. "is diagnosed"; j/NB, NA "give, 
issue clear" command, instructions etc., also in 
hendiad., e.g. with sapdru D OA, OB "reduce; 
(wrongly) diminish" amount, size of field etc. 
St "calculate deduction", "deduct"; jB om. 
"balance" interpretations against one another 
N "be deducted" (Mari pret. once ihhalis); 

> harsu; haristum II; hersu, hersetum, hiristu; 
harisu; hurrusu; mahrasu 

harasu -* also kardsu 

harasu I "to be in labour" jB, NA G (///) mother 

harsassu "is in confinement with him" 

D "bring to birth, deliver" child N ~ G "be in 

labour"; > haristu I; muharrisu 1 - 
harasu II "to bind (on)" O/jB G transf. of part of 

body "cripple" D ~ G lex., ship, forearm 7 ; 

"bring together, collect'? trees in park; 

> harsu I; hersu; hurrusu; mahrasu; 
muharrisu 1 -; tahrisu 1 

harasum III "to be silent" Mari G stat. haris; 

< W.Sem. 

harasutum? mng. unkn. OAkk 
haratum "to feed on"? OB, NA G (pret. OB 
ihrut, NA ihrit) grass etc., of sheep, locusts; 

> hertu 

hara'u (part of an ornament) Qatna 

hard'um -* also herd II 

harauzzuhlu (an agricultural worker) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

harazias, haraziun/s (a plant) jB lex.; < Hitt. 
harbakkannu, harba(q)qannu (or hurb...) 

1. M/jB [SEN.SEN.(BAL.)BAR.HUS.MUSEN] (a 

bird) also as ornament, of gold 2. NA (desig. 

of a kind of horse) 
harbanati pi. "ruins" of house NA; < harbu I 
harbanu "desert dweller" NA in PN; < harbu I 

+ -an 
harba(q)qannu -* harbakkannu 
harbis "like a wasteland" jB; < harbu I 



harbu(m) I 



108 



harranu(m) 



harbiwu —* harwiu 

harbu(m) I; f. harubiu(m) "deserted" Bab., NA 
of land, city etc.; as subst. "desert, abandoned 
land" (pi. harbi, harbanu; f. harbdti); 

< hardbu; > harbanu, harbutu, harbis; 
harbdndti; -* arbu 1 

harbu(m)II "plough" O/jB [(GIS.)APIN.TUG. 

KIN] for breaking soil; also as name of bird 
harbu HI (or harpu) (a tree) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
harbutu(m) "desolation" O/jB esp. h. aldku(m) 

"to become a wasteland"; < harbu I 
hardu I "watchful, alert" NA; < harddu IV 
hardum II mng. unkn. OB lex. as desig. of day 
hardu(t)tu "vigilance, surveillance" NA; 

< hardu I 
haremma —> haramma 

hargallu(m), M/NB hargullu "locking ring" 

Bab. for door; of copper, silver, h. nadu "to 

apply lock"; < Sum. 
hargdnum -♦ argdnum 
hargullu — ► hargallu 
harhadu (or hurhadu) (a lyre) jB lex. 
harharra -* hardra 
harha(r)ru(m), hahharum "chain" Bab., NA for 

ox, bucket; NB ornamental, of gold; jB also (a 

musical instrument); < Sum. 
harharu(m) "villain, rogue" O/jB 
harhasannum, harhazinnu "(outer) ear" O/jB; 

also "pelvis, pelvic girdle"? 
harhasakku (a stone bead) jB lex.; < Sum. 
harhazinnu -♦ harhasannum 
harhubbdnu, harhubbdsir -♦ harmunu 
haribanum mng. unkn. OB in kima h. in descr. 

of liver 
haribatu(m), haribtu "desolate region" O/jB, 
" MA; lex. haribtum, desig. of sheep, mng. unci.; 

< hardbu 
haribum "ruination"? OA in bit h.; demon sa h.; 

< hardbu 
harimtu(m), harintu, harmatu "(temple) 
" prostitute" [(MUNUS.)KAR.KID]; harimdku 

(pred.) "I (f.) am a t. p."; mar h. "son of a t. 

p."; < hardmu II; > harimtutu 
harim(t)utu(m), NB hari'utu "status of temple 

prostitute"; ana h. aldku(m) "to become a t. p."; 

OB also as prebend 
harinnu, hirinnu "(water- )bag, skin" M/NB; 
" Alal.,pl.f. of gold 
harintu -♦ harimtu; harinnu 
haripanu ~ "early riser"? NA; < hardpu I 
hariptu "shed blood" MA, M/jB; < hardpu II 
haripu I "congealed blood patches" NA, pi. 

haripdni; < hardpu II 



haripum II "lamb" Mari; < hardpu I 
hariru(m), Mari also harurum, hururum; NA pi. 

f. ~ "bedspread" Mari, NA (= arrurum ?) 
haris, haristu — ♦ harsu 

harisu, Ass. hirisu "(city) ditch, moat" M/NA, 
" M/NB esp. "h. herd, h. hardsu "to dig ditch"; 

lex. sum h. "ditch plant"; NB id h. "moat"; 

< hardsu 

haristu(m) I "woman in confinement" OAkk, jB 

dam h. "blood of h"; < hardsu I 
haristumll "shortfall (in harvest)"? OB; 

< hardsu 
hariu — ♦ haru I 
hari'utu — ♦ harimtutu 
harmaku (a profession)? NA 
harmatu -> harimtu 

harmil ~ "gristle" NB in division of meat 

offerings; < Aram. 
harmistu; pi. harmisdtu (a bronze object) Ug. 
harmum I "enclosed in envelope" OA of tablet; 

< hardmum I 

harmu II "(male) lover, consort" jB of Dumuzi; 

Apsu; < hardmu II 
harmu — ♦ also hurmu 
harmunu, harhubbdnu (or harhubbdsir) (a 

plant) jB [HAR.HUM.BA.SIR ?]; also (a mineral) 

[NA4.tfAR.yUM/HU.BA.SIR] 
harpis "early, in good time" O/jB; < harpu 
harpu(m); f. haruptu(m) "early" Bab., MA 

[NIM] of rains, harvest etc.; "early" in morning; 

of sheep, bird; journey; < hardpu I 
harpu -♦ also harbu III 
harpu pi. tant. "(early) autumn" Ass.; 

< hardpu I 

harputu "earliness" NA in i(h)-harpute "early"; 

< harpu 

harranu(m) f., later also m. "way, road; journey, 
" caravan" [KASKAL; OAkk KASKAL.KI; NA, NB 
also KASKAL.2] 1. "road", built, open(ed), 
blocked, kept in order; astr. "path" of heavenly 
body 2. transf. ref. to behaviour, h. isartu(m) 
"right way"; also deified 3. "(business) jour- 
ney"; "caravan", OA sa harrdndtim "caravan 
leader", MB h. sa hurdsi "gold(-trading) 
venture"; OA, OB "joumey(-money)"; NB 
"trading capital" 4. "(military) campaign", 
"(army on) campaign, expedition"; OB h. 
aldkum "to perform military service"; Hitt., 
NB(Achaem.) "time, go", e.g. ina saniti h. "for 
second time"; Ug. ina h. sakdnu "to subject to 
legal proceedings" (Hitt. usage) 



harrara ■ 
harratu - 



■ hardra 
• murratum 



harsu 



109 



hasisu(m) 



harriru ~ "vole" O/jB, NA [PES.A.sA.GA] as 

food; lisdn h. "tongue of vole" as drug; also as 

PN; i H. (a star); < hardru 
harru(m) I; NB pi. f. "water channel" Bab., NA 

[SUR] as city moat; as canal; < hardru 
harru(m) II (desig. of kind of lyre) jB lex. 
harruhaya "vulture" jB lex. 
harrumum "enclosed in envelope" OA = 

harmum I of tablets in pi.; < hardmum I D 
harrupu — ♦ hurrupu 
harsapnu, harasapanu, Bogh. hursennu "larva, 

maggot" jB 
harsu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < hardsu ? 
harsu(m), once halsum; OB f. — ♦ haristum II 

1. mng. unci. Ug. of field; jB, NA of beer, alum 

2. Mari "deducted" 3. NA, NB "precisely 
defined", sim haris (st. abs.) "at fixed price", 
NA haristu "precise (report)", as adv. 
"precisely", temu harsu "precise instruction"; 
NB haris (st. abs.) "precisely"; < hardsu 

harsu — ♦ also halsu I 

harsananum (a valuable stone) OB 

harsayu "Harsu( -horse)" NA 

harsitum "Harsi(-sheep)" OAkk 

harsu(m) I; f. haristu(m) "bound (on, together)" 

O/jB of ship, basket; grain; man; part of body; 

< hardsu II 
harsu II (a foodstuff) M/NA 
harsu "(field) roller"? M/NB 
harsultannu (an agricultural worker) Nuzi 
hartitum, artitu (a red flower) OB, jB lex. 
hartu (or hurtu) mng. unkn. jB lex. 
hartibi "(Egyptian) diviner" NA; < Eg. 
harum — ♦ aru I 
haru I, Ass. hariu(m) f. (a large container) Ass., 

M/NB of pottery, copper; for grain, liquids; 

NA, NB (desig. of an offering ceremony) (NB 

pi. harane); jB lex. (container on cart)? (-» 

namharu), (an ornament); < Sum.? 
haru II (a sanctuary) also bit hare j/NB, NA; 

officials of b. h.\ Nabu sa h.; jB h. sa Ninlil 
haru III "palm shoot" O/jB 
haru IV ~ "to overcome"? Ug. ? , jB G (Hi) mng. 

unci., phps. of hand "interfere" 
haru — ♦ heru 
harum, a(y)yarum "donkey stallion" Mari in h. 

qatalum for treaty solemnization; < W.Sem. 
haru — ♦ also hidru 
harubu(m), harupu(m) "carob (tree)" OAkk, 

Bab. as (emergency) foodstuff 
harurakku mng. unkn. MA 
harurtu "throat" NA 
harum (part of grindstone) jB 



harurum — » also hariru 

harushu, haurusihu (an animal) MB(Alal), 

Am., NA; caught in trap; as ornament; < Hurr. 
haruttu "date palm frond" NB; < Aram. 
harwarahhu; pi. f. "hay-fork"; < Hurr. 
harwar(ahh)uzzu; pi. m. & f. "small hay-fork" 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 

harwiu, ha/urbiwu (a piece of clothing) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

harziqqu (a ring with inset stone) jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

harzuharza — ♦ murzumurza 

hasappum (or hazappum) (a bronze object) 
OAkk, OB(Susa) 

hasapu(m) "to tear away, off' Ass., M/NB 
G (('/(') thorns; hair, garment-hem; courses of 
bricks D ~ G; MA sa hassupi "tweezers (for 
depilation)" 

hasarratu, hasirratu (a kind of grass) jB lex. 

hasaru(m), heseru "to flake away, chip off' 
O/jB G (('/(') usu. stat., "is chipped" of horn, 
tooth, comer of tablet D ~ G grindstone; stat., 
ext. of features on liver, e.g. kaskasu N pass, of 
G, of throne, part of liver; > hasrum; hesiru 1 ; 
hisrum; husirtum; hussuru 

hasasis "for understanding" jB; < hasdsu 

hasasu(m) "to be conscious; remember" G (a/u) 

1. "be aware of (=ana/acc.) s.th., "think 
about" s.th., "think of s.o. 2. "remember"; in 
speech, prayer "mention" (s.o.'s) name etc. 

3. "understand", "conceive, think of s.th. 

4. "plan, intend" Gtn iter, of G, esp. "repeatedly 
remember", "repeatedly plan, plot" Gt "think 
deeply about" D 1. "remind" (+2nd ace.) 

2. "ponder, reflect" S caus. 1. "make" s.o. 
"remember" 2. "remind" s.o. 3. NB "notify, 
make" s.o. "aware of s.th. St Mari "be made to 
reflect" N 1. "be taken into account, remem- 
bered" 2. "be perceived, noticed" 3. "be under- 
stood"; > hasasis; hassu, hassutu; hissatu; 
hasisu; hasisitu; tahsistu; sahsasuttu 

hasd'u — ♦ hesu 

hashaltu, hashaltu, Bogh. haskaltu ! ; pi. 

hashalldtu "leaf, foliage"? M/NB, NA of fig 

tree; timber trees; reed; in manufactured 

ornaments 
hashastu (a tree)? jB 
hasikku — ♦ hasikku 
hasirratu — ♦ hasarratu 

hasisitu (ear-shaped loaf) Bogh., jB; < hasisu 
hasisu(m) "ear; wisdom" Bab. 1. "ear" of 

human, often du.; transf. of part of liver, of lyre 



haslu 



110 



hasalu(m) 



2. "hearing" 3. "comprehension, wisdom", e.g. 

atra(m) hasis "very wise", also as PN; pit h. 

"endowed with wisdom"; as DN A H. (or 

^Hdsisu); < hasdsu 
hdsisu — » hasisu 3; hassu 
haskaltu — » hashaltu 
haslu (a waterskin) jB lex. 
hasrum, hesru; f. hasirtu "chipped, broken off 

O/jB of tooth; < hasdru 
hassayu mng. unkn. OB (desig. of man); 

< hesu ? 
hassihlu — » halzuhlu 

hassu(m), hdsisu "clever, wise" Bab.; Id h. 

"fool"; < hasdsu 
hassu pi. tant. "lettuce" Bab. [U.yi.lS.SAR] 

cultivated; zer h. "1. seed" 
hassu(m) "oppressor" OB lex.; < hesu 
hassupu — » hasdpu D 
hassutu "wisdom" jB in h. aldku "to become 

wise"; < hassu 
hasu — ► hesu 
hasu ~ "to install" j/NB G (pret. ihis) Dtt lex. 

only 
hasabattu — » hasbattu 
hasabtu "sherd (of pottery)" jB [SIKA]; 

< hasbu III nom. unit. 

hasabu(m) I "to break off Bab. G (a/u) reed, 
twig (from = ace); transf. seed, issue D ~ G 
N "be broken off; math.; > hashu I; hisbu II; 
hisihtu; hdsibu; tahsibu; nahsabum 1 ; — ► kasdbu 

hasabu II "to be green" jB S "make" orchard 
"verdant"; > hasbu II; hisbu I; husdbu 

hasanu(m) "to hug, take under o.'s protection" 
j/NB, NA G (Hi) of goddess "protect" man; of 
humans "look after, maintain" animals, people 
D ~ G NA; > hisnu 

hasartu(m), hasertu(m), OB hanzartum, NB 
hasastu, Bogh. hasartu 1 'greenness' Bab. 
1. lex. "(nasal) mucus" 2. "(yellow-)green 
wool" 

hasaru(m), hasirum, hisdrum; pi. m. & f. 
"sheepfold" Bab. esp. Mari; DN d Belet-h.; NB 
(a place where dates were delivered); — ► 
usdrum 

hasasu(m) I "to snap off O/jB G (a/u) neck, 
reed; transf. of death hasis ameluti "snapping 
off mankind"; stat., of part of body "is broken 
away" D - G + pi. obj.: reeds, mountains, 
people Dt pass, of D, of reed-stems "be 
snapped off; > hissu I; hussusu 

hasasu II "to erect (reed hut)" NA, NB G (a/u) 
with hussu; < hussu denom. 



hasastu — ► hasartu 

hasbattis "like a pottery bowl" jB; < hasbattu 

hasbattu, NB also hasabattu (a pottery bowl) 
j/NB as vessel; NB sg. for pi.; also "(crab's) 
shell"; < hasbu III 

hasbu(m) I "broken off O/jB of branch, twig 
etc.; < hasabu I 

hasbu II "dark green" jB of forest shade; 
< hasabu II 

hasbu(m) III "pottery, terracotta; potsherd" Bab. 
[(DUG.)SlKA] as material of figurine, vessel; 
NA, NB (small pot), also of metal; "potsherd"; 
"sherd" of oven, of skull; "shell" of egg, turtle, 
pomegranate; > hasabtu, hasbattu, hasbattis 

hasertu — » hasartu 

hasibaru(m), hasiburu (a crested bird) jB 

hasibu(m) "(reed) cutter" Bab. (desig. of 
workman) OB h. kissi, also as PN; NB h. qane; 
< hasabu I 

hasiburu — » hasibaru 

hasirum — ► hasdru 

hassasu — ► hussusu 

hassinnu(m); Mari, NB pi. f. "axe" [OB 
URUDU.tJA.ZI.IN] of copper, silver, gold etc. 

hassu (a plant) jB 

hassusu — ► hussusu 

(ja(s)suttu (a garden herb) j/NB 

has&m — * hazum 

hasabu "to count, reckon" G NA (pret. ihsub) 

' D lex. only N ~ G ? NB 

hasadu, NB also hasdu "wedding" j/NB, NA of 
deities, humans; NB also in PN Has(a)daya 

hasahtu(m) "need, requirement" OA; NA in 
plant name h. eqli; < hasdhu 

hasahu(m), OA occas. kasdhum "to need, 
desire" G (Bab Hi, Ass. a/a, a/u) "need, 
require", "want" s.th.; "desire, wish for" esp. 
stat. in Am., Bogh., Ug., Nuzi; also of heart 
"yearn for" s.th. Gt jB, ellipt. "be in constant 
need" D "make needful of; stat. "is in great 
need" N pass, of G jB 1. "be required" of 
foodstuffs etc. 2. "fail, be found wanting"; 
> hashu; hisihtu, hasahtu; husahhu 

hasahusennu (an accounting payment) Nuzi, in 
silver; < Hurr. 

hasalu(m) "to crush" G (a/u) [KUM; GAZ] grain; 
medicaments; earth, animal droppings; "break 
up" tools; parts of body; transf. of army 
"destroy" PIN; stat. of person "is crushed" 
D ~ G "crush, pound up" Dt pass, of D med. of 
baby, mng. unci. S caus. of G "make" s.o. 
"crush"; > haslu; hasildtu; hisiltu; hussulu; 
mahsalum 



hasartennu 



111 



hasum VI 



hasanu —* hasidnum 

hasartennu mng. unkn. Nuzi (desig. of slave 

woman); < Hurr. 
hasartu —* hasartu 
hasaru (a prof, desig.) Elam 
hasaru mng. unkn. G unattested D jB lex. only; 

> hisrurrO 

hasasu(m) I "to swell; be happy" O/jB G (ulu) 
of lungs Gtn iter, of G "rejoice repeatedly" 
D "make" s.o. "happy" Dt "be made to rejoice"; 

> hissatu; husdsum; hassasu 

hasasu(m) II 1. G (a/u) OB in hendiad. "to 

gather" people, logs, fields (or rather "hasten"?) 

2. jB Gt "apply" oil D "plaster" wall with 

(= ace.) clay; > hussu^; hasisurrC 
hasasu —* also asdsu IV 
hasdu —* hasadu 

hasduk "beloved"? Elam; < Elam. 
hasehtu — » hisihtu 

hasenni (a valuable stone) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
haseruhuli (a craftsman) MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 
hashalla mng. unkn. Nuzi, grain aim h.; < Hurr. 
hashaltu — » hashaltu 
hashastum mng. unkn. OB lex. 
hashasu(m) ~ "lame, hobbling" O/jB; OB as PN 
hashu(m) 1. OB "one who needs, needy" 

2. Nuzi ina h. "at (his) wish, discretion", also 

hashussu; < hasdhu 
hashurakku "'apple' bush" Bogh., jB lex., 

med.; < hashuru 
hashuru(m), Ass. sahsuru "apple (tree)" Bab., 

M/NA [GIS.gASBUR] as tree; as wood, for 

furniture; as fruit; also as ornament; sipdt h. 

"apple-coloured wool"; h. api [GIS.tJASHUR. 

GIS.GI] '"marsh'-apple", a drug; fruit, ornament; 

> hashuru, hashurakku; — » hathuretu ?; 
hinzuru 

hashuru "apple-coloured" MB lex., of stone; 

NB, of wool; NB also "apple-shaped?", desig. 

of cut of meat; < hashuru 
hasi (a plant) jB med. 
hasianum, hasudnum, hasanu (a plant, phps.) 

"thyme" OAkk, Bab. esp. M/jB med.; 

< hasu III 
hasibbur — > hasimbar 

hasihapu mng. unkn. Nuzi, garments ana h.; 

< Hurr. 

hasikkis (or hasikkis) "like a deaf man" jB 

hasikku (or hasikku) "deafjB 

hasilatu pi. tant. (a preparation of dates) NB; 

< hasdlu 

hasimbar, hasimlnlbbur etc. (a plant) jB lex.; 

< Kass. 



hasimu "grain heap"? MA esp. in bit h. (pi. bit 

hasimdte) "granary" 
hasimur(u), hasmur, hasi'ur(u) "caraway" or 

"cumin" j/NB; eru h. "grindstone for c." 
hasinbar — » hasimbar 

hasisum mng. unci. OB, as PN; < hasdsu II ? 
hasitum (a bronze object) Mari 
hasi'ur(u) — * hasimuru 
haslu(m) "crushed" [KUM] Mari esp. of bread 

(aklum); reeds; M/NA, Nuzi, jB(Ass.) 

(s e )hasldtu(m) "bruised (grain)"; Susa of law 

suit (dinum) mng. unci.; < hasdlu 
hasmanu(m), Ug. also husmdnu (a colour) 

O/jB, MA 1. (a coloured stone) 2. (coloured 

wool) 
hasmanuhhe(na) Nuzi pi. form of hasmdnu 
hasmar (a falcon) jB lex.; < Kass. 
hasmitu (a metal) NB, material of agricultural 

tool 
hasmur — > hasimuru 
hasru inng. unkn. jB lex. 
hasruqu (an aromatic tree) jB lex. 
hassa (an official) OB(Susa); < Elain. 
hassd — » hamsd 

hassasu "bridegroom" jB lex.; < hasdsu I 
hassat — » hamis 
hassa'um (a cripple) OB lex. 
hassis —* hamsis 
hassu (a sweet meat) jB lex. 
hassu — » also hamsu I; kansu I 
hassum "of Hassum" OB; < PIN 
hastaru, hastiwusru (part of feminine apparel) 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hastu I, haltu "hole, pit" M/NB "pit (in ground), 

trap"; "hole" in ship, barrel 
hastum II, haltu (a kind of stone) O/jB, NA 

mag. 
hasu I "dark" jB lex., astr. [UD.Su.u5.RU]; 

< hasu V 

hasu(m) II "lung(s)" Bab. [MUR; du. 

MUR.2(.MES)] of human, animal; also "lung 

(-shaped ornament)" in metal; > hasutum I 
hasu(m) III, asu "thyme"? [(GIS/U.)HAR.BAR 

(.SAR)] as food; med. in recipes; akal h. "thyme 

bread"; > hasidnum; hasutu W 
hasu(m) IV "to crush, chop" O/jB G (ulu) 

foodstuffs; OB woman, as penalty (or "bind"?) 

D ~ G onion etc.; > husu; muhessu 
hasu V "to become dark" M/jB G (<'/<', ulu) of 

hair, eyes; of person "suffer darkness", i.e. be 

blinded ?; > hasu I 
hasum VI "to pass over in silence" Mari G ((/('); 

< W.Sem. 



hasu(m) I 



112 



hatu(m) n 



hasu(m) I "to be anxious" O/jB, NA G (a); also 

of ox "ail" Gtn iter, of G D "worry, make 

anxious" 
hasu II "to give" jB lex. G (u ?) 
hasu — ► also hidsum 
hasudnum — > hasidnum 

hasurum, hasurru (a kind of cypress) Bab. 
" [GIS.yA.SUR] as tree, qisti h. "forest of cypress 

trees"; as oil, perfume, also saman h.; as name 

of mountain 
hasutum I "a lung" OB as cut of meat; < hasu II 

nom. unit. 
hasutu(m) II (a plant) O/jB; < hasu III ? 
hatakum "to decide" OB G {a/u) absol. 
hatanu(m), hatnu "in-law, relative by marriage" 

1. "father-in-law" 2. "son-in-law" 3. NA/jB pi. 

f. "in-laws"; > hatnutu 
hatanu "to protect, shelter" j/NB, NA G {Hi) of 

god, king; also in PNs; > hutnu 
hatanutum — » hatnutu 
hatapu(m) "to slaughter" Bab., M/NA G {Hi) 

animal D "make, bring a MpM-offering"; also 

transf. "sacrifice" enemy Dt pass, of D S lex. 

only; > hitpu; tahtiptu 
hatarilum (a bird) OB 

hatarru (an oil container) MB(Alal.); -» hatrum 
hatartu (desig. of wool) Nuzi 
hataru "to flutter, twitch" jB G (///) of bird, 

"wag" tail; > hattdru 
hatehi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
hathumma, hattumma in h. epesu "to kill"? 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hathuretu (a dye) NB of wool; -» hashuru ? 
hatib — » haltib 
hatitu, hatitdn "lousy, louse ridden" jB lex.; -» 

huttutu 
hati'u (a fruit) jB lex. 

hatlunum (an object) OA, attached to garment ? 
hatnu — » hatanu 
hatnutu, OB hatanutum in h. epesum "to 

establish marriage relationship" Mari, 

MB(Ta'annek); < hatanu 
hatrum (or hatrum) (an oil container) Mari; -» 

hatarru 
hattaru(m) "with twitching gait"? jB lex.; OAkk 

as PN ?; < hataru 
hattassu (a prof, desig.) NB 
hattu — » hdtu; hittu HI 
hattu "Hittite"jB,NA 
hattumma -» hathumma 
hatu I "decorated" jB of garment; < hatu III 
hatu(m) II "to strike down" Bab., NA G {Hi) 

enemy; of illness, "strike" person Gtn (or Dtn) 



iter. jB of ghost D ~ G of word; of illness; MB 

biira h. "dig a well" N pass, of G; > tahtu 
hatu(m) III mng. unci. Bab. G OB "to load" 

ship ?; NB "apply" rosettes ? St Mari "decant" 

wine ?; > hatu I; mahtutum 1 
hatu(m), hattu(m) "terror, panic" Bab., esp. 

falling on {maqdtu(m)) person, army etc.; 

> hayyattu 

hatum ~ "to seize prey"? Mari G 

hatamu "to stop up, block" jB G {Hi) springs; 

"muzzle" mouth D ~ G (pi. obj.) "block" canals 
hatapu(m) mng. unci. O/jB G lex. (process 

applied to grain) D "to wipe away"? tears; 

> muhattipum 
hataru — » hatiru; hatru 

hatatu(m) I "to dig out, excavate" Bab., NA 
G (pret. ihtut) canal, building trench; ext. part 
of liver S Mari "have" canal "excavated"; 

> hittatu 

hatatu(m) II ~ "to ferment" O/jB G {a/u) mash; 

fruit; > hattu I 
hatiru, hataru, hatru; pi. hatirdnu "animal pen" 

NB for sheep; < Aram.; — » hatru 
hatitu — » hatu I 
hatru, hataru "military, professional group" NB 

esp. at Nippur; < OPers. or Aram. (= hatiru ?) 
hatru — » also hatrum; hatiru 
hatta'u, hatti'u, hattu "sinner, criminal" M/NB; 

< hatu II 

hattu I ~ "fermented" jB lex., of mash; 

< hatdtu II 

hattu(m) II mostly f.; OB pi. hattdtum "stick, 

" sceptre" [OAkk GIDRU; GIS.GIDRU; GIS.NIG. 
GIDRU] "stick" of wood, for beating; OB in 
salrabf hattdtim [GIDRU.GIDRU] (a military 
officer); "(shepherd's) stick, staff, usu. transf. 
h. sarruti "royal sceptre"; h. isartu "just 
sceptre"; OA, OB rabi h. (a court official); h. 
of deity as illness, punishment; also h. re'i 
"shepherd's staff (a plant) 

hattu — » hatta'u; hatu I; patu 

hatu(m) I, hattu, OA hat' urn "defective; 
criminal" Bab., OA; OA of silver "faulty" (or 
"insufficient"?); of omen etc. "bad, malign"; as 
subst. "criminal"; f. subst. hatitu(m) "fault, 
crime"; < hatu II 

hatu(m) II "to do wrong, commit crime" G {Hi) 
[LAL] 1. absol. "do wrong" (towards s.o. = 
ana/dat, NA ana libbi, Bogh., NB itti); 
"commit" crime etc. (e.g. hita) 2. stat. "is faulty, 
unsatisfactory, bad", e.g. of dream 3. "be 
neglectful" absol.; "neglect" work, field etc.; 
"omit" line of text Gtn iter, of G D ~ G; also 



batu 



113 



l}engallu(m) 



NB "spoil, destroy" Dt NB, of words "be 
misspoken" [LAL.MES] S 1. "cause s.o. to 
neglect" 2. "lead into wrongdoing" N "be 
neglected"; > hatu I; hitu I, hititu; hatta'u 

hatu "(instalment of) payment" NB; < hidtu 

hdtu — > also hidtu 

hafum — > hatu I 

ha'u(m), habum (a throne cover) OAkk, MA, 

"jBiMari? 

ha'um — » also hdpu 

haurusihu — » harushu 

ha' ustarum — > hawustarum 

ha'utu — » hammutu 

hawalhu, halahwu, hamiluhhu (an enclosed plot 
of ground) MA, Nuzi; < Hurr. 

hawir "later" OB(Elam); < Elam. 

hawiru(m), hd'iru, hdmiru, hayyiru, NA hdbiru 
' "husband" Bab., NA; of men, also in PNs; of 
gods; NA d H. deified; < hidru G ptcp.; 
> ha' hut u 

hawu, hamu ~ "to howl, whine"? jB G {ulu) of 
dog, ghost, storm; > hdmitu 

hawumma — » halwu 

hawuratum — » huratu 

ha(w)ustarum, ha' ustarum (a pastry) Mari 

hdya — > heya 

haydlu — > hi'dlu 

hayani "child" jB lex.; < 'Subartu' 

hayyaltu "woman in labour" jB, NA; < hidlu 

hayyasu "hastener" jB in h. tuqmdte "h. to 
battles"; also as DN; < hidsum 

ha(y)yattu "(pathological) terror" jB [IGI.LA.SU]; 

< hdtu 

hayyatu, hayyattu "surveyor, inspector" M/jB, 
NA as epith. of deity; desig. of demon; NA 
"spy, look-out"; NA "inspection hole" in oven; 

< hidtu 
hayyiru — » hdwiru 
hayyitu — > hd'itu 

hazallunu (a plant) jB lex., med. 

hazamu ~ "to mutilate" jB G stat., of ear D ~ G 

stat., of ear S lex. only; > hazmu; hazimum; 

huzzumu 
hazannum I, jB azannu (an alliaceous 

vegetable) OB, jB lex. 
hazannu(m) II, MA, Mari occas. frazidnufm), 

Nuzi also hazinnu; pi. Am. hazannute, jB 

hazanndti "mayor, village headman" not OA; 

also as PN; > hazannutu 
haza(n)nutu(m), MA, Mari occas. hazidnu(t)tu 

"office of mayor" Mari, M/NA, M/NB; 

< hazannu II 
hazappum — > frasappum 



hazaqu mng. unkn. G unattested D jB lex. only; 

> haziqatu 1 - 
hazdzu — > azdzu 
hazidnu — > hazannu II 
hazidnu(t)tu — » hazannutu 

hazimum "with mutilated ear" OB, as PN; 

< hazamu 
hazinnu — > hazannu II 

haziqatu, huziqatu (a headcloth) jB, NA; also a 

skin disease; < hazaqu ? 
hazirum "helper" OB, usu. in PNs; < W.Sem. 
hazmu "with mutilated ear" jB lex.; < hazamu 
hazru ~ "swamp" jB lex. 
hazum (or hasum) - "to raise objections"? OB 

D only 
hazu — > also azu I 
hazu "croaker" (a bird) jB [Su.LU.MUSEN]; 

< azu I 

hazuannum (a kind of onion) OA 

hazuru (a garment) M/jB 

hazzabatu, hanlzzalibatu (a plant) jB lex. 

hazzatum "a goat" OB(N.Mes.); < hazzum 

nom. unit.; — > azzatu 
hazzibatu — > hazzabatu 
hazzum "goat" Mari (= enzu); < W.Sem.; 

> hazzatum 
hebburum — > habburu 
Hebirtum — > Ebirtum 

hebu "drawn" jB of water; < habu III 

heddnum — > eddnu 

hedutu — > hidutu 

hegallu — > hengallu 

hehenu "(nasal) mucus" jB 

hela — » helumma 

helequ — > haldqu 

helgeni (or helqeni) "fugitive"? Nuzi; < halqu ? 

helta'u (a chair, stool) Alal. (= gistum 1) 

helu I "light( -coloured)" jB med., of urine; 

< helu II 

helu(m) II, OA hald'um "to be bright; cheerful" 
OA, O/jB G (stat. helu) of light; transf. of 
person( 's mood) Gt "shine brightly" D "make 
bright", stat. "are bright" of fingers, toes; "cheer 
up"; ptcp. as PN S "illuminate"; "make 
resplendent"; > helu I 

helumma in h. epesu "to reach agreement" Nuzi, 
also ana hela h. epesu; < Hurr. 

hemeru ~ "to shatter" jB G stat. "is cracked 
(up)"? of tongue D "shatter", part of body?; 

> hummuru^; hammurtu 1 - 

hengallu(m), hegallu(m) "plenty" [yE.GAL] of 
plants, animals; "(divine dispensation of) 



henunu 



114 



hi'alu 



plenty", also as DN d H.; "plenty(-symbol)" in 
hand of figure; Mari (a vase); < Sum. 

henunu "plenty" jB lex.; < Sum. 

henzuru — » hinzuru 

heperu, hapdru(m) "to dig" Ass., j/NB G (///) of 
human, animal "dig" hole in ground; "dig up" 
s.th., from ground 

hepts "in broken state" OB; < hepu I 

hepu(m) I, OA hap'um "broken" Bab., OA 
[GAZ] of pot, beams, house; hepd lisallim "let 
him restore broken (text)"; astr. of haprdtu; 
< hepu II; > hepts 

hepu(m) II, hapu, Ass. hapd'u(m) "to break" 
G (Hi) [gaz] vessel, stele; tablet, line of text, 
sign; building; "ruin, destroy" city, land, people; 
"crack, crush, injure" part of body, transf. 
"break" heart (libbu -* hipu I 2); "split (open)" 
body etc., math, "divide, halve"; "break 
through" thicket; of moon, "break through" 
cloud; transf., "break" word, contract D ~ G 
"break (up)" rock, fetters etc.; inscribed tablets; 
lands; parts of body; MB "scatter" herd; NA 
"open up" wells; "make chips" (— ► hupul); 
"beat" s.o. "up"? Dtn iter. NB, houses Dt pass, 
of D [AL.GAZ] "be broken up, shattered" etc.; of 
assembly "be scattered" N pass, of G [GAZ], of 
libbu "be broken"; of kor-measure (kurrum) 
"be halved" Ntn iter., of libbu; > hepu I, hepis; 
hlpu I, hipitu; hepu; hupfi.; huppu I; nahpu 

hepu(m) "breaker" O/jB worker breaking clods, 
stones; < hepu II 

hepum — » hiapum 

herahanniwa mng. unkn. MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

herebum — » erebu II 

heridnu — ► heru 

herlnum "grass-seed" OB in simile, of sharp 
object; < Sum.; — » lardu 

herizzi (a valuable stone) Am.; < Hurr. 

hermum — > ermu 

herru(m); pi. f. (a kind of furrow) O/jB; also 
transf. jB ina herreti maqdtu "to get back 
home", of army; < hardru 

hersu (a vessel) MA, MB of stone 

hersetum pi. (a kind of field) OB; < hardsu; — » 
hiristu 

hersu(m), hirsu(m) "fragment, cutting" O/jB, 
NA [GIG] "cut piece" of tree, of measuring- 
vessel; (a cut of meat); "track, imprint", "rut" of 
wheel; < hardsu 

hersu (a furrow or ditch)? jB lex.; < hardsu II 

hertu "(insect) bore hole" jB in simile of holes in 
liver; < hardtum 

heru(m) I "excavated" O/jB of canal; < herd II 



heru(m) II, OAkk hard' urn "to dig; excavate" 
G (///) [BAL] canal, ditch etc., Early Mari 
hard' is "in order to dig"; well, cistern; "dig up" 
ground, field D * G pi. obj. "dig up" tree 
stumps ? ; "excavate" cisterns Dtn iter. S caus. of 
G N pass., of canal etc.; > heru I; hem; hiritu I, 
hirutu; mahrum II 

heru ~ "totality" jB lex. 

heru, hdru; NB pi. heridnu "digger" M/NB of 
wells etc.; < heru II 

herwu (an agricultural implement) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

heseru — » hasdru 

heslru "scrap (of cloth)"? jB lex., for headcloth; 

< hasdru ? 

heslu "weaned" NB of calf; < Aram. 
hesmu(mma) ~ "buckle, clasp"? Nuzi for 
garment; hesmumma epesu "to buckle up"?; 

< Hurr. 
hesru — » hasrum 

hesu(m), hasu(m), hasd'u "to cover up, shroud" 
Bab., NA G (Hi) 1. of bandage "cover over"; of 
foundations, covering underworld; face, with 
(= ace.) hair 2. "(cover with blows =) batter, 
beat s.o. up", of demons, persons; transf. 
"pressurize" s.o. 3. "break up" mountain with 
pickaxes 4. transf. "cover up, conceal" 
decisions, words D ~ G, transf. "conceal, keep 
secret", Nuzi ellipt. "keep silent"; "squeeze out" 
drugs, with cloth Dt pass, "be pressed, 
pressurized" St NB "be induced, forced" to ?; 

> hisum; hisitu, hisutu; hassu, hassdyvP-; 
husd II ? ; hussu 1 ; mehsu, mahsutu 1 

hestaruhlu "tailor"? MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 
hestiri ~ "garrison"? Nuzi, MB(Brak); < Hurr. 
hetennu, hutennu, hutnti (wooden part of 

chariot) Nuzi, NA/jB, in pairs or sets; < Hurr. 
hetnu "'/60 shekel"? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hewatumma in h. epesu "to make journey to" 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
heya, hlldya "watch-tower"? Ug. in bit h.; 

< W.Sem.? 

htadu "to say, pronounce" jB G lex. only 
Gt "express o.s."?; > hittu U 

hiallu mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

hialu(m), halu "to be in labour, exude" Bab., NA 
G [ZUM] 1. "be in labour" of woman, cow; "be 
in pain" of people, land etc. 2. of teeth, earth, 
field "exude" blood, honey, other liquids; 

> hilu, hilu; hiltum; hayyaltu 

hi'alu, hilaydlu; pi. hi'aldnu etc. (a kind of 
military force) j/NB; < Aram. 



hiapum 



115 



hilimltu 



hiapum, hepum, hdbu, hapu "to cleanse, purify" 
O/jB G temple, drum; stat. of person, face "is 
cleansed"; of star "be bright" D ~ G "purify 
(cultically)" place, object; person, invalid, leg; 
ox Dt pass, of D, of diviner; > hlpu II, hubu II 

hiaqu(m), hdqu "to mix (up)" Bab., M/NA 
G "mix, mingle" beer, waters; ellipt. of lands 
"be embroiled" in war St "be mixed together" 
of liquids; transf., of lands N "be mixed in" of 
wine; > hiqu; tahiqtum 

hiari (a festival; also as MN) OB(Alal.), Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

hiaru(m), hdru "to choose" G "seek in 
marriage"; of demons etc., "seek out" sufferer, 
in pi nisi h. "have people's interests at heart"; 
j/NB "look out, prepare" offering, provisions 
etc. Gtn iter, of G, of demons Gt "woo one 
another"; > hirtu; hdwiru, hd'irutu; tahirtum 1 ; 
takirtum'- 

hiaruhhe "gold" MB(Alal.); < Hurr. 

hiasum, hdsu "to hurry, hasten" Bab. G of gods, 
persons; "speed" of arrow Gtn iter. D Mari 
mng. unci.; > hayydsu; mushistum 

hiatu(m), hdtldu "to supervise, check; weigh 
(out)" G [LAL] 1. "watch over, supervise, 
control" field, land, animals, people; "check, 
inspect, examine" legal case, foundation stone 
2. "seek out, investigate"; of demons "seek out" 
sufferer 3. "weigh out, pay" silver, wool etc.; 
medical dose Gtn iter. [LAL.MES] D "inspect" 
entrails N pass, "be checked"; "be weighed 
out"; > hdtu; hd'itu, ha' Hutu, hd'itdnu; hayydtu; 
hitu II; muha"idu; tahittu 

hibabitu "bride"? jB lex.; < habdbu 

hibaritu(m) (a marshy area) O/jB lex.; as PIN 

hibbum "thicket"? Mari; < W.Sem. (or -» 
hippum ?) 

hibiltu(m), OB(Susa) also habiltu "wrongdoing; 
damage(s)" Bab., M/NA 1. "wrongful action, 
crime"; h. turru, h. sullumu "to repay damages" 
2. OB hibilti ~PN "PN's losses" 3. NA 
"debt(s)" 4. NB "(payment in substitution for) 
debt, damages"; < habdlu II 

Hibirtum —* Ebirtum 

hibistu(m) "crushed pieces (of aromatic wood)" 
Bab. also h. riqqe "crushed pieces of 
aromatics"; OB qutrinni h. "incense from h."; 

< habdsu II 
hiblum (a garment) OB 

hibru(m) 1. Mari (part of tribe) 2. jB in plant 
name h. inbi "group of fruit"; < W.Sem. 

hibsu(m) 'swelling' 1. O/jB (a type of leavened 
bread/pastry) 2. NA "bump, lump"; < habdsu I 



hibsu l.jB lex. (a rough wool) 2.JB/NA archit. 

"recess, niche"; < habdsu I 
hibtu "robbery"? jB; < habdtu I 
hibum "beloved" OB f. in fPN Hibti-DN; jB 

lex.?; < hdbu 
Hibur — » Hubur 
hiburnu, huburnu (a grain-container) M/NA, in 

temple; bit h., esp. in sutu sa b. h. "sutu- 

measure of b. h"; < Hurr. 
hibussum mng. unkn. OB (an edible com- 
modity)? 
hibutu "secrecy" Bogh. in ki h. "secretly"; 

< habu IV 
hiddnum — » eddnu 

hidaru (desig. of wool) Alal., Ug.; < Hurr. 
hiddtu —* hididtum 
hi(d)ddru — » handuru 
hiddu(m), hindu(m); Am. pi. hintulena (a bead) 

OAkk, OA, Qatna, Am., in stone, gold, silver 

etc. 
hidduhhu —* handuhu 
hidiatum, hiddtu pi. tant. "joy, rejoicings" Bab. 

[yUL.MES] ekal, subat, bit h. "palace, dwelling, 

house of celebrations"; < hadu III 
hidirtum —* idirtu 
hidlum; pi. f. (a vessel) OB 
hidu —* hitu 

hidumu, hudumu (part of a garment) Am., Nuzi 
hidutu(m), hedutu(m) "joy, rejoicing" OAkk, 

Bab. [HUL] OAkk in PNs; ina h. "joyfully"; 

"celebration"; < hadu III 
hihinnu —* hahinnu 
hilabanu, hilapdnu (a plant with milky sap) jB 

lex.; < hilpu 
hilahuli "doorkeeper"? Alal.; < Hurr. 
hilammu, hilimmu (a grasshopper) jB 
hilani, hilldni, hitldni, hileni in bit h. "portico(ed 

building)" (pi. b. hildndni, b. hildndte) jB, NA, 

of Syrian origin; < Hitt.; — > appdtu 
hilapdnu —* hilabanu 
hilasu —* hilsu 
hilddmu —* hiliddmu 
hileni —* hilani 
hilepu(m), hilpum 1 - "willow" Bab. [GIS.KIM] as 

tree; "willow-wood" 
hilibana (desig. of the underworld) jB; < hilibu 
hilibu "the underworld" M/jB, NA [yi.Ll.BA] as 

DN; as name of stone; < Sum.; -» girimmu, 

amar(girim)hilibu 
hilidamu, hilddmu (a kind of meat) NB; < hillu 

+ ddmu ? 
hilimltu (a vegetable)? MB(Alal.) 
hilimmu — » hilammu 



hilistu 



116 



hmzu 



hilistu "scrapings, raked-out matter" jB, from 

oven; < haldsu 
hilldni — » hildni 
hillaru (part of an ornament) Qatna, Alal.; 

< Hurr. 
hilld/etu — » hillu 

hillu(m) "covering" OAkk, Bab., NA "(egg) 
shell"; "cortex, hollow stem" of reed, also as 
quiver; "layer" of cloud, "haze"; pi. f. OA ~ 
"custody"?, NB hilld/etu "woollen cover"?; 

< haldlum I ?; — » hiliddmu; hiltu II 
hilluru — » halluru 

hillutu "creeping" subst. NA in fig. etym. after 

haldlu III 
hilpu "milk" NA; < W.Sem.; > hilabdnu 
hilpum — » also hilepu 
hilsu(m) I, NB also hilasu; pi. f. "filtration; 

combed, filtered materials" Bab. 1. OB "filtered 

oil" 2. NB "filtration process" for sesame 

3. "combed out (wool)"; < haldsu 
hilsu II (a fortification)? jB lex.; M/NB in bit h., 

part of temple; NB rab b. h. "official in charge 

of b.h." 
hilsu "scraping(s), raking(s)" jB; < haldsu 
hiltu I ~ "sleep" jB; pi. in iamsat hildti (a kind of 

insect) 
hiltu II (a kind of reed) jB lex., var. of hillu in 

appdr h. 
hiltum ~ "exudation" OA, of silver; < hidlu 
hiltu — » also histu II 
hilii — » hulu 
hilu(m) "exudation, resin" Bab., NA [ILLU] of 

trees, plants; h. eri "h. of copper", a drug; 

< hidlum 

hilu pi. tant. "labour pains, birth pangs" jB, NA; 

< hidlum 
hilukannum — ♦ hulukannum 
hiluppu -* haiuppu 

himaru "donkey" jB lex.; syn. of imeru; < Aram. 

himdtu — » himetu 

himddtum — » himittum I 

himetu(m). Ass. himdtu(m) "butter, ghee" 

[i.NUN(.NA)] as food; med., mag.; rit., in 

offerings 
himiltu "plan" MB; < hamdlu 
himistu "snapped off piece, trimming" jB of 

palm tree; < hamdsu I 
himittum I; pi. himddtum "excuse(s)" OA; 

< hamddu 

himittu II "frostiness" jB med. "shivering"; 

< hamdtu III 

himmatu(m) "collected materials, collection" 
O/jB; OB pi. "accumulated possessions"; jB 



"collection" of laws, divine attributes; "matter 
blown together" by storm; "(accumulation of) 
rubbish"; OB mng. unci, of ship's load; 

< hamdmu 

himmum mng. unci. Mari in h. safer "h. is 

written"; < hamdmu ?; — ► himu 2 
himrum (a fermented drink) Mari; < W.Sem. 
himsatu, hinsdtu pi. tant. "wrongful 

possessions" M/NA; — » hummusum 
himsukkum mng. unkn. OB(Elam); < Elam.? 
himsu(m) I; usu. pi. f. 'torn away material' O/jB 

1. "(commercial) profit" 2. "plundered goods"; 

< hamdsu 

himsu(m) II, hinsu "fatty tissue" Bab. 

[UZU.ME.{JE] esp. ext. 
himsu "(act of) snapping off' jB in fig. etym. h. 

hamdsu "to break off" dates; < hamdsu I 
himtu, hintu, hindu; pi. NA himdte, NB hindeti 

"leather skin, pouch" Ass., j/NB for water, NB 

"purse" for money, stones etc. 
himtu(m), hintu(m) subst. "burning" O/jB 

"scorching" of field; "fever", h. seti "heat 

stroke"? [TAB(.BA)]; h- Hbbi; pi. f. himtetu(m) 

"heartburn"?; < hamdtu III 
himu 1. jB (a rush pad for wound) 2. Qatna (as 

ornament), with lapis lazuli inlay (or — » 

himmum ?) 
himudi mng. unkn. MB(Alal.) 
hina (a stone) Am., material of vessel; < Eg.? 
hindu(m) (a mythical being)? O/jB 
hindu — » also hiddu; himtu 
hinduhhu — » handuhu 
hinduru -* handuru 
hinhinu (a kind of spice)? M/NA; qem h. "flour 

Of/!." 

hiniqtu "constriction" jB med., of urinary tract; 
also "(urine) retention"; < handqu 

hinisannum (a valuable commodity) OA 

hinnu "ship's cabin" jB lex. 

hinqu(m) "constriction" 1. NA "narrows" of 
river 2. jB h. immeri (a sheep disease) 3. O/jB 
of humans mut h. "death by strangulation 7 "; jB 
med. "constriction" of duct; < handqu 

hinsdtu -* himsatu 

hinsu — » himsu II 

hinsu (an implement)? j/NB 

hintena — » hiddu 

hintu -* himtu 

hintu — » himtu 

hinziribu, hizzaribu (blue-green colour) jB, NA 
lex.; < hinzuru + Hurr. -iwwe 

hinzu mng. unkn. MB desig. of images 



hinzuru 



117 



hitmutis 



hinzuru, henzuru, inziiru "apple (tree)" M/jB 
esp. Nuzi as PN, MN (also Hizzurru); 
"apple(-coloured wool)"; > hinziribu; 

inzahuretu; — » hashuru 

hipindu (a stone)? jB lex. 

hipitu(m) "breach" O/MB in dyke; in house; 

< hepu II 

hippum "injury, damaged place" Mari, on face; 
in riverbank (or — » hibbum) 

hipu(m) I, NA also hippu "break(age)" Bab., 
M/NA [GAZ] 1. "break, broken place" on 
object, tablet; NB "fissure" in ground ?; jB/NA 
stones h. sadi "quarried in the mountains" 
2. "act of breaking" tablet; hip libbi "distress", 
also med. 3. math, "diameter"; < hepu II 

hipu II "purified" jB, of deity; < hidpum 

hiqu "mixed, diluted" O/jB, NA of oil; jB, NA of 
beer, usu. as subst. [KAS.A.SUD], pi. f. hiqdti 
"diluted beer", also h. sikari; < hidqu 

hirdpu — » hurdpu 

hiratu — » hirtu 

hir(i)galu (a kind of flour) M/NB, NA 

hirinnu — » harinnu; herinum 

hiristu "deduction" jB lex. in pi.; < hardsu; -* 
hersetum 

hirisu — » harlsu 

hirisnanum (a textile)? OA 

hiritu(m) I "ditch, channel" Bab., NA 1. "canal" 
2. "city ditch, (dry) moat"; < herd II 

hiritum II (an ornament) OAkk(Ur III) 

hirsu — » hersu 

hirtu(m), hiratu, NB histu "(equal ranking) 
wife" Bab. [MUNUS.NITA.DAM] of humans, 
deities; < hidru 

hiru(m) (a piece of clothing) Mari, NB ? 

hirutu(m) "(act of) excavation" Bab. of canals, 
fields etc.; < herd II 

hisannu, ihhisannu (a craftsman) NB mar h.\ 

< OPers.? " 

hisgalu (sufferer from illness) jB 

hisitu; pi. hisi'dti "maltreatment" NA; < hesd 

hisnanni (a shrub)? jB lex. 

hispu (a garden plant) NB 

hisrum "cutting(s)" OB of reeds; < hasdru 

hissatu(m), Bogh. hissetum "understanding; 

mention" Bab., NA "wisdom, intelligence", esp. 

h. uznellibbi; "mention" of s.o.('s name); 

"memory, remembrance, thought for s.o."; 

< hasdsu 

hisu(m), isd(m) (a fish) O/jB lex. 

hisum ~ "(sealed) envelope" OB on document; 

< hesd 



hisutu "pressure" NB in h. hesd "to put pressure 

on" s.o.; < hesd 
hisdrum — » hasdru 
hisbu(m) I "luxuriance, plenty" Bab. [MA.DAM] 

h. mdtimlsadiltdmti "(abundant) yield of land/ 

mountain/sea"; < hasdbu II 
hisbu II "chip(ping)s" jB of wood, stone, e.g. h. 

sdmti "carnelian chippings"; < hasdbu I 
hisibtu "chip" jB; < hisbu II nom. unit. 
hisnu(m), hisinu "protection" O/jB of deity, esp. 

in PNs; < hasdnu 
hispatum ~ "insolence" OB h. kabittum "serious 

insolence" 
hissasatu (or hizzazdtu ?) pi. (an offering 

food)? j/NB 
hissu I; pi. f. "reed bundle"? M/NB for irrigation 

banks; < hasdsu I 
hissu(m) II "gravel" NB; Mari, ext. (as feature 

on liver) 
hisehtu — » hisihtu 
hiselu- (a garment) OAkk, in Hurr. pi. 

hiseluhina; < Hurr. 
hisihtu(m), hisehtu(m), hasehtu; NB pi. also 

hisihheti "requirement" Bab. "thing needed"; 

"desire(d)" of god, as descr. of person; 

< hasdhu 
hisiltu(m) 'crushings' O/jB, desig. of grain, 

spices; < hasdlu 
hisrum mng. unkn. OB lex.; < hasdru ? 
hissamu — » hissd'um 
hissanu(m), hissamu "thorn; needle, pin" OA, 

JB 
hissatu "swelling" O/jB med.; < hasdsu I 
hissdtu — » hissd'um; kissdtum 
hissa'um, hissamu ~ "superb, fine" O/jB of god, 

person, horse; O/MB also as fPN Hissdtu(m) 
hissumaku "balancing payment" Nuzi; < Hurr.; 

— » isumaka 
histu I, hisutu "thorn bushes" j/NB 
histu(m) II, hiltu "sluice" Bab., diverted channel; 

bdb h. "sluice gate" 
histu — » also hirtu 
hisu(m), isum "debt-note" O/jB for deferred 

purchase price; < Sum. 
hisu(m) "band, strap" M/jB 1. as personal 

ornament on breast 2. "(carrying) strap" of 

gardener, fisherman 3. "(head)band" 4. "(reed) 

coil" for bird's nest 
hisutu — » histu I 

hitbasu "very joyful"? jB; < habdsu I 
hitldni — » hildni 

hitlapu, hitlupdtu (a garment) jB lex.; < haldpu I 
hitmutis "very quickly" jB; < hamdtu II 



hitpu 



118 



hubusum 



hitpu (an animal sacrifice) NA, NB of sheep, 

oxen, birds etc.; < hatdpu 
hitrubu "very desolate" jB( Ass.); < hardhu 
hittu I; NB pi. hittdnu "lintel" M/NB [(GIS.) 

GAN.DU7] h. sa bdbi "lintel of doorway" 

hittu II (an utterance, phps.) "riddle" jB lex.; 

< hiddu 

hittu III, hattu (a beer jar) jB lex. 

hitu(m) (or hidu(m)) (a bathing place)? OB lex. 

hituhli (a prof, desig.) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

hititu(m) "shortfall, loss; crime" Bab. h. rasu(m) 
"to become faulty", "become guilty"; h. epesu, 
babdlu(m) "commit crime"; h. patdru(m), 
pussusu etc. "forgive, expunge sin(s)"; 

< hatu II 

hittatu "excavation" NB, esp. of building pit; 

< hatdtu I 

hitu(m) I, later hittu; MA pi. hitdni "error; lack; 
crime; penalty" Bab., M/NA [SE.BI.DA ?] 

1. "failing, defect" of commodity, person 

2. "crime, sin, error"; bel h., NB also sa h. 
"guilty person" 3. h. emedu/sadddu "to 
impose/bear penalty"; < hatu II 

hltu II "payment" NB; < hidtu 

hi'u(m) (a garment)? OAkk in Hurr. pi. hi'ina; 

jB mng. unci, 
hivvaru (a copper vessel) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hiya — » heya 
hiydlu — » hi'dlu 
hizzahbu — » hinziribu 
hizzazdtu — » hissasdtu 
Hizzuvru — » hinzuru 
hu'a, hu'u (an owl) jB 
hudlum — » hdlu 
hudqu — » hdqu 
hu'atum (a meal)? OB lex. 
huballu(m), hubullu, Nuzi hubblppallalu "pit, 

trench" O/jB lex., Nuzi 
hubasu(m) "exuberant one" Bab., as PN; 

< habdsu I 
hubballu — » huballu 

hubbu: NB pi. f. "buzz(ing), whining" j/NB of 
noise in head, lamentation; < habdbu 

hubbu — » kubbu I.II 

hubbultu "debt(s)" Nuzi; < habdlu III 

hubbulu, Ass. habbulu(m) "indebted" O/MA, 
jB; OA pi. as subst. "debtors" of s.o.; 

< habdlu III 

hubburu — » habdru I.II D; hamdru D 
hubbusu(m), humbusu "very swollen, exuber- 
ant" Bab., in PNs; < habdsu I 



hubbusu(m) "swollen up" O/jB of humans; 
transf. (pejorative) as PN; MB of horse; 

< habdsu I 

hubbuttu (or hupputtu) (a garment)? NB, wool 

for h. of deity 
hubbutum — » ebetu II D 
hubibitu — » humbabitu 
hubldu, hupiddnu (a plant) jB lex., med. 
hubisitu — » humbisutu 

hublillu (a kind of grain) jB lex.; -» habulillu ? 
hubrum — » huprum 
hubsasu(m) (a pottery vessel) OAkk, O/jB; 

< habdsu I ? 

hubsu I "dust, flotsam" jB on surface of water, 

< habdsu II ? 

hubsu II, hubusu (object used in cult) j/NB 

hubtdtu — » hubuttu 

hubtu(m) "robbery; plunder" Bab., M/NA [NB 

SAR] 1. "(act of) robbery" NB h. dli "urban 

robbery", - MA hubat seri "desert robbery" 

2. "robbed (goods, animals)" etc.; "(human) 

plunder, captives" in war, also l "h.; < habdtu I 
hubu mng. unkn. j/NB lex. 
hubu I (or hupu) (a prof, desig.)? NB 
hubu II "cleaning" jB; < hidpum 
hubullu(m), NA habullu "debt; interest-bearing 

loan; interest" [UR5.RA] 1. "(interest-bearing) 

debt"; ana h. "on loan"; bel h. "creditor"; jB bit 

h. "debtor's prison" 2. OB(Susa), M/NB 

"interest (on loan)"; > habdlu III 
hubullu — » also huballu 
hubunum, hubunnu(m); Am., Bogh. pi. f 

hubunnetu (a small vessel) O/jB of '/3-1 

qu(m)\ — » huburnu ? 
Hubur, Hihur 1. jB (underworld river) 2. O/MA 

(a month), OA Hubur, MA usu. Hihur 3.jB 

hubur (a plant name) 
huburnu(m); pi. f (small vessel) Mari, Nuzi for 

oil; — » hubunum 
huburnu — » also hihurnu 
huburru — » huburu II 
huburtanuru (a high royal official) Ug. 
huburtu(m) (a reed item) OB, NA ? 
huburu(m) I (a beer jar) Bab., OA [MUD ?] OA 

du. "(twin) jars", bit h.; NB suqi sa h. "street of 

ff" 
huburu(m) II, huburru "bustle, clamour" O/jB 

of mankind; < habdru I 
hubusum (a weapon) Mari 
Hubusitu — » humbisutu 
hubusu — » hubsu II 



l)ubuttu(m) 



119 



huliilum 



hubuttu(m); pi. huhuttdtu(m), lex. once hubtdtu 
"interest-free loan" OAkk, O/jB pi. tant, silver, 
grain etc.; NB also sg.; > habdtu II; hubuttutu 

hubuttutu(m) "interest-free loan" Bab. silver, 
grain; < hubuttu abstr.? 

hubutu ~ "thicket" Am.; < W.Sem. 

hudatu — » hudu 

huddudu "deeply incised" jB of wadis; 

< hadddu II 

hudhudum (an object) OB; -» huthutu 

hudhummu (or huthummu) (a plant) jB lex. 

hudu(m), hudu; OB pi. f. "happiness, pleasure" 
Bab., NA 1. "joy"; "satisfaction, contentment" 
(with s.th., s.o.) 2. in hud(u) libbi "joy, 
contentment" [5A.HUL.LA]; leg. ina h. l.-su "of 
his own free will" 3. h. kabattilpdni "con- 
tentment, happiness"; < had& HI 

hudumu — » hidumu 

hudussu I (an age group)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

hudussu(m) II "frog (figure)" OB, jB lex., of 
lapis lazuli 

hudussum (or hudusum) ~ "marriage celeb- 
ration" Mari; < haddsu 

hudutu — » hadutu 

hugum (a loaf or cake) Mari; < W.Sem. 

huharis "as with a bird-snare" jB 

huharu(m) m. & f. "bird-snare" [HAR.MU§EN. 
NA]; as weapon of Samas; sa h. "bird-snarer" 

huhhardte — » hurhurdtu; huruhuru 

huhhitu(m) "expectoration, vomit" O/jB; 

< hahu II 
huhhurdte — » hurhurdtu 
huhhuru — » huruhuru 

huhi(n)nu mng. unkn. Emar, desig. of a stone 

feature in city 
huhpum (a bronze vessel) OB; < Elam. 
huhu — » hahu I 
huk "wood" jB lex.; < Elam. 
hukunna mng. unkn. MB(Alal.), desig. of table; 

<Hurr. 
hulalam, hulalu 1. MB (desig. of horse) 

2. Bogh. lex. (a bird); > hiilaluhlu 
hulalu(m), Qatna haldnu (a valuable stone) 

[NAt.NfR] for vases, ornaments; also as PN 

(also fPN Hulaltum); jB h. ini (part of eye) 

[NA4.NlR.IGl]; h. kappi issuri "bird's-wing h. 

Stone" [NA4.NfR.PA.MU§EN.NA] 
hulalu "like h. stone" NB in fPN Huldliti 
hulalu — » hulalam 
hiilaluhlu (an official) Nuzi; < hulalam + Hurr. 

-uhlu 
hulametu -» alamittu 



hulamisu, hulamisu, hallamislsu l.jB lex. (a 

tree) 2. jB "chamaeleon"?; NB as PN 
hulamitu — » alamittu 
hulampashi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hulapu(m) (a wrapping)? OA, jB; < haldpu I 
hulaqu "worn-out garment" jB lex.; < haldqu 
hulasum (a flour) O/jB as food for pigs; 

< haldsu 

hulbaqqu -» huluppaqqu 

hulbatu adj. mng. unkn. jB lex. 

huliam, huliyam "helmet" Am., jB as armour; as 

type of vessel, in stone, metal; (name of a plant) 
hulllu mng. unkn. Mari, in um h. 
hulium — » hulu 
huliyam — » huliam 
hullanu; Nuzi pi. f. "(cloth) cover, wrap" 

M/NA, M/NB [TUG.GU.LA] garment, in pairs; 

h. ahi "wrap with sleeves"; woollen, linen; also 

"cover" for bed 
huUu(m), ullu; jB pi. ulldni "neck ring, tore" 

O/jB as ornament, of metal; for dog; "ring" on a 

door, "ring" of fortification walls; < Sum. 
hulluqis "in order to destroy" jB; < haldqu D 
hulluru — » halluru 

hulmahu (a kind of snake) jB lex.; < Sum. 
hulmittu ~ "dragon; kind of lizard" jB [MUS. 

HUL]; < Sum. 
hulmum; pt. f. mng. unkn. Mari 
huhnuna ~ "lamp"? MB(Susa); h. nuwwuru; 

<Elam. 
hulpalu — » huppalu 
hulpaqqu -> huluppaqqu 
hulqu(m) "lost property" O/jB; < haldqu 
hulqu -» huluqqd' um 
hulsu (a garment) NA lex. 
hultuppu(m), hultuppu(m), occas. hustuppu 

liter, "evilly striking" jB (desig. of demon); also 

O/jB (a month in Elam); < Sum. 
hultuppu, haltappu "(exorcist's) rod" M/jB; 

< Sum.; -» mashulduppu 
hultuppu — » also hultuppu 
hultimmu — » huttimmu 

hulu, OAkk hulium, jB once hilu (a rodent, 

phps.) "shrew" OAkk PN; jB, NA mag. 

[peS.hul; peS.s1la.gaz] 
hulu; pi. huldni "way, road" M/NA, Nuzi 

[KASKAL(.2)] "(physical) road"; MA "course" 

for horses; "journey" of ship 
huluhhu(m) (light( -coloured) slag) O/jB, NA 

med.; NA from usmetu stone; < Sum. 
hulukannum, hilukannum (a kind of vehicle) 

OA;<Hitt.? 
hululum (a leather object) OB lex. 



hulumum 



120 



huppalu(m) 



hulumum (valuable type of earth)? OB, weighed 

commodity 
huluppaqqu, hulp/baqqu (a vessel) M/jB 

[NfG.TAB.TUR.RA] of copper, pottery; usu. for 

incense-burning 
huluppu (a bird) Bogh. lex. 
huluppu — ► also haluppu 
huluptu (a cloth cover) jB lex.; < haldpu I 
huluqqa'um, haluqqd' u(m), hulaluqqu, hulqu 

"(commercial) loss" [ZAH] "lost goods"; 

"(financial) loss(es)"; < haldqu 
hulutu (a mixed 7 drink) NA, in massitu 

containers for offerings; < Aram. 
humalitu "friendly, sympathetic"? jB of goddess; 

< humdlu 

humalu "sympathy"? Ug.; < gamdlu ? 
humamatu, hummetu pi. tant. "detritus, jetsam" 

jB mag., in fig. etym. with hamdmu 
humasirum — ► humsiru 
humdsum — » umdsu 
humatum (part of body) OB lex. 
humbabitu, humbubitu, hu(m)bibitu, NA 

humbabaritu 1 - jB, NA 1. (a kind of lizard)? 

2. (a figurine); NA also "Humbaba (figurine)" 
humbirra(t)tu (a stone) jB med. 
humbisutu, hu(m)bisitu; jB pi. humbisdte "lump 
" of dough"? M/NB, NA; as" NB fPN also 

Hu(m)busitu; < habdsu I 
humbubitu — ► humbabitu 
Humbusitu — ► humbisutu 
humbusu — > hubbusu 
humilatu pi. tant.? mng. unkn. NB, field with h:, 

h. of bit PN 
humiru ~ "lump"? jB lex., of lead; < hamdru 
hummanu (a prof, desig.)? NB 
hummdtu — ► gummdtu 
hummetu — » humamatu 
hu(m)mudayum (a siege instrument) Mari 
hummuru(m), Ass. hammuru "crippled" Bab., 

MA [KUD.KUD(.DU)] of foot; of human, also as 

PN; "lame" of horse; MA "stumbling"? of 

gazelles; < hamdru or hemeru; > hammurtu 1 - 
hummusum D "to pressurize, oppress" OB; — > 

hamsu; himsdtu 
hummusum mng. unci. OB as PN; < hamdsu D 
hummusu I "'/5 (shekel)" NB; < hamis 
hummusu II "snapped off' jB lex., of grain; 

< hamdsu I 

hummutis "very quickly" O/jB; < hummutu I 
hummutu I "quick" NB, "early-bearing" of palm 

tree; < hamdtu II 
hummutu II "very hot" j/NB of fate ?; 

"parched"? of field; < hamdtu III 



humsiru — > humsiru 

humsirtu, hab(a)sirtu "female mouse" j/NB 

[PES.MUNUS]; NB as PN; < humsiru 
humsiru, humsiru, humussiru(m), humunslsiru, 

halum(a)sl sirum, hah/m(a)siru(m), kamasirum 

"(large) mouse" OAkk, Bab. [PES]; often as 

PN; > humsirtu; hahasirdnu 
humsu(m), NB hunzu "one-fifth" NB wr. syll., 

else [5- ]; < hamis 
humtu — > hutmu 

humtum I "haste"? OB; < hamdtu II 
humtu(m) II, huntu "heat; fever" 1. OAkk, O/jB 

"hot season", also as feast and MN 2. jB, NA 

"fever"; < hamdtu III 
humunnaswe mng. unkn. Nuzi, lamp sa h:, 

< Hurr. 

humunslsiru etc. — » humsiru 

humusa "five each" OB; < hamis 

humusu, humusa' u, humusiu [5- ] 1. Nuzi, NB 

"five-year-old" 2. NB family "of five 

individuals"?; < hamis 
humusum "(the number) five" OB; < hamis 
humusum — ► also umdsu 
hunabu(m) "thriving" O/jB lex., of person; as 

(f)PN; < handbu 
hunibum "shoot, seedling" Mari; < handbu 
hunima (a vessel) Am.; < Eg. 
hunnum (a kind of table) OB lex. 
hunnu(m) "to give shelter, lodge"? Mari, sheep 

(also MB, mng. unci.); < W.Sem. 
hunnubu(m) "very thriving" O/MB in (f)PNs; 

< handbu 

hunnunu(m) (desig. of men, sheep) jB lex.; 

< handnu ? 

hunnutu "(state of) ripening" jB lex. of grain 

etc.; — ► huntu 
huntu (part of door) jB lex. 
huntu "ripeness, maturity" jB lex.; — ► hunnutu 
huntu — ► also humtu II 
hunzu — » humsu 
hunzu, hunzu' u, huzzu ~ "lame" M/NB usu. as 

PN, family name; — ► hutenzu 
hupd'u — ► hupu 

huphuppu (a container) jB lex.; < Sum. 
hupiddnu — ► hubidu 

hupirririsa (a prof, desig.) OB(Susa); < Elam. 
huppa, huppi (stance of mourner) jB; < Sum.?; 

— ► huppu II 
huppallalu — ► huballu 
huppalu(m), hut(a)palu, hurpalu, hulpdlu (a 

weapon) jB [GIS.TUKUL.SAG.NA4] "mace" or 

"double-axe"? 
huppasilurgu — > habsallurhu 



5uppat(a)ru 



121 



hurhuppu 



huppat(a)ru (a vessel) Qatna, Nuzi, for 

washing; of gold; < Hurr. 
huppdtu — ► huppu I.II; huptu III 
huppi — ► huppa 
huppu(m) I; NB pi. f. (a kind of basket) Bab., 

MA [GI.GUR.HUB] as container; OB "guard"?, 

on lance; MA, of glass; NA sa hu(p)pdnisu 

"basket-dealer"?; < Sum. 
huppu(m) II, uppu(m); Ug. pi. f. "hole, pit"? 

O/jB in fields, of snake 7 ; — ► huptu III 
huppu — ► also huppu II; hurpu; uppu II 
huppu I, Ass. happu "broken (up)" MA, M/NB 

of head; tablets; MA of spices "crushed"; of 

population "scattered"; < hepA U D 
huppu(m) II, huppu [(LU.")tfUB.BI/BU] 1. (cultic 

dancer) O/jB 2. (a weaver) M/NB; < Sum.; 

> hupputu; — ► huppa 

huppudu(m) I "blind" O/jB of person, puppy; 

also as PN; < huppudum II 
huppudum II "to blind" OB; OAkk "delete" 

words on tablet ?; > huppudu I; — ► upputu 
hupputtu —* huhhuttu 

hupputu "skill of cultic dancer" NB; < huppu II 
hupri (a capacity measure)? Alal. 
huprum (or hubrum) mng. unkn. OB 
huprushu, hurpushu (a vessel) MB(AlaL), 

Nuzi of pottery 7 , metal; < Hurr. 
hupsena —* hupsu 
hupsilurglhu — ► habsallurhu 
hupsis "as a plebeian" jB; < hupsu 
hupsu(m) "(member of) lower class" esp. MA, 

Alal. (Hurr. pi. hupsena), Am., jB(Ass.); 

"rabble" usu. of soldiers; of mutinous gods; 

> hupsis 

huptu I "superiority" M/NB of gods; also in PN; 

< hapdtum 
huptum II; pi. hupdti (field subject to specific 
"form of duty) OB 
huptu(m) III; pi. huppdtu "hole, hollow" jB, NA 

in ground; in neck, head; h. ineli "eye-socket"; 

OB lex. (a metal bowl); — » huppu II 
hupu, MA hupd'u "fragment" MA, jB 1. pi. 

"sherds" of pot, tablet; "chips" of wood; lex. 

"flakes" of fish; "wisps" of cloud 2. jB lex. (a 

vessel holding '/2 qum); < hepu II 
hupu(m) I "(wheel) rim; ring" OAkk, O/jB 

"rim, tyre" of wheel; jB lex., transf. 

"assembly"? 
hupu II "fear" NA in h. libbdte "fear of s.o.'s 

anger"; < hdpu 
hupu — ► also huhu I 
hupurtum — ► upurtu 
huqqu mng. unkn. Bogh. lex. 



huqqumum vb. or adj.? mng. unkn. OB, action 

applied to flour 
huqu "step, rung (of ladder)" Bab., NA; also 

NA "landing stage"?; jB transf. "(critical) 

stage" of illness; (a kind of bird), also (a 

plant)? 
hur — ► hurri 
huradu I; MA/MB pi. f. "soldier; army" M/NA, 

MB, Urar.; MA rab(i) h. "military com- 
mander"; < harddu IV or Hurr.? 
huradu II mng. unkn. j/NB ((part of) a plant)? 
huralbu, hurallu "bed" jB lex. 
hurapu(m), Nuzi also hirdpu; f. hurdptu "spring 

lamb" O/jB, M/NA [SILA4.NIM, f. KIRn.NlM; 

Ass. (MUNUS.)UDU.NIM; NA also (MUNUS.) 

NIM] OB also PN; Nuzi in kalumu h:, Nuzi also 

"kid" of goat; < hardpu I 
hurasanum; f. hurdsdnitum 'goldie' 1. OA, OB 

as ('f)PN [OA KU.GI- ] 2. jB lex. (a bird, phps.) 

"goldfinch"; < hurdsu 
hurasu(m) "gold" [KU.GI; OA also KU.KI] 

nappdh h. "goldsmith", epis h. "gold-worker"; 

as valuable substance; as PN 
huratu(m) pi. tant. "ladder" O/MA 

huratu(m), Mari also hawuratum) "madder 

(Rubia tinctorum)" Bab., M/NA [GIS.JJAB] as 

shrub; as drug; esp. in dyeing wool, leather 
hura'u mng. unkn. Nuzi, desig. of grain; < Hurr. 
hurbabillu, urbabillu "chamaeleon"? jB 

[BAR.GUN.GUN.NU]; med. fat of h. 
hurbakkannu, hurba(q)qannu — ► harbakkannu 
hurbasu(m) "frost; terror" O/jB [MIR.SES] 

"hoar-frost" and sim.; med. "shivering, cold 

tremors"; "terror, panic"; "fearsomeness"; 

> naharhusu 
hurbiwu — ► haiwiu 
hurbu "desert" NB; < Aram. 
hurdatanu "like a hurdatu" NB of date palm; 

< hurdatu I 
hurdatu(m) I "cross-beam" jB of yoke-shaft, 

house; tamarisk; > hurdatanu 
hurdatu(m) II "female pudenda" Bab., NA; 

learned etym. hurri-dddu "hole of love" 
hurdu(m) I; OB pi. f. "door mat" O/jB i.e. door 

made from mat; < harddu III 
hurdu(m) II "posthumous child" Ass. 
hurhadu —* harhadu 
hurhudum —* ur'udu 
hurhummatu(m) "foam, scum" O/jB, NA on 

water, beer, oil etc. 
hurhuppu, urruppu, urrumbum (a vessel with 
" knobs)? O/jB lex. 



hurhuratu 



122 



hussu 



hurhuratu, NA huhhulardte pi. (a red dye) 

" M/jB, NA 

hurhututu "arrow" Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

hurianum — » hurium; uriydnu 

huribtu; pi. hurbdtu "desert" M/NB, NA often 

pi.; < hardbu 
hurinum mng. unkn. OB(Susa) 
hurium, hurianum (a spice) OAkk(Ur III) 
hurizu I; pi. hurlzdletu, hurlzena "villa, palace" 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
hurlzu(m) II (a stone) OB, Ug.; = urlzu ? 
hurmu (or harmu) (a plant) jB lex. 
hurndm —* urnu 
hurpalu — » huppalu 
hurpatum, huruppatum ~ "tent" Man; — » 

huruppu 
hurpu(m), huppu; OB pi. f. ~ "blood clot" O/jB; 

< hardpu II 

hurpu pi. "early crop" OB; also sg.?; < hardpu I 

hurpushu — » huprushu 
hurratu "hole" NA of mongoose; < hurru nom. 

unit. 
hurratu — » also murratum 
hurri, Jim/- "ever (after)" O/jB, NA; OB "for 

ever"; NA ana hur, mostly ah-hur 

"( thereafter", "else, furthermore" 
hurru(m); NA pi. f. "hole" OAkk, Bab., M/NA 

[HABRUD(.DA)] in wall, door etc.; "burrow" of 

animal; "ravine"; "cave, mine"; Ji. pi "mouth 

cavity"; > hurratu; — » hardru; hurdatu II; 

issuru 
hurrupu, NA harrupu "(very) early"? NB; NA 

of kind of wine; < hardpu I 
hurruru(m) "deeply incised" O/jB of feature on 

liver; also PN; < hardru 
hurrusu(m) "furrowed, incised" Bab. as PN; 

< hardsu 

hurrusu "bound" M/jB lex.; also as PN; 

< hardsu II 
hurrutu — » murrutu 
hursdnis — » hursdnis 

hursanu(m), hursdnu "river ordeal" Bab., NA 
[NB pUR.SAG] "place of ordeal", ana h. 
aldkulsapdru; "ordeal procedure"; OB as DN; 
(name of plant) 

hursdnu — » also hursdnu 

hursennu — » harsapnu 

hursatu (a plant) jB lex. 

hursanis, hursdnis "like a mountain" j/NB; 

< hursdnu 

hursanu, hursdnu "mountain(s)" M/NB often 
pi. [pUR.SAG (earlier •= sadum I)]; Bogh. 
"siege mound"; < Sum.; > hurSdnis 



hursdnu — » also hursdnu 

hursianum m. & f. "package" OA 

hursu(m), ursu; OA pi. f. "(kitchen) storeroom, 

larder" Ass., OB lex., Mari; bit h. in temples 

"storehouse"; — » gursu I 
Hursub(i)um (a month) OB(Susa) 
hurtu — » /ia; - /« 

huru I "son" jB lex.; < Hurr. 
Huru II (a month) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
huru — » also «r« III 
hurugu (a goose)? jB lex. 
huruharu, huruhuru mng. unkn. MA, jB 
huruhuru, NA huhhuru; pi. huruhurdtu, NA 

huhhardte (a kind of bread) M/NA 
huruhuru — » also huruharu 
huruppatum — » hurpatum 
huruppu(m) 1. "(metal) dish" M/NA pi. f.; for 

betrothal feast 2. "pelvic basin" of ox; NB as 

cut of meat; part of constellation 
hururum — » hariru 
hurussu (a vegetable) jB lex. 
hur'zazatu (a kind of tube)? jB lex. 
hurzinum — » urzinu 
hurzuhurza — » murzumurza 
husarikku — » kusarikku 
husarum, husdrum "haematite"? OA, traded; 

material of seal; pi. m. "h. pieces"; also as PN 
husau — » A«5M 
husigu, Ass. kJgusigu, jB also agusigu (a stone) 

"m/najb 

husinu (a commodity) NA, in sa h.-su "h. man" 
husirtum "broken piece" of reed OB math.; 

< hasdru 
husmdnu — » hasmdnu 
hussu (a vessel) NB; < hesu ? 
hussuru(m) "broken off' etc. O/jB; OB lex. of 

person, "with broken teeth"; OB (desig. of 

copper), "scrap pieces"?; jB lex. "dilapidated" 

oven; < hasdru 
husu I (a kind of owl) jB lex. 
husu II mng. unkn. jB astr.; < hesu ? 
husuhusu (a child's game) MB 
husuku — » husuku 
husabu(m) "twig, branch; stick, splinter" Bab., 

M/NA "twig" of tree, NB "rib" of palm-frond; 

(wooden) "peg", "stick" for plough, ship etc.; 

"off-cut", "chip, splinter" of worthless item; NB 

gener. "(fire) wood"; NB, as PN; < hasdbu II 
husannu; NB pi. also f. "sash, belt" j/NB 

[TTJG.NfG.fB.LA] worn around hips; also for 

divine statues; -^ huzunu II 
hussu; pi. f. (a kind of reed hut) M/NB, NA; 

M/NB also as PIN; > hasdsu II 



hussusu 



123 



huzzumu(m) 



hussu —t also husu 

hussusu, Ass. hassusu, pi. hassasute "snapped 

off jB, NA of reeds; < hasdsu I 
husu, hussu ~ "pain" jB in h. hip(i) libbi ~ 

"stomach pains" 
husahhu(m), kusahhum "need, shortage; 

famine" [SU.GU7] "shortage" of grain, straw; 

OA "needs, requirement"; "neediness, famine"; 

sanat h. "famine year"; "starvation" as illness; 

< hasdhu 

husakasu "disposal, disposition" of s.o.? Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

husalum mng. unkn. OA 

husanum (part of ship) OB lex.; < Sum. 

husdrum — » husdrum 

husasum "rejoicer" OB, as PN; < hasdsu I 

husd'u —t husu 

husauru/u "prisoner" Nuzi; < Hurr.; 

> husaurutu 
husaurutu "captivity" Nuzi; < husauru 
husinu "strength" NB of men; < Aram. 
husranni "all humanity" jB lex. 
husria (a magical formula) jB 
hussu "salve" jB in hus samni "salve of oil"; 

< hasdsu II ? 

hussu(m) "red" [HUS.A; OA pu.SA ?] epith. of 
gold, copper; of garment; of pig, honey etc.; 

< Sum.; — » husu; russu 

hussulu(m) "crushed, bruised" O/jB of injured, 
damaged person; OB as PN; jB of newborn 
child; < hasdlu 

hussurannu mng. unkn. Nuzi (desig. of cart- 
yoke); < Hurr. 

hustuppu — » hultuppu 

husu(m), O/MA husd'u, husd'u pi. tant. ~ 
"(metal) scraps"; < hasu IV 

husu(m) "red (colour)" O/jB of garment; of 
glowing oven; — » hussu 

husuatu "strength" jB lex. 

husuhhu (a garment) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

husuku, husuku pi. (part of horse harness) MA, 
NB 

husumma in h. epesu "to tie up (to)" Nuzi, 
animal, hand, wheel; < Hurr. 

Hutalse (a month name) Nuzi; < Hurr.; — » 
Hutizzi 

hutapalu — > huppalu 

hutebdnu — » hutibdnu 

hutennu —* hetennu 



hutenzu vb. "to be(come) lame"? jB lex.; — » 

hunzd 
huthummu — » hudhummu 
huthutu (a commodity) MB(Alal.); -» 

hudhudum 
hutibanu, hutebdnu (an official) NB; < OPers.? 
Hutizzi (a month) Alal.; — » Hutalse 
hutmu, humtu (a bird) jB lex., om. 
hutnu ~ "(legal) guardian" NA; also in PNs; 

< hatdnu 
hutnu — » hetennu 
hutpalu — » huppalA 

hutpu(m) "arrowhead" O/jB of bronze, for 

siltdhu 
huttu (a storage vessel) M/NB for grain, liquid 
huttumumma in h. epesu "to enclose" Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

huttutu "louse ridden" jB lex.; -» hatitu; kuttutu 

hutugu (an implement) NA 

hutul (a magical formula) jB 

hutulu(m); OA pi. f. (an object) OA, jB lex. 

hutartu, NB also hutastu "stick, staff M/NB, 

NA in king's hand; for beating s.o.; NB 

"staff (-shaped mark)" on slave; < hutdru 
hutaru, NB also huturu "branch, stick; staff 

j/NB, NA [GlS.GIDRU] NA in sa h. (an 

official); NB (a type of soldier); NB also d H., 

deified in cult; > hutartu 
hutastu —t hutartu 

hutti(m)manu "snouty" MB, as PN; < huttimmu 
huttimmu, hultimmu "snout" j/NB of pig, dog, 

ape; NB as cut of meat; > huttimmdnu 
huturu — » hutdru 
hu'u —* hu'a 
huzalu(m), uzdlu; f. (h)uzdlatum, uzdltum 

"gazelle kid" [amar.MAS.DA]; also as PN 
huziqatu — » haziqatu 

huziranum "Piggy" OB, as PN; < huzlru 
huzirtu "sow, female pig" MA, as fPN; jB/NA 

lex. in h. eqli (a kind of cricket); < huzlru 
huziru(m) "pig" Ass.; as PN also OAkk; 

> huziranum, huzirtu 
huzunu I (an object) Am., in gold 
huzunu II; pi. f. (a garment) NA; — » husannu 
huzzi (a linen garment) Am. 
huzzu — » hunzu 
huzzumu(m) "mutilated" Bab., of person with 

imperfect physical/facial feature; < hazdmu 



I 



i "let's; come on" O/jB cohort, ptel. before 1 pi. 

pret., i nillik "let's go"; also in question "should 

we ...?"; occas. before 3 f. pret. (i taltu-) 
i — > also ina 
-i"my" (I sg. pron. suff.) (-♦ GAG §42); -♦ -a; 

-a I; -ya 
ia'u —* yau 

ibahu, ebahu "womb" jB lex. 
ibaru (a mark on skin) jB; aban ibdri (a stone); 

< eberu II 
ibassi -* basu G 
ibbaru -* imbaru 
ibbiltu (or ippiltu) (a bird) jB lex. 
■bbu I, ebbum 'day of wrath', "19th day of 

month" O/jB; < Sum. 
ibbum II, imbu "loss" O/jB of grain, in 

commerce; < Sum. 
ibhu (or iphu) (a kind of bug) jB lex. 
ibihu -* eblhu 
ibilu "camel, dromedary" jB, NA [ANSE.A.AB. 

BA] 
ibinna -* binna 
ibissau — ♦ ibissu 
ibissu -* ebissu 
ibissii(m); OA pi. ibissd'u "(financial) loss" 

OA, O/jB [I.BI.ZA] i. amdru(m), i. dagdlu(m) 

"to suffer a loss"; < Sum. 
ibitu "pus" jB lex., med.; < ebu II 
iblakku (a thin beer) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ibratu(m), NA gen. ibriti "(outdoor) cult niche" 

Bab., NA [UB.LIL.lA] 
ibretu pi. tant. "radius and ulna" jB lex, (liter. 

'friends'); < ibru 
ibru(m), Ass. ebru(m) "friend, colleague" 

[KU.LI]; > ibretu, ibriitu; -* abdru in 



ibrum "sealed document" OB [KISIB.IB.RA]; 

<Sum. 
ibrutu, OA ebaruttwn "friendship"; OA "group 

of partners"; jB "friendship, partnership"; 

"alliance"; < ibru abstr. 
ibsu (or ipsu) "mat" jB of palm fronds, reeds; 

NB epis i. "mat- weaver" [LU.SU.TAG.GA], as 

family name; < epesu 
iburu -* eburu 
Id, Ittu 1 "River(-god)" O/jB, M/NA [ d lD; 

d ID.LU.RU.GU] ana I. aldkum "to go to the 

river-ordeal"; also term.-adv. Wis jB; sa Id 

"ferryman" jB lex.; < Sum. 
iddnu -* edanu 
idasus, ddsus, tdsus (a creepy-crawly, liter.) '60 

arms'? jB lex.; < idu + susi ? 
idatu —* ittu I 
idatutu mng. unci. NB 
idd'um -* edu II 
iddanna, inadanna "if necessary, at a pinch; in 

any case" OB; < ina + dannatu ? 
idddt etc. -♦ ddt 
iddum; pi. f. ~ "sharp end, point" OB of tool; 

< ededu 
iddd -* ittu 

idiltu "locking, lock-up" jB; < edelu 
idlnum -* edinu 
idinu —* edenu 
idiptu "wind, gust" M/jB; also illness of cattle; 

Am. d i as demon; < edepu 
idirtu(m), edirtu(m), Mari yi-... , NB idistu 

"misery, trouble; dismay" Bab.; < addru II 
idisam "side by side, in columns" OB of writing 

on tablet; < idu 
idissi- —* wedissi- 



idltu 



125 



ikimtu 



idistu -* idinu 

iditu (a kind of mash) jB lex. 

idranu(m) (or itrdnu(m)); pi. f. "potash" Bab. 
[NIMUR(=KI.NE); MUN.NIMUR.RA] "salt" on 
saline fields; < idru I 

idru I (or itru) "saltpetre" M/jB "salt" on saline 
fields, walls; also med.; > idrdnu 

idru II (or itru) (a band, belt) Am., Bogh., jB 
lex. 

idru -* also adru II 

idu(m); pi. m. & f. "arm; side; strength; wage" 
[A; DA] 1. "arm" of person; freq. du.; OB PN 
Issu-kabit "His arm is heavy", idin sakdnum "to 
exert pressure"; sipir idisu "his handiwork"; 
"handle" of tool; "wing" of bird 2. "side" of 
person, i. (ace.) aldku, izuzzu "to go, stand at" 
s.o.'s "side", "help"; -♦ naparku II, sahdru, 
tdru D; idi ana idi "on each side"; as prep, idile 
(ace.) "by, next to", analina i. "to/at" s.o.'s 
"side", + Ioc.-adv. e.g. idussu "at his side"; pi. 
f. iddt "round about, all around" (-♦ ddt) 
3. transf. "strength", ina idika "according to 
your ability" 4. "purpose, reason", iddt lemuttim 
"evil intentions"; ina Id idim "groundlessly"; 
OB /. rasum ~ "to be set aside", i. sursum "to 
put s.th. off, give low priority" S. "wage, rental" 
m. pi., NB f.pl.; OB, NB occas. sg. "wages, 
pay" of craftsman, of hired worker; "rental, 

• payment for hire" of animal; boat, cart; house, 
store; > ittu I; idasus; idisam 

idu -* edu II 

idugallu "head doorkeeper" j/NB [(LU.)ni.gab. 
gal] of deity "doorkeeper" of the nether world; 
NB in cult; < Sum. 

id'umu (a lance) jB lex.; -♦ da'imu II 

idfitu -* edutu 

igaris "like a wall" jB; < igdru 

igartum, OB also ikartum "(a single) wall" OA, 
OB; for pi. -♦ igdru; < igdru nom. unit. 

igaru(m); pi. f. "wall" [E.GARs; IZ.ZI; OB rarely 
I.IZ.ZI, E.zi, SIG4.ZI] of house, garden; "side" of 
boat; < Sum.; > igaris, igartum 

igbu —* eqbu 

igerru —* egerru 

igertu —* egertu 

igiaru (a mathematical term) jB lex.; < Sum. 

igiballu ~ "orchard"? jB lex.; < Sum. 

igibru "storm" jB lex.; < Sum. 

igibu(m) "reciprocal of reciprocal" Bab. [IGI.Bl] 
math.; < Sum. 

igidalu, igidaru "with a single eye" as birth 
defect OB; < Sum.? 

igidum (a list) OB; < Sum. 



igigallu(m), kigallu "wisdom, wise man" Bab. 
[IGI.GAL] O/jB "wisdom"; j/NB "wise one", 
epith. of god, king; MB(AIaI.) (an official)?; 
<Sum. 

igigallutu, gigalliitu "wisdom" j/NB [IGI.GAL- ]; 

< igigallu 

Igigu "the (ten) great gods" O/jB; "the gods of 

heaven" M/NB [ d NUN.GAL(.MES)] 
igigubbu(m) "coefficient" Bab. math. 

[lGI.GUB(.BA)];<Sum. 
igimtu "anger, rage" jB; < agdmu 
iginutuku "blind" jB [IGI.NU.TUKU]?; < Sum.; or 

-♦ ndtilu ? 
igiru(m) "heron" O/jB [IGIRA.MUSEN; I5.GAR. 

MUSEN] 
igisu(m), gisu "contribution, gift" Bab. [IGI.SA] 

OB "(annual) dues" from priests, merchants; 

"gift, present" for god, king; < Sum. 
igisigallatu (a priestess) jB lex.; < Sum. 
igisitu, egisitu(m) (a priestess) O/jB; < Sum. 
igisgulu "finest olive-oil" jB lex.; < Sum. 
igistum "the very first" OB lex. [IGI.DU]; < Sum.; 

-♦ gestu 
igitennum "fraction; quotient" OB [IGI.TE(.EN)] 

math.; < Sum. 
igitu -* egitu 
igium '-* igu I 2 
igizaggu, igizangu -* egizaggu 
igru(m) "hire, wage" Ass., O/jB for worker; OA 

pi. tant; for rental of house, boat, store; 

< agdru 
igu -* egu 

igu(m) I 1. "eye" jB 2. OB also igium 

"reciprocal" Bab. [IGI] math.; < Sum. 
igu II "prince, leader" jB lex.; < Sum. 
igu -* iku 
igulu(m) "fine ointment, oil" Bab. [i.GU.LA]; 

<Sum. 
ihenunnakku 'oil of plenty' = "precious oil" jB 

for door; < Sum. 
ihhisannu -* hisannu 
ihzetu(m) pi. tant. "decorative inlay, studding" 

O/jB [U.GUN] of garment, metal work, stone; 

< ihzu I 

ihzu(m) I 1. "learning, education" Bab. [N1G.ZU] 
for craftsmen, singers etc.; pi. "instructions, 
precepts" 2. freq. pi. "setting, mount" for 
precious stone; < ahdzu; > ihzetu 

ihzu II "whip" jB lex. 

i'iltu -* e'iltu 

ikartum -* igartum 

ikiltu -* iklu U 

ikimtu "atrophied part" jB ext. [KAR ?]; < ekemu 



Ikis 



126 



ilku(m) I 



ikisu -* ikisu 

Tkis "like a ditch" jB; < iku 

Ikisitu "Kis canal" jB lex.; < Sum. 

ikisu, ikisu (a subordinate family-member) jB 
lex., NA ? 

ikkanu "your(s)" (pi.) NA; < ikku 

ikkaru(m), Nuzi also inkaru; pi. usu. f. "farmer, 
ploughman" [(LU.)ENGAR] M/NA, NB rab 
ikkardti "overseer of farmers"; as epith. of king; 
as desig. of king during occupation of throne by 
substitute; as PN; OB, Nuzi "farm-inspector, 
estate manager", also desig. of plough animal; 
Bab. also mar i. "member of the i. class"; 
<Sum. 

ikkarutu(m) "farming; ploughing, cultivation" 
OB, Nuzi [ENGAR- ]; < ikkaru 

ikke —* ke 

ikkem — * kiam 

ikkibu(m) "taboo" Bab., NA [NIG.GIG] ref. to 
object, action; jB i. ililDN "anathema to 
gods/DN"; ;'. akdlu "to break a taboo"; 
"(consequence of breaking) taboo, misfortune"; 
ref. to s.th. preserved, protected by deity; s.th. 
offensive to, forbidden by deity, king; lu 
ikkibkunu "let it be taboo to you"; < Sum. 

ikkillu(m), killu(m) "lamentation; clamour, 
uproar" Bab., NA [AKKIL] of army, child, 
mourner; of thunder, earthquake; "cry" of 
animals, birds; < Sum.; -♦ angillu 

ikkiltu (an object of gold) Qatna 

ikku(m) I ~ "mood, temperament" Bab., NA i. 
karulardku "to be short-tempered/long-suffer- 
ing"; usu. "bad temper, malice"; bel(et) i. "ill- 
tempered (wo)man" 

ikku II "door" jB lex.; < Sum. 

ikku "your(s)" (sg.) NA; > ikkanu; —* ku 

Ikkukku — * ikuku 

ikkiim — * kum 

ikkurratu — * iskurratu 

iklallu (a kind of door) jB lex.; < Sum. 

iklatu f. pi. (an object) Alal. in list 

ikletu -* ekletu; eklu 

iklu I "darkness" jB in i. pdni "gloominess"?; 
< ekelu 

iklu II, ikiltu "victim" (of disease, predator) jB 
lex. of animals; < akdlu 

iknusum (an object) OA 

ikparum (an ornament) OAkk, OB 

ikribu(m) "prayer, dedication; blessing" [SUD; 
SISKUR] "prayer", i. qabulsemullequ "to 
say /hear/accept prayer", sa i. "supplicant", bit i. 
"house of prayer, temple"; esp. OA, OB pi. 



"votive gifts"; "blessing" by person on deity, 

king; for long life etc.; < kardbu U 
iksu (or ikzu) (a door) jB lex. 
iksum (or ikzum) mng. unkn. OAkk 
iku(m) "field"; (a measure of area) Bab., MA 

[IKU] 1. OB "cultivated field" 2. (an area, c. 

60x60 metres, = 100 miisar) [NB also AS.IKU]; 

OB math, (a vol. measure, 1 cubitxl iku); MA 

also (a linear measure) 3. the constellation 

"Pegasus" [MUL.AS.IKU]; < Sum. 
iku — ♦ also eku I 
Iku(m), eku, igu(m) "dyke, ditch" OAkk, O/jB 

[E] "bank of earth"; "ditch, small canal"; also 

"plot surrounded by a dyke or ditch"; < Sum.; 

> ikis 
ikuku ~ "rancid oil" M/jB [i.HAB] med., as 

ointment; also MB Ikkukku as PN ? 
ikzum -* iksum 
ikzu — ♦ iksu 
ildlutu — * uldlutu 
ilanu "favoured by god, lucky" jB [DINGIR- ]; 

< ilu + -an + -i 
ildtu -* elitu 
ilbuhhu -* ellabbufcfru 
ildakku ~ (a type of poplar) jB 

[(GIS.)ILDAG(=A.AM) (-♦ also addruUI)]; 

<Sum. 
ildu -* isdu; istu; wildum 
ilhu (a garment)? jB lex. 
Hi -* eli 
ilianum, Hiyannum, i/eridnum, eldnum, jB erdnu 

(a tree) O/jB lex.; -♦ iriyannu; ridnum 
iliglkulla -* elkulla 
ililum — ♦ elilu 
ilimtumma in i. epesu "to oblige, bind"? s.o. 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
ilippum —* eleppu 
ilis, elis "to, on, like a god" OAkk, OA in PN + 

takdlum "to trust in god"; jB "to" or "like god"; 

<ilu 
ilittu "birth, offspring" M/NB [MB U.TU ?] 

"birth"; "origin" of god, person; i. TN/PlN/biti 

etc. "bom in, scion of TN/PlN/house", also of 

animals; < walddum 
ilitu -* elitu 
Hiyannum —* ilianum 
ilkakatu(m) 1. Mari = alkakdtu "ways, 

activities" 2. NA secondary pi. of ilku I 

"(separate) ilku payments"; < aldku 
ilku(m) I "(state) service" Bab., M/NA military 

or civilian service for state, NA, NB also for 

temple; i. aldkum "to perform iMwn-service", 

ilik sarri "royal service", kasap i. "silver (paid 



ilku II 



127 



imatu 



in lieu) of L"; OB, jB "iVfe(-land)", also OB bit 

i'.; ;'. afyum "alien i. (performer)"; NA, NB 

"(contribution, payment in lieu of) i", NA pi. 

— ♦ ilkakdtu 2; < aldku; — ♦ pilku U 
ilku II ~ "hip area" jB 
ilia "without" NB + gen., also illdnussu "without 

him"; < ina + Id (+ -an) 
illab(a)raya (a bird) jB 
illabbulfu -* ellabbufyhu 
illaggusu -* ellamkusu 
illakkunnu (part of a quiver) Nuzi, of silver 
illa-me —* ella-me 
illdmu — ► elldmu- 
illdnu — ► Hid 

illaru (a maltster's tool) jB lex. 
illatu(m) I, also illitu, allatu. Ass. ellutu(m), st. 

constr. ellalet "band, group" [ILLAT] "family 

group, clan", OAkk also "(god of) clan"; 

"band" of evildoers, of soldiers, i. suppuhu "to 

scatter a band"; "team" of draft-animals, "pack" 

of dogs, lions etc.; OA, OB "trading caravan"; 

jB lex. i. eqli (a weed) 
illatu II "rejoicing, celebration" jB; < aldlu in 
illatu pi. tant. "saliva" jB [Uy.MES] i.-su illakd 

"his saliva flows" 
Hlaya — ♦ elleya 
illihbufru —* ellabbuhtyu 
Hlidis -* lidis 
illigu — ♦ elligu 
Illil-* EM 
illilum -* elilu 
lllilutum —* Ellilutu 
illitu —* illatu I 
illu(m) I 1. "partner, comrade" O/jB 2. (desig. of 

quality) OB of cattle; NB of wool 
illu II "high water, flood" O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
illu -* also ilu I.II 
illukku, i/elluku 1. jB (a precious stone) also 

transf., as term of esteem 2. jB lex. (a 

ceremonial robe); < Sum. 
illumi -* allu II 
Illurdnu, Illuratum -* illuru 
illure, illuru, eluri (an exclamation) MA, jB; 

<Sum. 
illurgisdilu ~ "throwing stick" jB; < Sum. 
illuris "like a (red) flower" jB; < illuru 
illurtu "handcuffs" jB 
illuru —* illure 
illuru(m), elluru (a flower) Bab. [U.NfNDA] usu. 

red; med. as drug; i. pdni "rouge" for facial 

make-up; as PN, also Illurdnu, f. Illuratum; 

> illuris 
ilmisi -* elmesu 



ilmu (or Hmu) (part of a quiver) Nuzi 

ilmusu -* elmesu 

ilpitu —* elpetu 

ilpum (a garment) Mari 

ilqu, ilqetu "leech" jB 

ilsu I "loins" jB lex. 

ilsu II "joy" NA in i. libbi; < elesu 

Ht. . . -* also ist. . . 

iltdnu —* isten 

iltappu, Htepitu, altaputu "loincloth" j/NB 

iltdt —* isten 

ilte(-) -* isti 

ilteltu —* ittiltu 

Htepitu —* iltappu 

iltetfu) -* isten 

ilti -* istu 

iltiltu —* ittiltu 

ilti(n)nu -* istenu 

iltin(u), iltit(u) -* isten 

iltu(m)I, eltum "goddess" OAkk, Bab., OA ? 
[DINGIR; jB also DINGIR.MUNUS] also ref. to 
demon; to statue; < ilu 

iltu II, Bogh. eltu "chaff' M/jB [IN.RI; IN.(NU.) 
Rl] of cereal; "spikelet; awn" of grain 

iltu —* also istu 

iltuhfyu, iltuhlu -* istulfhu 

ilu(m), elu(m); pi. ilu, ilanu "god, deity" [DINGIR; 
jB NI; jB occas. DINGIR.NrrA; OA also EL; pi. 
also DINGIR.DINGIR] "a" or "the god", also du.; 
personal "god", i. isu(m), i. rasu(m) "to be, get 
lucky"; OA bel Id ilim, jB Id bel Hi "luckless 
person"; ref. to divine statue, of metal, repaired, 
in ritual, plundered; OB divine symbols; 
demon, esp. ilu lemnu; mythical hero, deified 
king; mdrat i. (a priestess) jB; > iltu I, Hutu, 
ilis, Hand; —* mustanlu; rdsilutu; serki-ilutu 

ilu —* elu II 

flum I (or ilium); pi. m. & f. (a leather bag) OA, 
Mari; containing copper, sealed 

flu II, illu "reed bundle" M/jB 

i'lu(m) 1. OB "contract, bond" 2. O/jB, MA 
[TUG.SIG4.ZA; OB TUG.GUZ.ZA ?] "band, bind- 
ing"? for head, foot; of chair, bed; < e'elu 

ilulaya (a camel)? OB lex. 

ilutu(m), Huttu "godhead, divinity" Bab., NA 
[DINGIR- ]; in prayers i.-ka "your divinity", i.e. 
"you"; coll. = "the gods"; bitlbdb i. "divine 
house/gate"; < ilu 

Hutu —* elutu 

imampu (or imampadu) (a kind of list) jB lex.; 
< Sum. 

imdru -* imeru 

imatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 



imbaris 



128 



immunusu 



imhd — » embd 

imbaris "like fog, cloud" jB; < imbaru 

imbaru(m), ibharu(m), occas. inharu "fog, mist" 

O/jB, NA [MURU9] also "fine drizzle"; 

> imbaris 
imbu — » inbu 
imbu, imbu u 1. Bab. lex. "fibre" (of the date 

palm) 2. ;'. tdmti [(NA4.)KA.A.AB.BA; occas. 

KA+GIR.A.AB.BA] ~ "algae, scum" on sea 
imbu — » also ibbum II 
imbu'u (a small stone bottle) jB lex. 
imbuu — » also imbu 
imdu(m), j/NB also indu "support; imposition" 

1. transf. divine "support", esp. in PNs; Am., 

j/NB "(archit.) support, buttress" 2. M/NA, 

j/NB "imposition, impost" 3.jB (a piece of 

jewellery)?; <emedu 
imduhallatu — » anduhallatu 
imdullu "(clay) lid"? jB lex.; < Sum. 
imertu — » amertu I 
imeru(m), imi/dru(m), Ass. emdru(m) "donkey" 

[ANSE; DCJR; Nuzi also ANSE.NITA] sa i., NA 

sa i.-su "donkey driver"; jB "donkey" figurine; 

Ass., N.Mes. 'donkey-load' (a measure of 

capacity; a measure of area); /'. same 'sky 

donkey' (a bird); ;'. hasi(m) 'lung donkey' (a 

part of the liver); ('. eleppilydsibi (a part of 

ship/ram); > imerutum; — » himdru 
imerutum "donkey stock" Mari [ANSE.HI.A- 

;■«- ]; < imeru 
imgarru (a kind of list) jB lex.; < Sum. 
imgiddu (a single-columned tablet) jB lex., 

comm.; < Sum.; — » gittu 
imgipu (or imgipadu) (a kind of list) jB lex. 
imgiriasu — » ingirasu 
imgum adj. mng. unkn. OB, also in PNs 
imgurru; pi. f. "clay envelope" M/NB of 

cuneiform tablet; "mould" for frit; < Sum. 
imhullis "like a storm" jB 
imhullu(m), anhullu "destructive wind; storm" 

[IM.tfUL]; < Sum. 
imhupu (a tablet) jB lex.; < Sum. 
imhur-esra, -asrulila, -asna(n), -asla, 

anhurasru (a climbing plant) M/jB, NA 

[U.IGI.20]; folk etym. 'it withstands twenty 

(ailments)' < maharu + esrd 
imhur-lim(i/e), anhullime (a medicinal plant) 

M/jB, NA [U.IGI.LIM]; folk etym. 'it withstands 

a thousand (ailments)' < maharu + lim 
imigidu (a kind of list) jB lex. 
iinikanum (female animal that has given birth) 

OB lex.; < Sum. 
imikkaruru(m) (a kind of grass)? O/jB lex. 



imirtu "sight, view" jB imratsunu mutu "sight of 

them is death"; < amdru 
imirtu — » also amertu I 
imiru — » imeru 
imistu "contraction" jB med., /. libbi "contraction 

of the heart", i.e. appetite ?; < amdsu 
imitta(m), emittam "on the right" OB, less freq. 

j/NB, NA [ZAG; 15; A.ZI]; < imittu I ace. 
imittu(m) I, emittu(m) "right side, the right" 

[ZAG; OB A.ZI(.DA); j/NB, NA 15] gener. "the 

right", i.-su "his right", sippi i. "the right-hand 

doorjamb"; "the right hand", also qdt i.; i. 

ummdni "right wing of army"; OB "(neighbour 

on) the right"; < imnu; > imitta 
imittu(m) II, emittu(m) "support; imposition" 

1. transf. divine "support", esp. in PNs 

2. "shoulder" of animal [UZU.ZAG(.LU); OB 
also MURGU; jB also 15]; also as cut of meat 

3. (a kind of lance) [Ug. ZAG.LU] 4. "imposi- 
tion" MA of punishment; NB of tenancy dues; 
< emedu 

imitum mng. unkn. OB of cattle, flocks 

imlum (a cone shape)? OB math. [IM.LA]; 
<Sum. 

immanakku, imnanakku (a kind of stone or 
sand) jB, NA [(NA4.)IM.MA.(AN.)NA]; < Sum.; 
— » amnakku 

immanis "in daytime" OB; < immu + -an + -is 

immat(ile) — » mad 

immati/ema — » matlma 

immatimi — » matime 

immertu(m), Ass. emmertu "ewe" Bab., NA ? 
[UDU(.NITA)(-/«m); (UDU.)Ug; Nuzi UDU. 
MUNUS]; also as PN; < immeru 

immeru(m), Ass. emmeru(m); pi. m. & f. 
"sheep" [UDU; UDU.NITA] also specifically 
"male sheep, wether"; pi. "sheep; sheep and 
goats" [UDU.MES; UDU.pi.A etc.]; ;'. samni "fat 
sheep"; ('. maru(m) "fattened sheep" [(UDU.) 
NIGA]; ('. sadi(m) "mountain, wild sheep" 
[UDU.KUR(.RA); UDU.NfTA.KUR]; also in PN; 

> immertu 

immu(m) "heat (of day), daytime" O/jB opp. to 
night; /. musldli "heat of midday"; < ememu; 

> immanis 

immu "tablet, record" j/NB; < Sum. 

immu — » also imu 

immugubbu (or mugubbu) "exercise tablet" jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
immunedu (a kind of list) jB lex. 
immunusu, immunusu 'female clay'? mng. unci. 

jB lex.?; < Sum. 



129 



inhu(m) I 



imna, imnu adv. "on the right" j/NB, NA [ZAG; 

15]; < imnu 
imnanakku — » immanakku 
imnis "on the right" jB [15-w]; < imnu 
imnitu 'male clay'? mng. unci. jB lex.; < Sum. 
imnitu "she on the right" (desig. of mother) jB 

lex.; < imnu 
imnu(m) subst. "right (side, hand)" [ZAG; 15] st. 

abs. ana imen "on the right"; imnukka "in your 

right hand"; "right side", imnussu "at his right"; 

> imna, imnis, imnu; imittu I, imitta 
imnu — » also imna 
imnu(m); f. imnitu "(lying) on the right" O/jB 

[A.ZI.DA; 15] of furniture, part of liver, jB lex. 

of subu-s\omer, < imnu; > imnitu 
Impurtanni (1st month at Nuzi); < Hurr. 
imra/dtu — » imertu; imru 
imriqqu "clay sealing, bulla" jB lex.; < Sum. 
imru "observation" jB; pi. f., mng. unci.; 

< amdru I 

imru(in) I "fodder" O/jB [MUR.GUD] for animal- 
fattening; < maru II 

imru II "family, clan" jB lex.; < Sum. 

imsarmupadu (a kind of tablet) jB lex.; < Sum. 

imsarsubbu — » sarsubbbu 

imsuhhu "whirlwind" jB lex.; also lit. [IM.SUH]?; 
<Sum. 

imsu ~ "stiffness"? jB in ('. qdti "i. of the hand"; 

< amdsu 

imsu — » also emsu 

imsuguppu ~ "list of required materials" OB, jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
imsukku "(bun-shaped ? ) exercise tablet"? jB 

[IM.SU]; < Sum. 
imtanu "tuft of black hair" jB lex.; from 

donkey's rump; — » imu 
imtu(m) "poison" Bab., ref. to poisonous spittle 

of demons etc.; "venom" of snake, scorpion; 

imat marti "gall"; imat miiti "deadly poison" 
imtuhallatu — » anduhallatu 
imtuhsum, intuhsum (a container) OAkk(Sum.) 
imtu, intu 1. pi. tant. jB "loss(es)" in business 

etc.; ;'. ddmi "anaemia" 2.jB (a cutting 

implement); < matu II; > intatta 
imum (an implement) OB 
imu — » also emu 
imu, immu, e(m)mu "tuft of black hair" jB lex.; 

from donkey's head; — » imtanu 
imutum mng. unkn. OB 
imzidu (a kind of list) jB lex.; < Sum. 
ina, in (im-m..., ip-p... etc.) "in, on; by; from" 

(freq. abbr. in, with assimilation of n to 

following consonant (OA often wr. /)) [AS; TA; 



Bogh. SE] 1. of place "in, on"; of time "on, at", 
"during", ina PN "in the reign of PN"; before 
infin., ina amdrika "when you see" 2. of 
condition, ina baldtim "in health" 3. "among", 
ina sarrdni "of, among the kings" 4. "from, out 
of, ina qdt PN "from the hand of PN" 5. "by 
means of, with" tool, weapon etc.; word, 
incantation; "with, out of material (brick, 
stone) 6. "in consequence of, as a result of, ina 
mahdsim "because of beating"; ina qibit DN "at 
DN's command" 7. "with respect to; according 
to", "(measured) by" cubit, sutu etc. 8. ina Id 
(— » Hid) "in, because of the absence of, ina Id 
ide "unwittingly" 9. conj. + stat. subjunct. "so 
long as", ina haltu u salmu "while alive and 
well" 

inadanna — » iddanna 

inanna, after prep, also inanni "now" OAkk, 
Bab. absol., and after prep., adi i. "till now", 
kima i. "right now", istu i. "henceforth" etc.; 

< ina + anna; — » enenna; innannu; kinanna 
inannu (a cry to Sin) jB lex.; < Sum.; — » iutu 
inanu "very busy" jB; < inu 

inbaru — » imbaru 

inbu(m), enbu, imbu; NB pi. also f. "fruit, 
flower; sexual appeal" [GURUN] "fruit, flower" 
of tree, plant; inib (pan) satti(m) "/. of spring"; 
('. kiri "orchard fruits"; "fruit tree"; "fruit, 
flower( -shaped jewellery)"; ref. to moon-god, i. 
bel arhi; transf. of humans "offspring", esp. in 
PNs; "(sexual) attractiveness"; > enebu; — » 
subultinbi 

indu — » imdu; undu I 

induhallatu — » anduhallatu 

induhhatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

induru (a waterskin) jB lex. 

inedukku — » unnedukkum 

inga, innigd "right now" NB; < ina + agd 

ingallu — » niggallu 

ingana "come on!" Am.; — » gana 

ingaralislsu — » ingirasu 

ingippu mng. unkn. jB 

ingirasu, ingalirdlislsu, MA imgiriasu, NA also 
ingiridsu (a fruit tree) M/NA, j/NB 

ingirenu — » ingurenu 

ingiridsu — » ingirasu 

ingu (part of a plough) jB lex. 

ingurenu, ingirenu (an object) NB; of metal; — » 
angurinnu 

inguru ~ (an old garment) jB lex. 

inhu(m) I "hardship, trouble" O/jB, also pi.; 

< andhu I 



inhu II 



130 



ipsu(m) 



inhu II (a type of cultic song) MA, jB; 
> andhu II 

mi — ► eni; in ana ini — ► mlnu I 

inimma, inimmu ~ "oh!" jB in lamentations 

inimmu I, enimmu "word" jB(lit.); < Sum. 

inimmu II "cup, bowl" jB lex. 

initu(m) I, enitu(m), inittum "team of plough- 
oxen" O/jB; inidti illak "he works with the 
plough-team"; "(cost of hiring) plough-team"; 

< end III 

initu II (a secret language)? jB; < end III ? 

initu III (a ship)? jB lex. 

inkaru — ► ikkaru 

innabu "luxuriant" jB lex.; < enebu 

inna(n)nu/a/i "now that, as soon as" jB conj. + 

stat. subjunct.; < iiianna 
innedukku — » unnedukkum 
innigd — » ingd 

inninnatu "Innin-goddess" jB as epith.; < Sum. 
inninnu — » ennenu 
innintu — ► ennettu 
innu "look!" jB lex. 

innii "ours" (poss. pron.) NA; — ► nid'um 
innuharum — ► annuharu 
insabtu — ► ansabtu 
insis ~ "deceitfully" OB in i. lamnis 
in$n — » emsu 
intuhsum — » imtuhsum 
intatta "in need" NB in /. sakin "is in need"; 

< initu + -a«a 
mfu — > imtu 

inu I, e/w, jB, NB(roy. inscr.) also inum "when" 
OAkk, Bab.(lit.) conj. + subjunct.; OAkk also 
prep., inu RN "at the time of RN"; — > inuma; 
inusu 

inu(m) II (a stringed musical instrument) O/jB 
[GIS.GU.DE] 

inu ~ "job, craft" jB; > indnu 

inu(m) I, OAkk, Ass. enu(m) f. "eye" [IGI(.2); 
pi. usu. IGI.2.MES; Am. also IGl.m.A] 1. "eye" 
of god, human, animal; NA i. sakdnu "to pay 
regard to"; OB inka maffdrum "to please you"; 
i. lemufti "evil eye" 2. transf. in alpi lex. (a 
wine), OB math, (a geometrical figure); transf. 
"(spy-)hole" in oven, "mesh, interstice" of net, 
"thole" ? of wheel, "bubble" in beer 3. "spring, 
well", Ass. res eni "source" 4. "eye-stone" 
(desig. of ornamental stones), also fish-, bird-, 
pig-eye stones; — ► damqam-inam 

inu II "wine"jB lex. 

inuma, enuma "when" Bab. [UD] 1. conj. + 
subjunct. "when" (Mari also + indie.) 2. Bogh., 
Alal., Am. "that", lu tide i. salim "know that he 



is well" 3. prep, "at the time of, /. dawdem "at 
the time of the defeat" 4. adv. M/NB "at that 
time" (— ► inumisu); Am. "now" (for anumma); 

< inu I + -ma 

inume, inumi "when" OAkk, OA, rarely OB 

conj. + subjunct.; < umu I 
inumisu "in those days; then" OA, OB, NB(roy. 

inscr.); OB istu/warki i. "since then"; < umu I 
inumti — » umtum 

inunnakku "butter pot" jB lex.; < Sum. 
inusu, enusu, NB also inus "at that time, then" 

OAkk, Bab. [UD.Bl] esp. in main clause after 

inu(ma), ki; < inu I + -su 
inyanu (a metal object) NB 
inzah(u)retu, lex. also inzuhiretu, inzurdletu (a 

red dye) j/NB in pot; for textiles; also 

"/.-coloured (wool)"; < hinzuru 
inzaru, inzuruhu (an aromatic plant) Bogh., jB 

as drug 
inzum — » enzu 

inzuhiretu, inzurdletu — » inzahuretu 
inzu.ru — » hinzuru 
inzuruhu — » inzaru 
iphu — » ibhu 
ipiru — » eperu 
ipistu — ► epistu; epsu 
ipisula — » episum 

ipitu "clouding over" of eyes jB; < apu III 
iplu, eplu, ipletu pi. tant. "exchange equivalent" 

Nuzi; < apdlu I 
ippdru — ► appdru 

ippatu (a sea creature) NB sa tdmti 
ipperu — » ippiru 
ippiltu — » ibbiltu 

ippiru, ipperu ~ "conflict, war" M/jB; < Sum. 
ippitti — ► pittu I 
ipqum "embrace, protection" OAkk, OB; of 

deity, in PNs; < epequ 
iprasakku (a Persian legal official) NB; 

< OPers. 

ipru(m) "ration, subsistence allowance" [SE.BA] 
for person, family, animal; < eperu 

ipru — ► also eperu 

ipsis — ► ipsu 

ipsu(m), epsu(m) "deed, action; sorcery" [DU]; 
OA pi. "(building) works"; Mari "manufact- 
ure^ item)"; Am., Ug. "behaviour"; jB 
"(magical) activities; sorceries"; Bab., NA ;'. 
nikkassi "doing the accounts"; ;'. pi(m) 
"utterance, command", OB(lit.) ipsis pi= ana i. 
pi; < epesu II 

ipsu — ► also ibsu 



ipsur-limu/e 



131 



isitu 



ipsur-limu/e (a medicinal plant) jB lex.; folk 
etym. 'it undoes a thousand (ailments)' 

< pasdru + lim 

iptennu, iptelinum "meal(-time)" O/jB; 

< patdnu I 

iptu(m) f., st. constr. ipat "luxuriance" Bab. ;'. 

kibrdtim "the wealth of the world"; jB 

"luxuriant" (a plant name) 
iptiru(m), ipterufm) "ransom (money)" O/MA, 

O/jB freq. pi.; for person, for goods; of person 

as ransom for other person; <patdru; — > 

naptiru 
ipu(m) "membrane; afterbirth" O/jB, MA ? [US] 

"film" on oil; "membrane" in intestines; 

"placenta" of animal; "blinkers" for horse 
iqbinu mng. unci. jB lex. 
iqnu — > uqnu 
iqupu — > uqupu 
ir... — ► also er... 
ird — > iria 

irana mng. unkn. Nuzi 

irarazakku "lamentation prayer" jB lex.; < Sum. 
iratu — > irtu 
irbu — » erbu I 

irdu (a disease of sheep) jB lex. 
irdu — ► also isdu 

ir'emum "loved one" OAkk; < rdmu II 
irhu ~ "aggressiveness, insolence" jB in irih pfsu 

"i. of his mouth"; < erehu 
iria, aria, elird adv. "side by side" Bab. usu. of 

parts of liver 
iridnu — » ilidnum; iriyannu 
irima'u (or italma'u) (a copper object) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

irimmu(m) "bead (necklace)" OB, Qatna; — > 
erimmatu 

irimmu — ► also erimmu I 

iripu — ► eripu 

iristu — ► eristu II 

irisu — ► erisu 

iritu "guidance"? jB; < warum II ? 

iri'u, eru "dregs, lees" jB of beer 

iriya(n)nu/a (a plant) jB lex.; — ► ilidnum 

iriydtu — ► eriydtu 

irpi (an Egyptian official) Am.; < Eg. 

irsisu mng. unkn. NA, a precious item 

irtanu, istdnu "with breasts" jB transf. of date 
palm; < irtu I + -an + -i 

irtu(m) I, iratu(m), OAkk ertum "breast, chest" 
[GABA] of human, deity; du. esp. woman's 
"breasts"; transf. in battle /. turru, i. ne'tt "to 
turn s.o.'s breast = put to flight", also refl. "to 
retreat"; of animal; as cut of meat; transf. 



"breastplate" as protection or ornament; "breast- 
piece" of animal's harness; "front" of chariot; 

"edge, frontage" of sea, building, bow; in prep. 

usages ina i. "opposite"; ana i. "towards, 

against"; > irtdnd 
irtu II (a kind of song) jB 
iru mng. unkn. jB in /. sa buqli "/. of malt" 
irum — » eru II 
iru ~ "strong" jB lex. 

isarum (or isdrum) ~ "annexe, outbuilding" OA 
ishappu, ishabbu, OB ashappum "villain, 

rogue" O/jB; < Sum. 
ishenabe — ► ishenabe 
ishu(m) I f. "arm" O/jB of human; "fin, flipper" 

of fish; "wing" of bird; transf. "strength" jB 

lex.; — ► ezehu 
ishu II, MA ishu; pi. f. ishdletu "allocation" Bab., 

MA of offerings etc. 
ishunnatu(m), ishunnatu(m), ishunnu "bunch of 

grapes" O/jB, NA [(GIS.)kin.GESTIN]; OB, NB 

as fPN 
isihtu(m), esihtu(m) "allocation" O/jB of 

commodities allocated to s.o.; OB tuppi i. 

"allocation document"; < esehu; — ► isiktum 
isikku "hard"? jB lex. of clay; < Sum. 
isiktum, esiktum "allocation" Mari, OB(Esn.); 

< esehu; — ► isihtu 

isiltu(m), esiltu ~ "swelling, inflation" O/jB med. 
of parts of body; of land, troops (an epidemic); 

< eselu 

isimmanu(m), simmdnu, OB also simannum 
"ration (of flour and malt)" Bab. [zi.MUNU3/4] 
an edible commodity; j/NB also "allocation, 
allowance" of military or building materials; 
<Sum. 

Isinitu, Isinitu "the Isin canal" jB; < PIN 

isinnu(m), issinu(m), issinnu; pi. f. "festival" 
Bab., M/NA [EZEN] urn i. "feast-day"; /. DN 
"DN's festival", /. MN "festival of MN"; also 
transf. as desig. of battle; OB "festival 
(allocation of food)"; < Sum. 

isinnu — ► also assinnu 

isinnu — > assinnu 

isippum mng. unkn OB in bit i. 

isiqtu(m) "engraving, scratch" O/jB as incised 
design, mark on water-clock; < esequ 

isirtu I "incarceration" Nuzi; < eseru II 

isirtu(m) II, esirtu "(debt-)collection" O/MB of 
silver, sheep etc.; < eseru III 

isitdtu —tasa'itu 

isitu ~ "friendly discourse" M/NB of human, 
god; locust's "chirping"; < esu ? 

isitu — ► also asa'itu 



isqu(m) 



132 



isaru(m) I 



iskimbu, iskimmu -* giskimmu 

ismaru -* azmaru 

ismekku -* esmekku 

ispillurtu — ► ispallurtu 

isqarrurtu -* isqarrurtu 

isqdtu -* isqu; izqatu 

isqillatu — ► isqillatu 

isqippu -* isqippu 

isqu(m), isqu, esqu; pi. usu. f. "lot; share" Bab., 
NA [GIS.SUB.BA] 1. 1. nadu "to cast lots", ina i. 
lequm etc. "to receive by lot", i. + maqdtum "to 
fall" to (= ana) s.o. 2. "share (assigned by lot)" 
of land, inheritance; (by divine disposition) of 
land, people; of temple income, office, esp. NB 
of prebends; bel i. "prebendary" 3. of attribute, 
role assigned to s.o. by destiny, deity 4. (a 
musical interval sounded by lyre-strings 1+3); 
> esequ 

isqubbitu — ► asqubbitu 

isquldlu — ► asquldlu 

isququ(m), islsquqqu (a coarse flour or groats) 
O/jB [zl.KUM] grindstone for i:, akal i. "i. 
bread"; < Sum. 

isru(m) I (a small granary) O/jB lex. 

ism II "exacted payment" M/NB; < eseru III 

isru(m) III m. & f. (a part of the exta) O/jB 

isru — ► also isru II 

issahis, issahes, issahayyis(i) "together" NA; 
< issi + ahis 

issanu — ► asnd 

issen -* isten 

issenis -* istenis 

issenu -* istenu 

isset — ► isten 

issi -* isti 

issillatu -* isqillatu 

issinu — ► isinnu 

issu (or issutu); pi. i(s)sdte "woman, wife" NA 
[MUNUS(.MES)]; > issutu; -* issu; sinnistu 

issu — ► also isu; isdu; istu 

issutu (role of female) NA [MUNUS- ]; < issu; jB 
— ► sinnisutu 

issurri, issurru "perhaps" NA; < ina + surri 

istatirru; pi. istatirrdnu "stater" NB Gk. coin; 
<Gk. 

istuhhu — ► istuhhu 

isu(m), issu "jaw" O/jB [(UZU.)ME.ZE; SI] of 
human, animal; i. saplA "lower jaw"; astr. in is 
II, also is le "bull's jaw", the constellation 
Hyades [MUL.GIS.DA; MUL/MUL.GU4.AN(.NA)] 

isu — ► hisu 

isdrum -* isdrum 



isratu, occas. misratu "plan, ground-plan" O/jB 
of building, field etc. i. eseru, m. mussuru "to 
lay out plan"; < eseru; -* usurtu 

issabtum -* ansabtu 

isser -* seru 2 

issu — ► isu 

issuris "like a bird" jB; < issuru 

issurtu "female bird" j/NB [MUNUS.MUSEN; 
AMA.MUSEN] also as fPN; < issuru 

issuru(m) occas. f.; pi. occas. f. "bird" [MUSEN] 
wild, tame; bit i. "poultry house"; sammi i. (a 
plant); aban i. (a stone); Nuzi "bird(-shaped 
vessel)"; ext. (feature of entrails); i. rabu 
"duck" [MUSEN.GAL-h/m], i. sdtnu; in com- 
pounds: i. appdri, asdgi, badilli, hurri ("rock- 
partridge"? [BURU5.HABRUD.DA]), kiri, kisi 
("swallow"?), kubsi, maskani, me, miisi, sadi, 
se'i, siiri, sari ('wind-bird', i.e. "weather- 
cock"); > issuris, issurtu 

isu(m), issu, Ass. e(s)su(m); pi. m. issu, OA also 
f. "tree; wood" [GIS] 1. "tree", /'. kiri "orchard- 
tree", 1. bilti "fruit-bearing tree", i. sadi 
"mountain tree(s)"; Nuzi "woodland, grove" 
2. "wood, timber", "(piece of) wood" ref. to 
house-beam, "(shaft of) weapon, stake", 
"fetter"; "firewood"; —* izqatu; kdtimisi 

Isu — ► wisum 

isurtu(m), M/NA esurtu "drawing, plan"; 
transf., divine, royal "design(s)"; OA 
"inscribed document, writing-board"; < eseru; 
— ► usurtu 

isu(s)su mng. unkn. jB lex. 

is "to, for" Early Mari, OB(Diyala) 

is -* also isu 

-is "to; like" term.-adv. suffix on subst.s and 
adj.s; -+ GAG §67 

is "where?" NB; < ayyis; -* is; mes 

isa(h)hu — ► ishu 

isanu ~ "important" M/jB lex.; usu. Id i. 
"powerless, poor" jB; < isu 

isarma — ► asar 

isaris, Ass. iles(e)ris, jB also misaris "correctly, 
normally", i. apdlu "to answer, repay 
satisfactorily, satisfy" s.o., i. aldku, i. dabdbum, 
OA /. atwum "to conduct o.s., negotiate 
properly"; < isaru I; —* misaris 

isartu(m), occas. usartu "prosperity" O/jB; 
< isaru I 

isaru(m) I, iseru, es(e)ru, Ass. es(a)ru, NB 
misaru ? "straight; correct, normal" [SI.sA; 
occas. GIS] of clay, wool etc.; "right, just, 
righteous" of ways, sceptre, word; of deity, 
man; "fair, handsome" of looks; "in order" of 



isaru(m) II 



133 



iskaru(m) 



bowels; f. isartu (a musical interval sounded by 
lyre-strings 2+6); < eseru; > isaru II; isartu, 
isaris, isarutu, isertum 1 -; — > misaru 
isaru (m) II, M/jB also (m)usaru "penis" O/jB 
[GIS] of man, dog etc.; appi i. "glans penis"; 

< isaru I 
isaru — ► eseru 

isarutu(m) "correct state, normality" Bab. 
[SI.SA- ] 1. aldku "to flourish"; NB "righteous- 
ness"; < isaru I 

isatis "on fire, ablaze"; < isdtu 

isatu(m), Am. also esdtu {.; pi. f. isdtdtu(m) 
"fire" [IZI; M/NA freq. IZI.MES] Am. sa i. of 
metal (a small brazier)?; "(bon)fire beacon" as 
signal; med. "inflammation"; OB (a disease of 
date palms)?; > isatis 

isbabtu ~ (a grass or weed) jB 

isbum, esbum (or ilespum) (a prof.) OAkk, also 
asPN 

isburnaftu]? (or ispurna[tuf) "pine cone" jB 
comm. 

isdahhum (a plot ? of ground) OB 

isdihu(m) I, isdihhu "profit(able business)" O/jB 
[NIG.ME.GAR]; < saddhu 

isdihu II, asdihu (a garment) jB lex. 

isdu(m), elusdu(m), OB also istum, M/NB also 
ildu, irdu, NA issu; pi. f. "foundation, base" 
[SUIJUS (-+ sursu); OAkk, OB also DU; UR; 
DUR] freq. du. 1. "foundation" of • building; 
transf. of throne, reign, land, city etc.; ref. to 
persons, "discipline" of troops, bel isdin 
"disciplined person"; "position, situation" of 
s.o. in life, esp. in PNs 2. "base" of vessel, 
"hull, keel" of boat; "stand" for jars; "central 
part" of object; "stump, trunk" of tree; i. same 
"base of heaven", i.e. "horizon" [AN.tJR] 

3. "root" of tree, plant, /. nasdhu "to uproot" 

4. "base" of part of body, feature on liver, jB 
du. "legs" of person; > isittu II; rasddu ? 

isdun mng. unkn. jB lex. 

isennu, isenu — > isinu 

iseris — ► isaris 

isertum "normal quantity"? OA of goods; 

< isaru I ? 

isertu — ► also esertu I 

iseru — ► isaru I 

ishanabas, ishanabe — ► ishenabe 

ishar "blood" Bogh. in aban i. "blood-stone"; 

< Hitt.; jB -+ ashar 

ishenabe, ishanabe, ishenabe, ishanabas; pi. 
ishanabedte (a garment) M/NA, M/NB; 

< Hurr. or Hitt.? 



ishenase; pi. ishenasena ~ (desig. of a stool or 

chair) MB(Alal.);< Hurr. 
ishihatum (a wound)? Mari; < sahdhu ? 
ishilsis "into sherds" jB 1. purruru "to shatter"; 

< ishilsu 

ishilsu "(pot)sherd" jB [SKA.KUD.DA]; > ishilsis 
ishitum "razzia, raid" Mari; < sahdtu I 
ishiuli "contract" OA; < Hitt. 
ishu, isa(h)hu (a piece of military kit) 

MB(Alal.), M/NA, NB of leather, textile 
ishu — ► also ishu U 

ishu "bridegroom, husband" jB lex.; < Hitt. 
ishunnatu — ► ishunnatu 
ishuppu (a game)? MB 
isibgallu (a chief purification priest) jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
isibkigallu (kind of purification priest) jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
isibmassugallu (kind of purification priest) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
isiktu "marshland" jB lex. 
Isinitu — ► Isinitu 
isinu(m), isenu(m), isilennu, issenu "stalk, stem" 

Bab. of grain; also ('. eqli (a kind of weed); 

<Sum. 
isippu(m) (a purification priest) Bab. 

[ISIB(=ME)] of temple staff; Ass., desig. of 

king; ('. Eridu, desig. of Adapa; <Sum.; 

> isipputu; -* isibgallu etc. 
isipputu "role, position of a purification priest" 

j/NB i. epesu "to fulfil function of isippu"; 

< isippu 
isirtu — ► esertu I 

isistum mng. unkn. OB lex. 

isittu(m) I, esittu(m) "storeroom, treasury" Bab., 

NA [erIm] in temple, palace; "treasure, stores" 

(-+ laginu) 
isittu (m) II "foundation, base" O/jB; isitti sami 

"horizon"; < isdu 
isitu — ► esitu 
isiu -* usu 
iskarissu (a kind of rodent) OB lex., jB 

[PES.GIS.GI.KU.E] 
iskaru(m), eskdru(m); pi. m. & f. "work 

assignment" [eS.gAr; OB also AS.GAR; MA 

GIS.GAR] 1. "work assignment" for man, 

animal, for day(s); MB of daily march 

2. "(assignment of) work materials" 

3. "(delivery of) completed work", NA 
"(payment in lieu of) work assignment" 

4. OAkk, Bab. "(field for) work assignment" 

5. "text series", e.g. of Gilgames, Etana; /. 
masmassuti "incantation series" etc.; NA Id sa 



iskihhuru 134 

/'. "not in the series"; also f. pi. "(sub-)sets" of 
songs within an /.; < Sum. 

iskihhuru (a prof, desig., phps.) "ointment- 
mixer" Nuzi, desig. of woman; < Hurr. 

iskikitum (a bird) OB 

iskinu pi. tant. "supplementary payment" OAkk 
[NIG.KI.GAR]; < sakdnu 

iskiski mng. unkn. Nuzi ina MN sa i.; < Hurr. 

isku(m) I f. "testicle" [Sir] of man, animal; 
tukkanndt i. "scrotum"; i. alpi 'ox's testicle' (a 
kind of cucumber) 

isku II "son" jB lex.; NA in PNs ? 

iskurratu, ikkurratu (a milk product)? NB 

iskuru(m), eskuru(m) "wax" [DUy.LAL] jB from 
bee's honey; for making figurines, for writing 
boards; OB pi. f. iskurdtum "wax-candle"? 

iskushu (woollen chariot cover, rug)? Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
is IS — » isu 

islitum (a festival) Mari 
islu (a plant) jB lex.; MA pi. f. 
ismannu — ► issimannu 
ismaru — ► esmard 
ismekku — ► esmekku 
isnugallu — ► asnugallu 
ispa (desig. of silver) OA 
ispallurtu(m), palillurtu(m), NA ispillurtu 

"cross" O/jB, NA [BAR] ref. to cross-shaped 

object; "crossroads"; astr., ext. "cross-shaped 

feature"; jB adv. pallurta "cross-wise" 
ispardu, isperdu, ispar "horse-bit" M/jB 
ispartu(m), uspartu "female weaver" [MUNUS. 

US.BAR; OB GEME.US.BAR]; < isparu 
isparu (m), usparu(m); Nuzi pi. also f. "weaver" 

Bab., M/NA [(LU.)US.BAR] bit i. "weaver's 

workshop"; wakillrabi i. "overseer of weavers"; 

/. birmi/kite/siprdti "weaver of multicoloured/ 

linen/s. cloth"; > ispartu; isparutu 
isparutu "weaver's craft; guild" Nuzi, NB 

[US.BAR- ]; < isparu 
ispattalu "overnight accommodation" OA; 

< Hitt. 
ispatu(m) "quiver" [Am. KUS.E.MAR.RU] usu. of 

leather for arrows, javelins; also "bow case" jB 
lex. 

isperdu — ► ispardu 

ispiku(m), ispikku "stores (of crops); grain-bin" 
OAkk, O/jB [i.DUB] usu. pi.; bit i. "store- 
house"; < sapdku 

ispu (a container) NB 

ispum — ► also isbum 

ispurnatu — ► isburnatu 



ispurusinnum (or ispuruzinnum) (an 
implement)? OA 

isqappu — ► isqippu 

isqarrurtu(m), esqarrurtu, isqarrurtu (an 
agricultural implement)? O/jB circular or 
cylindrical ?; astr. as star emblem, also d /.; — » 
qardru ? 

isqdtu — ► izqdtu 

isqillatu(m), isqillatu, (is)sillatu "(a type of) 
shell" O/jB [NA4.PES4] of river, canal, sea; also 
OB, Am. (a container for oil); OB as PN 

isqippu, isqippu, isqappu ~ "earthworm" jB 
[MAR.GAL] as drug; (name of an illness); d /. as 
DN; also (a bird) 

isqu —* isqu 

isqubbitu — ► asqubbitu 

isquqqu — ► isququ 

isrd — ► esrd 

isrdtum, isretu — ► esertu I; esretu 

isri — ► asm HI 

isris — ► isaris 

isrisu — » esrisu 

isrum I f. (a woollen band, sash) OA 

isru(m) II, esrum, isru(m); pi. f. "enclosed 
village"? O/jB 

isrum HI "tithe" OB, payment of 10%; < eser 

isrd —* esrd I 

issa "although" Mari; < ina + sa 

issakku — > issiakkum 

issakkiitu — > issiakkutum 

issanu pron. adj. "hers, belonging to her", also 
"theirs" NA; — ► issunu 

issassume — > salsiimi 

issebu — > essebu 

issebu — > essebu; essebu 

issenu — ► i«ii« 

isserta — » ierttt II 

issessdni, isse(s)su — > essesu 

isse'u — > esse'u 

issi "she" (3 f. sg. nom. pron.) NB; — ► if 

issiakkum, issakku "city-ruler, ensi; (a class of 
farmer)" [ENSI(=PA.TE.SI)] 1. 1. /'W; as royal 
title; 1. Assur, title of Assyrian king 2. Bab. 
(class of tenants of state land); 1. sarrilsakin 
mdti "tenants of king/governor"; < Sum. 

issiakkutum, issakkiitu "ensi-ship" [ENSI- ] 
"position of city-ruler"; OB "service of tenant- 
farmer"; < issiakkum 

issidre —* sidru 

issimannu, ismannu (a bronze object) 
MB(Alal.), Nuzi 

issini "they" (3 f. pi. nom. pron.) NB; 



• sina I 



135 



istu(m) 



issmnu —* isinnu 

issu; pi. issu "woman, wife" O/jB lex., lit.; — ► 

issu 
issu "he" (3 m. sg. nom. pron.) NB; — > su 
issuhru (an object) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
issuhurriwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
issunu "they" (3 m. pi. nom. pron.) NB; — > sunu 
issunu pron. adj. "theirs" NA; — ► sunum I 
issuttu —* essiitu 
istd — ► isti 
istagurru, estagurru "(offerings) returned from 

sanctuary" OB; < Sum. 
istananu, iltandnu "north(ern)" Nuzi; ina i. eqli 

"to the north of the field"; < istdnu + -dnu 
istanu(m), iltdnu(m) "North" Bab., NA 

[IM.SI(.SA); j/NB, NA also IM.2] as cardinal 

point, bit i. "north wing" of palace etc.; "north 

wind"; "the North (lands)" OB(Shemshara); 

> istananu 
istdnu — ► irtanu 
istdnu — > isten 
istaranis, istaris "to the goddess" jB with vb.s of 

calling, attending; < istaru 
istaritu 1. O/jB (a priestess, hierodule) [ d l5- ; 

Ug. NU.GIG.AN.NA] 2.jB (epith. of Istar); 

< istarium 

istarium; pi. istariutum "man dedicated to Istar" 
OA; < istaru; > istaritu 

istartu "goddess" jB; < istaru 

istaru(m); pi. istardtum, istaru, istardnu 
"goddess" Bab. [WlNNIN, NB pi. d INNIN.NA. 
MES; ( d )lSg.DAR; d l5] ilu(m) u i. "god and 
goddess"; i.-su "his goddess"; "(statue of) 
goddess"; < DN Istar; > istaranis; istarium, 
istaritu; istartu; istaruta 

istaruta adv. (a musical term) jB [ d U.DAR-«-to]; 

< istaru 
istdt — ► isten 

istatan "each one" Nuzi; < isten 

iste — > isti 

isten, istenu(m), islltin(um), istidnum, is/ltdnu, 
later ilten, NA issen; f. isteat, istiat, islltelit(um), 
islltdt, NA isset 1. "one" before noun; emphatic 
after.noun; 1. ina suhdreka "one of your lads"; 1. 
u sinalsitta "one or two"; NB 1. ina put sani 
nasu "one guarantees the other"; math, "(the 
number) one" 2. "single" 3. "the first one" 
4. OB istitu(m) "once"; > istenseret etc.; 
istatan; istend; istenis; istenisu; istennutu; 
istenu; istissu; istiyu; ittiltu 

istena, istind, OA istena 1. "one each, one by 
one" 2. Mari "all alike, all together"; < isten 

isten -esret — > istenseret 



istenis, istinis, later iltenis, NA issenis, occas. 
istunis "together" [UR.BI; OA SU.NIGIN; NA 
also TA- ] of sending items, mixing ingredients; 
of time, "at the same time"; OB 1. zdzum "to 
divide equally"; "altogether, in total"; < isten 

*istenisu, jB iltenisu "for the first time" jB; 

< isten 
isteniu — ► istenu 

iste(n)nutu, ilte(n)nutu "single entity" Am., 
Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. 1. "(indivisible) unity" of 
kings, fields 2. "single set" of plural items, e.g. 
garments, armour (— ► istenu) 3. Am., Nuzi adv. 
"for the first time"; < isten abstr. 

istenseret, poet, isten-esret "eleven" Bab.; < isten 
+ -seret; — ► istenserisu; istenserfi 

*istenserlsu, istesserisu "eleven times" OB; 

< isten + -serisu 

*istenseru, MB iltenseru "eleventh" M/jB; 

< isten + -seru 
istenu — > isten 

istenu(m), istinu(m), later ilte/i(n)nu, Ass. 
is/lteniu(m), NA issenu "single", Ass. with pi. 
tant. subst. "one (set, pair of)" shoes etc.; "each 
one"; Nuzi of sheep "once (shorn)"; jB lex. 
"one year old"?; NB "one each"; Ug. of kings 
"in accord, united"; < istenu + -i 

istesserisu — > istenserisu 

istet(u) — ► isten 

isti, iste, Pre-Sarg. aste/i, OB also istd-, istu, MA 
ilte-, NA issi(-) "with" [KI; NA TA] + subst. or 
pron. suff. in gen. "with" s.o., O/MA also 
"from" + vb.s of taking, receiving; Ass. also 
"with, in possession of things; > issahis; — ► 
istu 

istidnum, istiat, istin(u) — ► isten 

istina/d — ► istend 

istinis — ► istenis 

istinu — ► istend 

istissu "once" Bab [l(-en)-su] absol. or after 
ana, ina, kima; < isten 

ististu — > ittiltu 

istit(um) — ► isten 

istiyu "first" jB; < isten 

istu(m), ultu, elustu, iltulali, NA issu, NB ildu 
"from, out of; since, after" [TA] A. prep. 1. of 
space: "from out of city, land etc.; 1. X adi Y 
"from X to Y"; "down from" sky, tower 2. of 
time: "since, after" a time, an event; /. X adi Y 
"from X till Y"; + infin. "after having..." 
3. misc.: 1. X adi Y, e.g. from straw to gold, man 
to woman, NB ultu ramnikunu "on your own"; 
late freq. i J ultu muhhi B. conj. + subjunct. 
1. "since, after" 2. "when, as soon as" 3. "since, 



istuhhu(m) 



136 



ltti 



because" Man, + indie. 4. Mari i.-sa, NA i. 
mar, i. bit, NB ultu muhhi (sa) "since"; 
> istuma; — » isti 

istu — » also isdu; isti 

istuhhu(m), ileltuhhu, istuhhu, estuhhu, Nuzi 
also iltuhlu; pi. f. & m. "whip" Bab.; sa i. 
"whip-holder"; bit i. "whip-container" on 
chariot 

istuma conj. "if indeed" OA, OB; Mari also + 
indie; < istu 

i stum's — » i stents 

isu(m) "to have" (no pres., prettjsi, isu; stat. rare; 
-» GAG §106r) [TUK; Mari also IN.TUK] 
"possess" object; "have" merchant, witness, 
relative, opponent; "suffer from" illness, debts, 
fear; personal characteristic; of loan "bear" 
interest; of creditor "be owed s.th." by (= eli, 
OAkk also itti, OA isser); Am. "exist" 
(< W.Sem.); > isdnu; — » lassu I 

isu — » also esu I; hisu 

isuhhu (desig. of a garment) Am. 

isumaka/i (a kind of payment) Nuzi; -» 
hissumaku 

isutu mng. unci. jB lex. 

isuzzu — » izuzzum 

ita "adjacent to" OB [US.SA.DU] in field descr.; 

< itu st. constr. 

itahlasanu "dislocated, slipped" of exta jB; 

< nehelsu 

itahlisu? (an illness affecting the head) jB lex.; 

< nehelsu 
italma'u — » irima'u 

itannu "mesh, interstice" of net jB 

itanu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

itanu — » itu 5 

itaplustu; pi. itaplusdte 'looking' NA in sa i. [sa 

iGl.DUy] (a copper object); < paldsu Ntn 
itaslulu -» saldlu II Ntn 
itdtu — » itu 3 
itbaranu "companionable" jB of man; < itbdru + 

-an 
itbartu "club, consortium" jB; < itbdru 
itbaru(m) "friend, colleague" Bab., OA; also 

"shareholder" in commercial association; 

> itbdrdnu, itbartu, itbdrutu; — » abdru III 
itbarutu(m) 1. 0/jB "business partnership" 

2. NB(roy. inscr.) "skill"; < itbdru 
ite — » itu 1 

ite'(el)lu -» ne'ellii Ntn 
itellum — » etellu 

itepsu "expert, competent" jB; < epesu II 
itertum "supplementary consignment" OA of tin 

etc.; < watdrum 



itguru (a bird) jB om.; -» etguru 

itgurutu mng. unci. jB comm. 

ithu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

ithuru; pi. ithurdnu, ithurdte (a kind of standard, 

emblem) M/N A, jB " 
ithusu — » athusu 

ithusu mng. unkn. NA in bit ithisi 
itihilum (an object) OA 
itillu — » etellu 
itinnu(m), Ass. etennu(m); NA pi. f. "builder" 

[(LU.)SITIM; NA LU.DIN] NB as family name; 

< Sum. 

itinnutu(m) "builder's craft" Bab. [LU.SITIM- ] 
NB also "job of builder" as prebend; < itinnu 

itirtu(m) (a milk product) OAkk(Sum.); jB lex. 

itisutu mng. unkn. Nuzi in sipir i. "/. work" 

itltu in NB(roy. inscr.) = itutu I ? 

itku "paralysed"? Bogh. lex., of neck; < atdku 

itku, utku "(wooden) peg" jB lex. 

itmu Gt ~ "to nod the head" jB lex. Gtn ittamul 

itpesu(m) "expert, competent" Bab. of god, king 
etc.; < epesu II 

itpuru "wearing tiara"? jB epith. of Istar; 

< apdru 

itqu(m) m. & f. 1. "fleece" Bab. [si'K.Aka] of 
sheep; of person's hair; "(woollen) flock, tuft"; 
(garment made from fleece) 2. jB mag., also 
etqu, in e. eper sepi "lump of dust from under 
s.o.'s feet" 

itqulu (a garment) jB lex. 

itquru(m), itqurtu(m); pi. f. "spoon" [(GIS.) 
DILIM] of metal, wood; "pan" of a balance; 
"blade" of an oar; med. i. (abdri) (an ointment) 

itrdnu — » idrdnu 

itru — » idru I.II 

itta — ► itti 

ittahu "next to, by" NB + gen. subst. or pron. 
suff.; < ina + tdhu 

ittamir, ittemir, ittiyamir (a stone) jB 

ittamu — » itmu 

ittan mng. unci. jB lex. 

itte — ► itti 

itteltu — » ittiltu 

ittemir — » ittamir 

itti, ittu, itte-, Am. itta-, OAkk, OB also ittum 
"with" [Kl; NB also TA ?] 1. prep. + gen. subst. 
or pron. suff.; be, stand etc., go, send "with" 
s.o.; speak, fight, be angry "with"; compete 
"with", be equal "to" s.o.; divide s.th. "with" 
s.o.; take, buy s.th. "from, chez" s.o.; Mari of 
troops, be "under" s.o.; NB "at" time of day, 
"per" mina 2. conj. Mari "while, whereas", Ug. 
"as soon as"; > itti 



ltti 



137 



itti "on top of that, in addition" NB; < itti 

ittidu (a bird, phps.) "francolin" O/jB 

[DAR.MUSEN] with distinctive cry 
ittil-imut 'he lay down and died' (an owl) jB 

[KU.KU.BA.US.MUSEN] om., mag.; <itulu + 

matu 

ittiltu, itteltu, Nuzi usu. iltileltu, ististu "one time, 
once" M/jB; Nuzi also "the first time", (for 
istet) "one"; < isten 

ittilu(atool) jB lex. 

ittiyamir — » ittamir 

ittu(in) I, idatu; pi. iddtu(m) - "peculiarity"? 
Bab., NA [A] 1. "characteristic, special nature" 

2. pi. [A.(2.)MES] "(ominous) conditions", iddt 
lemuttim, dumqi "signs of evil, good", samS u 
erseti "of heaven and earth" 3. NB lu idat, 
idatumma introducing solemn statement; < idu 
{.; = i. II 

ittu(m) II, Ass. ettu(m); pi. ittdtu(m) "sign" 
[ISKIM] 1. "signpost, road marker" 2. math, 
"diagram"? 3. "characteristic mark)" of person, 
deity 4. "(ominous) sign", esp. good, bad 
(damc/u, lemnu) S. "password, verbal cue" 6. in 
commerce etc. ana ittisu "at the agreed point, as 
agreed"; = /. I 

ittu — » also Id; itti 

ittu(m) I "seed-funnel" [GIS.NINDA] O/jB on 
seeder-plough; < Sum. 

ittu II (a garment) OB( Alal.) 

ittu — » also itu-; itu; ittu 

ittuhlu ~ "messenger" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

ittum — » itti 

ittus(su) "clothing" Nuzi; as ration; a specific 
garment; < Hurr. 

itu(-), ittu- "with" MB prep, of things, persons 
"with, chez" s.o.; also jB ana itisun "with 
them"; < itu 

itu(m), etii, ittii(m); pi. m. & f. "boundary; 
neighbour" [US.SA.DU] 1. "boundary", upper/ 
lower, east/west; "border, side" of river, field; i. 
etequ "to cross boundary", esp. transf. "to 
transgress a limit" 2. st. constr. ite + subst. 
"alongside", /. ahdmis "bordering one another" 

3. f. pi. itdtu(m), lex. itidtu "borders, environs"; 
st. constr. as prep, "all round, surrounding" 

4. NB "hull" of ship 5. "neighbour" [(LU.)US. 
SA.DU], NB pi. also itanu; > ita; itu-; itutu II 

itulu(m), utulu(m) "to lie down; sleep" Bab., 
OA, NA Gt (pres. ittdl, pret. ittil; perf. ittatil; 
imper. itil; stat. utul; (-» GAG §107j) [NA] "lie 
down", "lie" with spouse; transf. of gall "be 
lying" Gtn iter. [nA.nA] D "put to sleep" S 



caus. [nA] "make" s.o. "lie, sleep"; "lay" 
ingredient in salt; > ittil-imut; muttiitu 7 ; -» ndlu 

itunum — » utunu 

itussarra (or ituzzarra) (an ornament) Am. 

itussu — » izuzzum 

itutu(m) I, ututu, NB also ititu 1 ; jB pi. utdtu ? 
"selection" Bab.; esp. /. kun libbi "steadfast 
choice" (liter, "choice of steadfastness of 
heart"); OB ana i.-ya "by my free choice"; 

< watum; — » ititu 

itutu II ~ "cirumference"; < itu 

ituzzarra — » itussarra 

itemmum — » etemmu 

ittu(m), ittu, iddu f. "bitumen" Bab., NA [ESIR; 

ESIR; occas. A.BUL; Mari occas. ESIR.RA] for 

buildings; boats etc.; figurines; buru sa i. 

"bitumen springs"; in similes, black kima i. "as 

pitch"; < Sum. 
itum — » utu 
i'u mng. unkn. jB lex. 
iutu (appeal to Samas) jB [l. d UTU]; < Sum.; -» 

inannu 
ivvaru (or iwiluru) (a wooden object) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 
iwirtum — » amertu I 
iwiru — » iwaru 

iwitu(m) ~ "malicious talk" O/jB; < ewum II 

iwuru — » iwaru 

iyarum — » ayyaru I 

iydti — » ydti 

iyaumas in sam i. (a plant) jB rit.; < Hrtt.? 

Izalli (or Azzalli ?) rdg. unci, (a month) 

OB(Alal.) 
izana'u (a plant) jB lex. 
izbu(m) "misbirth, foetal anomaly" O/jB of 

human, animal; summa i. (teratological omen 

series); < ezebu 
izhu ~ "belt" jB lex.; < ezehu 
izibtu(m), ezibtufm) 1. OB (+ ezebum) 

"deposit", a kind of pledge 2. OA "divorce 

money"; < ezebu 
izikurum (a bird) OB 
izirtu "help, reinforcement" Am.; < W.Sem.; — » 

izzirtu 
izlru "arm; wing" jB, NA 
izisubbu "stroke of lightning" jB [IZI.SUB.BA]; 

< Sum. 
izizzum — » izuzzum 

izmum (an extispicy technique) Mari 
izqatu, isqdtu "fetters, handcuffs" j/NB, NA; NB 
i. [GIS.SU.2(.MES)] nadu "to cast into fetters"; 

< isu + qdtu ? 

izru "curse" jB; < ezeru 



Izubitu 

Izubitu, Izubu (a canal) jB; < Sum. 

izfitu — » ziitu 

izuzussi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

izuzzum, uzuzzu(m), OA izizzum, M/NB freq. 
usuzzu, also isuzzu, NA itussu "to stand" 
G (pres. izzaz, pret. izziz; perf. ittaziz; imper. 
iziz, M/NB freq. w/z; stat. na(n)zuz, M/NB 
iw/zmz etc.; other forms -» GAG §107a-h) 
[GUB; MB also GUB.BA] 1. gener. of person, 
thing "stand"; "serve (before)" s.o., esp. deity, 
king; "serve, be present" (as witness); "be 
available" of person, animal, boat; "remain"; 
transf. of oath, legal right "be valid"; OB /'. eli 
"be engaged on, work at" s.th.; OB ('. ana 
"accept liability for"; OA "stand by, belong to" 
s.o. 2. (ingress.) "appear, make an appearance"; 
"take up service"; "side with" (= isti, itti) s.o., 
"go to assistance of" (= ana, dat.) s.o.; M/NB 
of god "visit" s.o. in a hostile manner; of part of 
liver "stand erect" Gtn iter. [jB GUB.ME(S); 
GUB.GUB] of a number of people "stand 
around"; of snake, scorpion "repeatedly rear 
up" Gt arch. OB ingress, for G pres. "take up 
o.'s stand"; eli nakrim i. "triumph over enemy"; 
of flood "come to a standstill" S (S 1 OAkk 



138 izziru 

occas., Bab. pres. uszaz, pret. usziz; imper. 
suziz; stat. suzuz; infin. suzuzzu(m); S 2 OAkk, 
Ass., j/NB pres. usazzaz, pret. usalezziz; perf. 
ustazziz; imper. suzziz; stat. suzzuz; infin. 
suzzu(z)zu) caus. "cause to be present", 
"appoint" witnesses, substitute, pledge; "make 
s.o. serve"; "cause to triumph" over enemy; 
"stable" horse; "erect" stele, statue, tower; "re- 
erect" wall etc.; transf. OA "make" silver 
"available"; "enter" items in accounts; 
"establish" justice; "make" hair, furrow "stand 
upright"; poet, "create, bring into being" Stn 
MB "constantly make to stand" St jB "cause to 
appear" N OB(lit.) (infin. nazzazum; stat. 
nanzaz) ingress, of deity "appear, become 
present"; > uzuzzatta; usuzzdyu; mazzdzu; 
mazzaztu, mazzazdnum, mazzazanutum; 
muzzazu; mazzizu, mazziz-pdnuttu; nanzdzu; 
musazzizum; sazzuztum 

izzidaru "bed with side-rest" jB lex.; < Sum. 

izzihu (a gem)? Qatna 

izzimtu(m) "desire, objective" O/jB usu. with 
kasddu(m) "to achieve"; < nazdmu 

izzirtu "curse" M/NA, M/jB; < nazaru 

izziru "curse" M/jB; < nazaru 



K 



-k — > -ka; -ki 

-ka, -k "you" (2 m. sg. ace. suff.) (-» GAG §42) 

ka — » kiam 

ka'dtu — ► qayydtu 

kababu(m) I, gabdbu(m); jB pi. f. "shield" O/jB, 
NA (with KUS or GIS det.); nds(i) k. "shield- 
bearer" 

kababu II, gabdbu "to burn" Bab. G (a/u) 
intrans., of fire, wood; transf. of illness; Mari, 
trans, (submit lamb to extispicy)? D trans, 
"burn, scorch" wood; transf. of Lamastu "burn" 
s.o.'s body; > kabbu; kibbu II; gabbubu; 
gubibdtu 

kababu — » also kapdpu 

kabddu — ► kabdtu 

kabaku (a topog. feature) NA 

kaballu(m) "leggings" O/MB in pairs, freq. 
attached to shoes 

kabaltu (a plant)? jB lex. 

kabalu(m) "to be paralysed" O/jB G (a/u) stat., 
of part of body D "constrict, paralyse" part of 
body; OB transf. "hinder, obstruct" s.o. 
Dt pass, of D, of lips "be paralysed"; 
> kubbulu; — » kibiltu 

kabarahhum — » gabarahhu 

kabartu "thickness" jB comm.; < kabru 

kabartu — » also kabbartu; kabru 

kabaru(m) "to be(come) thick, solid" G (;'/;'; stat. 
kabar, NB also kabir) of animal, person; part 
of body; tree-trunk, grain, door; moon; of voice 
"loud" D (jB once uhabbir) "make thick; 
thicken" Ntn jB of snake "constantly become 
thick"; > kabru, kabartu, kabrutu; kubru, 
kubartu, kubdrum, kuburru; kabbaru, 



kabbartu; kubburu; mukabbirum, 

muktabbirum; takbdru; nakbartu; -*hahdru II 

kabdru — » also kawdrum 

kabar'u pi. (a festival)? Mari 

kabasu(m), Am. kabdsu "to tread" G (a/u) 
[ZUKUM; KI.US] 1. on ground, road, boundary; 
house, palace; "tread down, trample" ramp, fire; 
"tread on" neck, foot 2. transf. "tread down, 
suppress" enemy, criminal, noise, "forgive, 
remit" crime, debt; anzilla k. "infringe taboo" 
3. OA rama(n)ka k. "exert yourself 4. M/NA, 
NB "let" time "pass", NA "continue" D ~ G 
"tread, walk over" land etc.; "tread down, on" 
neck, opposition; anzilla k. "infringe taboo"; 
OA (also Dtn) "drop, suppress" claim S caus. 
N NA/NB 1. of land "be subdued" 
2. "continue" 3. OB "set foot on"; > kabsu I, 
kabistum'-; kibsu I; kubdsu; kubussu; 
kubbusum; nakbasu; sukbusu 

kabdsu — » also kapdsu II 

kabdsu — » kapdsu I.II 

kabastu — » kabru 

kabasu "to put headgear on" jB G in kubsu 
kabis; < kubsu denom. 

kabdsu — » also kabdsu 

kabattu(m), poet, also kabtatu(m), later occas. 
kabittu "liver", also "innards"; usu. transf. 
"mood, temper, humour", joyful, peaceful, 
unrestful, angry; "mind, intention"; Am. 
kabattuma [once UZU.UR5] "on the stomach"; 
— ► kabdtu 

kabatu(m), NA also kabddu "to be(come) 
heavy" G (Hi) [DUGUD] 1. of animal, objects; 
transf. of fear, work, orders, domination; 
"become burdensome, aggravating", of illness 



kaba'u 



140 



kadaru(m) II 



"be serious"; of fire "be extinguished"? 2. "be 
important, respected" of person, word; 
qaqqadum k. of respected person D 1. "make 
heavy" penalty; "extinguish" fire; "aggravate, 
exaggerate" 2. "treat honourably, respectfully", 
"regale, entertain honorifically"; with resum, 
qaqqadum "honour" s.o.; Ug. "honour (s.o.) 
with" reward Dt "be honoured" OB Dtn Am. 
iter, of D; OA, OB "do the honours and ...", 
"be so complimentary as to ..." S "give 
importance to" matter OB; "work" sculpture 
"massively" NB; > kabtu, kabtutu; kabbuttu; 
kabittu; kubtu; kubdtu; kubuddd'u, kubuttu; 
kubbutu, kubbuttu; nakbatu; takbittu; -* gabldu; 
kabattu 

kaba'u, kapa'u ~ "reed foliage" jB lex.; -♦ 
takba'u 

ka(b)bartu(m) (part of foot) O/jB of human, 
also du.; of bird; < kabbaru 

kabbaru(m) "very thick", freq. serves as pi. of 
kabru Bab., M/NA [GUR4.GUR4] of animal; 
part of body; textile, trunk of tree; of rain 
"dense"; < kabdru; > kabbartu; -* kubburu 

kabba'um "stitcher" OB; < kubbu II 

kabbillu (wooden part of chariot) jB lex.; 
<Sum. 

kabbu "glowing" jB, NA; of charcoal, incense; 
of hot wind; < kabdbu II 

kabbuttu; pi. kabbutdti "counterweight (for 
jewellery)"? Am.; < kabdtu 

kabbutu -* kubbutu 

kabduqqu -* kaptukkum 

kabhu mng. unkn. Nuzi 

kabidu -* gabldu 

kabilukku (a dish or fruit) NA 

kabistum (part of a cubit) OA st. abs. kabsat, 

< kabsu I ? 
kabislstu -* kapsu 

kabittigalzu (a plant) jB lex.; < Kass. 
kabittu(m) 1. also kibittum, "main body (of 

troops)" Mari, OB(N.Mes.) 2. euph. "left 

hand" lex. 3. (a double pot) lex.; < kabtu 
kabittu -* also kabattu 
kabkuru(m) (or kapkuru(m)) (a container) 

OAkk, for flour; jB lex. 
kablitu (or kaplltu) mng. unci. jB 
kablu(m); pi. m. & f. "(furniture) foot" [GIS. 

BAD.GU.ZA] of chair, table etc. 
kabnu "casing, tyre (of wheel)"? NB comm.; 

< Aram. 

kabru(m); f. kabartu(m), NB also kabastu 
"thick, solid" [GUR4.RA] of person (in PN), 
animal; part of body, flesh; of grain, sesame; of 



textile, garment; "large" of measuring vessel; 

< kabdru; -* kabbaru 

kabrutu "thickness" jB lex.; < kabru 

kabsat -*- kabistum 

kabsatu -* kabsu U 

kabsu I "continuous" NA of land-tenure; 

< kabdsu 

kabsu II; f. kabsatu "young sheep" OB, j/NB, 
NA 

kabslsu -* kapsu 

kabsarru (or kapsarru) "stone-carver" M/NA, 
M/NB [(LU.)KAB.SAR] of precious stones, 
masonry; < Sum. 

kabsarrutu "profession of stone-carver" Bogh. 
lex. 

kabtatu -* kabattu 

kabtu(m); f. kabittu(m) "heavy; important" 
[DUGUD; IDIM in PNs] 1. of stone, metal 
"heavy"; of garment; tribute, booty; transf. 
"grave, serious" of wound, illness; sin, 
punishment, quarrel; of mist, cloud 
2. "important, honoured"; as subst. "important 
person, VIP"; sumu(m) k. "respected, famous 
name"; of divine order, pronouncement; 

< kabdtu; > kabittu; kabtutu 
kabtutu "majesty" jB, of god; < kabtu 
kabum -* kabutu 

kabu(m) ~ "plant pod"? Bab. 

kabA -* also kabutu; kubbu I.II 

kabullu -* kamullu 

kabutu(m); pi. m. kabu; OA sg. kabum 

"(animal) dung" Bab., OA [SURIM] of horse, 

sheep etc.; snake; k. Seris "ox-dung" med; 

libitti k. "dung-cake" 
kabzuzu(m) ~ "educated person"? jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
kabzuzuttu "role of educated person"? Bogh. 
kadabbedu ~ "oral paralysis, aphasia" jB 

[ka.dab.BE.da]; < Sum. 
kadadu, lex. also hadddu "to rub in, anoint" jB 

G (alu) with 2 ace. D - G ?; >makaddu, 

makdddu 
kadammu; pi. f. ~ "dungeon"? NA 
kadanu (a rush-like plant) jB 
kdddnu -* kddu 
kadapu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kadaru I (a reed fence)? jB lex. 
kadaru(m) II "to rear up" Bab., NA G {Hi) of 

enemy, batde "rise in opposition", "be 

insubordinate" S "stir up, incite" battle Ntn jB 

med. "jerk repeatedly"?; > kadru, kadrutu, 

kadris; makdaru 1 ; takdlru 1 



kadaru III 



141 



kakkultu 



kadaru III "to delimit" M/NA, M/jB G (/'//) 

kudurra k. "draw a boundary" D ~ G "draw" 

boundary; < kudurru II denom. 
kadaru IV "to labour"? NA G; < kudurru I 

denom.? 
kadasu "celebration" OB (var. of haddsu) 
kaddarhu (a tree) jB lex. 
Kadduhha -* Ukaduhha 
kadilu -* qadilu 
kadiseru (a plant) M/jB 
kadmuru, kid(i)muru mng. unkn. M/NA in 

name of Istar temple 
kadrayitu f. (epith. of Istar) jB 
kadris "aggressively" jB; < kadru 
kadru(m), qadru; f. sg. kadirtu, kadratu "rearing 

up, aggressive" Bab., NA of bull, king, deity, 

enemy; < kadaru II 
kadru (or katru), OB also kidr&m "present, 

greeting gift" Bab. to deity; to king; also as 

"bribe"; < Sum. 
kadrutu "aggressiveness" jB lex.; < kadru 
kadu; NB pi. kadanu "guard, watch" j/NB esp. 

military, rab kdddnu "commander of the 

watch"; k. nasdru "to keep guard"; NB "(fee 

for) guard" on orchard; sa k. "watchman"; (bit) 

k. "guard-house"; < kddu II 
kadu(m) mng. unkn. OB lex. 
kaduOn) I mng. unci. O/jB G (a) "to be 

distressed"?, "cease"?; > mukiddumr 
kadu(m) II "to watch, guard" Bab. G («) NB 

D OB "watch out (for)", "be attentive" Dt pass. 

"be observed"; > kddu; mukiddumr 
kaduhhu "with gaping mouth" jB lex.; < Sum.; 

-♦ Ukaduhha 
kadurru -* kudurru I 
ka'essu -* ka'issum 
kagallu(m), kankallu, kigallu f. "(a kind of) 

waste land" O/jB [KI.GAL]; < Sum.; -♦ kikallu 
kagiskarakku -* kannaskarakkum 
kagum mng. unkn. OB lex. 
kahama adv.? mng. unkn. MB 
kahassinna mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kahsu "throne" Am.; < W.Sem. 
ka'inimmaku "wish, plan"? jB; < Sum. 
ka'isu "slaughterer" Nuzi of sheep; < kdsu 
ka'issum, ga'issu, jB g/ka'essu - "travelling 

merchant" O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
kakammatum (a part of the body) OB 
kakaniassu (part of body armour) Nuzi, of 

bronze 
kakanuzzu (an object) Nuzi, in pairs 



kakardinnu, NA karkadinnu, NB kaskadi/annu, 
OB(Alal.) kakatennu "victualler" [LU.SUM. 
N1NDA] a palace employee 

kakddlu -* kaqda 

kakikkum? "recorder" OB [KA.Kl], a municipal 
official concerned with sales 

kakilu (a bird) MB 

kakkabanu 'starry one' jB 1. (a bird) 2. (an ox) 
3. (a kind of lapis lazuli); < kakkabu 

kakkabis "like stars" j/NB; < kakkabu 

kakkabtu "star" M/NB, NA [MUL; MUL] as 
ornament, of gold etc.; NB as brand-mark on 
slaves, beasts; < kakkabu 

kakkabu(m) "star" [MUL; later also MUL, UL, TE 
and AB] also ref. to planets; k. samelsamdmi 
"stars of heaven"; ina k. bidtum S "to leave (a 
magic potion) outside overnight" O/jB; k. rabu 
"meteor"; "star( -shaped ornament)" of metal, 
stone; < Sem. kabkab-; > kakkabtu, kakkabis, 
kakkabanu 

kakkaltu, kalkaltu (an irrigation device) jB 

kakkannu -* kankannu 

kakkartum (a round loaf) OAkk, O/MB; OA 
"bun (ingot)" of copper; < kakkaru 

kakkaru, Alal. also kakkuru (a round loaf)? 
Mari, Alal., Am., Bogh. 1. Mari, Bogh. (a loaf) 
2. Am. (a silver disc)? 3. Alal., Am. (an 
ingot)? of copper; > kakkartum 

kakkassu -* kakkusu 

kakkisatti "like a weasel" NA; < kakkisu + -atti 
(-.GAG §1131) 

kakkisu f. - "weasel" M/jB, NA also as PN; jB 
k. ndri (a diving bird) 

kakku(m) "stick; weapon" [GIS.TUKUL; occas. 
GIS.SI'ta] 1. rarely "stick" 2. gener. "weapon" 
OA rabi k. "armourer"; OB sab /t.b'-a "armed 
troops"; k. epesu(m) "to do battle", ana k. 
pardkum "confront for battle"; k. seberu(m) 
"break weapons"; k. mahdsu(m) "strike with 
weapon(s)", also = "afflict with illness" 3. as 
divine symbol k. sa ilim "divine emblem", sa 
Samas etc. 4. (a feature on liver) 

kakku -* also kanku 

kakku(m), kakku'u (a small legume, phps.) 
"lentil" OAkk, Bab. [GU.TUR]; > kakkutu 

kakkullu(m), klqaqqullu, MA kukullul f. 
"mash-tub" O/jB, M/NA [GAKKUL] in similes; 
also (a wooden box); NA (a basket or tray) for 
fruit, leavings, rab qaqqulldte (an official); MA 
sa kukulli (a desig. of young worker); < Sum.; 
> kakkultu 

kakkultu "mash-tub" jB; also M/jB k. mi 
"eyeball"; < kakkullu 



kakkusakku 



142 



kallu(m) 



kakkuru — » kakkaru 

kakkusakku, kakkusakku jB 1. (a plant)? 2. (a 

stone); — ♦ kakkusu, kanku 
kakkusu(m), O/jB kakkussu, NA also kakkassu 

1. ~ (leguminous vegetation) 2. (a stone) M/jB, 

NA; < Sum.?; — » kakkusakku 
kakkusakku -» kakkusakku 
kakkusu — » kukkusu 
kakkutu "a lentil 7 " jB [GU.TUR] also "pimple"; 

<kakku nom. unit. 
kakmum; f. kakmltu "of Kakmum" O/jB (an 

object; a kind of door); < PIN Kakmum 
kaksallu (a kind of wooden peg) jB lex.; < Sum. 
kaksu (an arrow) jB 
kakugallu, kakugalldku (an incantation priest) 

jB; < Sum. 
kakugallutu "profession of incantation priest" 

jB; < kakugallu 
kal(a) -» kalu II 
kalabbu — » kalappum 
kalabunu, kalabuttu —* kallabunu 
kalakku(m)I; pi. f. ~ "excavation, trench" Bab. 

[KI.LA; TUL(.LA)] "pit" (in canal-bed, field) and 

its spoil; esp. math, in problems; "underground 

store" for grain, straw etc.; < Sum. 
kalakku II (a kind of box) M/jB, NA; Nuzi in 

pairs; also (a seat), "box" in chariot (as part of 

constellation); NA "kelek, raft" 
kalakku III (a kind of wall-plaster) MB, 

jB(Ass.) 
kalakkutu (a kind of earth)? MA 
kalama, kaldm(u/i) "all (of it)" Bab. [DU.A.BI; 

DU; DU.DU.A] indeclinable as obj. of vb. or gen. 

after St. constr.; in appos., e.g. riqqi kalama "all 

sorts of aromatics", ili kalama "all the gods"; 

< kalu II + -ma 
kalamdhu — ♦ galamdhu 
kalammaru — ♦ karammaru 
kalammu (part of a chariot) MA, of Wood 
kalappum, kalabbu; pi. f. "pickaxe" Ass., NB ? , 

of metal 
kalasu(m) "to contract o.s., roll up" O/jB G (;'/;') 

of part of body; of dog Gtn (lex. also hitallusu) 

iter, of sheep's nose D fact. lex. only; > kalsum; 

kilsu 
kald'um — » kalu V 
kalbanatu (or labbdndtul) pi. tant. (a siege 

instrument) jB 
kalbanis "like a dog" O/jB; < kalbu 
kalbanu, ka/ulbannu (a plant) M/jB [GIS/U. 

MAS.yUS] 
kalbatu(m) "female dog, bitch" O/jB [NIG] also 

transf. (a strap on a plough); < kalbu 



kalbu(m) "dog" [UR.GI7; UR; Mari also 
UR.GI7.RA] also "(figure of) dog", "dog figur- 
ine"; transf. as term of humility; of subject; astr. 
"(constellation) Hercules" (with det. MUL); lex. 
(a fish); k. ursi "badger" [UR.Kl]; k. me "otter" 
[UR.(GI7.)a]; k. Samas mng. unkn.; -♦ also 
lisdnu 5, zubbu; > kalbanis, kalbatu 

kaldu — ♦ kasdu 

kalgukku(m), kalguqqu (a red mineral paste) 
O/jB, M/NA [KAL.KU7.KU7; IM.KAL.GUG] in 
glass-making, as drug; < Sum. 

kalis "totally" OAkk, Bab. [DU-lis]; < kalu II 

kalitu(m) "kidney" [(UZU.)ELLAG(=BIR)] of 
human; ext. of animal, as meat; k. birkimlburki 
"testicle"; astr. (desig. of star) identity unci. 
[MUL.BLLAG], k. Ea (desig. of crescent moon) 

kalitu(m) 1. lex. (wooden part of chariot) 
2. OAkk(Ur III) (ornamental item), of gold; 

< kalu V 

kalkallu (a bowl) jB lex. 

kalkaltu — ♦ kakkaltu 

kalku (a component of armour) Nuzi 

kalldbu -* kalldpu 

ka(l)labunu; f. ka(l)labuttu "(kind of) locust" 
j/NB, NA; NB f. as PN 

kallamare "in the early morning" NA; < kallu + 
amdru I ? 

kallammahu (a plant) jB lex. 

kallanu mng. unkn. NB 

kallapu, kalldbu; pi. kalldblpdni (a foot-soldier) 
NA, NB; k. sipirti "messenger"; rab k. "chief 
k." 

kallasudi (a drug) jB; < kallu + asudu ? 

kallatu(m), Ass. kallalutu "daughter-in-law, 
bride" [E.Gl4(.A); E.GI.a] of human, deities; OB 
st. abs. ana kalldt u mdrat "to be daughter-in- 
law and daughter"; also "young woman, bride" 
ingener.; k. Samas "dragonfly" (-♦ kulilltu), k. 
serri 'snake's bride', "lizard", both as drugs; 
> kallutu 

kallatutu -♦ kallutu 

kalle, kalliu — ♦ kallu 

kallimum ~ "delivery (of a person)" OB; 

< kullumu 

kallu(m); Ass. pi. f., NB kallanu "(kind of) 
bowl" Bab., M/NA [(dug.)bur.zi.GAL] for 
liquids, food; of metal; k. seleppi "tortoise's 
shell"; k. qaqqadi "cranium"; — ♦ kallasudi 

kallu(m), NA kalliu "express messenger, 
courier" Bab., NA k. ndri/tdbdli "river/land 
courier"; NA rab k. "chief courier"; inalanalki 
kalle "post-haste"; -♦ kallamare 

kallumi — » kalu II 



kallutu(m) 



143 



kamaru(m) I 



kallumu — » kullumu 

kallutu — » kalldtu 

kallutu(m), Nuzi also kallatutu "role of 

daughter-in-law, of bride" O/MB [Ug. E.GI. 

A.MES]; MB sipir k. "bridal activity"; < kalldtu 
kalmakru(m) (or kalmaqru(m)) "(kind of) 

battle-axe" Bab. [GIS.AGA.SILIG] of metal 
kalmarhu (a tree) Nuzi, jB 
kalmartu — » kanwartu 
kalmatu(m) "insect(s), bug(s)" etc. [UH] usu. 

coll.; OAkk as PN 
kalpurhu (or galpurhu) (desig. of grain) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

kalsum "contracted, shrivelled" OB lex.; 

< kaldsu 

kaltappu (an object of gold) NB; = gistappu ? 
kalteniwe(s), galteniwe, NA galdanibdtu (desig. 

of grain) Nuzi; NA (an official); < Hurr. 
kaltum, keltum ~ "vassal(-ruler)"? Mari 
kalu I "held back, detained" M/NB of persons; 

< kalu V 

kalu .II, OA also kulum, geri. kili- "all, totality" 
[DU; DU.A.BI] 1. st. abs. kalali "everything", 
"everyone", esp. kalaliluma 2. st. constr. + 
subst. "all", "the whole of, "everyone of; 
kal(a) umi(m), kallumi "all day", "every day", 
M/NA, M/jB "during the daytime" (jB also = 
late afternoon); NA kal musi "night-time" 

3. with pron. suff., after subst. "all of it", 
malum kalusa "the whole land", esreti kalisina 
"every shrine"; lit. also before subst. 

4. OB(poet.) + -is-, kaltssa "totally"; > kalis; 
kalama; kalummum; kullatu I, kullatdn 

kalu(m) III "lamentation-priest" Bab., NA 
[(LU.)GALA; NB also (LU.)SU]; < Sum.; 
> kalutu I; — » galamdhu, galaturru, galaussu 

kalu(m) IV (a yellow mineral paste, phps.) 
"orpiment" Bab. [IM.KAL.LA; IM.gA.LI] for 
figurines, wax writing-boards etc.; < Sum. 

kalu(m) V, OA kald'um "to hold (back), detain" 
G (a/a; imper. kila) [NB GUL] "hold, detain, 
arrest" person, slave, prisoner; "restrain, pull 
up" an animal; "stop, block off crater, 
diarrhoea; "hold back, withhold" goods, tribute, 
"withhold, deny" request; "restrain" noise, 
weeping, prayer, hair (from falling out); 
"prevent" s.o. "from" doing s.th.; "moor" boat 
Gtn iter. D rare ~ G "withhold" S caus. "make 
(s.o.) hold (s.o.) back"; "make (s.o.) prevent" 
s.o. from doing s.th.; "make (s.o.) cease" 
fighting SD lex. = S ? N pass, of G; "be held 
back, delayed"; of blood "be staunched"; of hair 
"be retained" Ntn iter, of N; > kalu I; kalu. 



kdlitu; kilu I, kilitum; kildtu; makallu, maklutu; 

suklu; kula'utu'- 
kalu, NA kdliu (2-4 rather kalul) 1. M/NB 

"dam, barrage" [BAD.DINGIR.RA] in irrigation 

system 2. jB, NA (a bird, phps.) "crane" 3. NB 

(a fetter)?, of iron 4. lex. (a plant); < kalu V 
kalulu mng. unkn. lex. 
kalumatu f. "lamb" Nuzi as PN; jB lex. of girl; 

< kalumu 
kalumdu — ♦ kalumtum 
kalumis "like lambs" jB; < kalumu 
kalumitu "lamb-rearer"? MA f. prof.; < kalumu 

+ -i 
kalummum; Nuzi pi. kalummanu "everything" 

Mari, Nuzi; usu. + pron. suff.; < kalu II 
kalumtum, kalumlndu "female lamb" O/jB, freq. 

as PN; < kalumu 
kalumu(m), OA kulumum "lamb" [(UDU.) 

SILA4]; freq. as PN; > kalumatu, kalumtum, 

kalumitu, kalumis 
kalundu — » kalumtum 
kalutu — ♦ kalutu II 
kalutu(m) I "lamentation-priesthood" Bab. 

[(LU.)GALA- ; jB also NAM.GALA] as prebend; 

OB of kalu priests as group; "craft of the kalu"; 

"textual corpus of kalu"; < kalu III 
kalutu II, kalutu ~ "tree" jB lex.; -» akalutu 
kalwasse (type of payment)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kalzu; pi. kalzdni ~ "precinct"? M/NA of palace 

in k. ekalli etc. 
kdm — » kiam 
kamadu(m) "to beat cloth"? O/jB G; D mng. 

unci.; > kamdum; kdmidu; kimdu; gammidatu 1 
kamakissu — » kamkissu 
kamalu "to be(come) angry" M/NB(lit.) G (;'/;') 

with (= itti) s.o. Gt stat. recipr. "are angry with 

one another" D fact.; stat. "is angered" 

N "become angry"; > kamlu; kimiltu; kammdlu; 

kummulu; kitmulu 
kamamtum (a vegetable) OAkk(Ur III); -» 

kammantu 
kamamu ~ "to nod the head"? jB G (alu) S stat., 

mng. unci. 
kamamu — » also qamdmu 
kamannu — » kamunu I 
kamantu — » kammantu 
kamanu f. (a loaf or cake) M/NB, NA 

[NINDA.2/3.SILA] containing honey, figs etc.; k. 

tumri "loaf (baked on) the coals"; NA also 

honey "comb" 
kamaris "in the trap" jB; < kamdru I 
kamaru(m) I, kamarru "hunting trap" OA, jB; 

> kamaris 



kamaru II 



144 



kamu(m) I 



kamaru II, kammaru "defeat" jB; k. sakdnu "to 
accomplish defeat of s.o. 

kamaru(m) III (a fish) O/jB [KA.MAR.KU 6 ]; 
<Sum. 

kamaru(m) IV "to pile up, accumulate" Bab., 
NA [GAR] G (a/u, NA Hi) dates, property; 
math, "add (up)" [UL.GAR; GAR.GAR] Gt "pile 
up permanently" wealth; "secrete" poison 
D ~ G wealth; corpses Dt pass, of D; of wealth 
etc.; of men "come in crowds" N pass, of G of 
ruins, people "be heaped up"; > kamru, 
kamriitu; kimru, kimirtw, kumurru; kitmuru; 
nakmaru, nakmartu; kumdru 1 - 

kamasu(m) I, MA kamdsu "to gather in" G {Hi) 
harvest, animals, population; "pack (s.th.) into" 
container, space etc.; MB "deposit" tablet, gold; 
OB "finish up" doing s.th. D "gather in" 
people, animals; "consign" corpse to tomb 
Dt pass, of D S "store s.th. up", transf. 
"deposit" wisdom in s.o. N "be gathered in"; of 
journey, shearing "be finished, wound up"; 

> kamsum I; nakmasu 1 -; takmisu 1 - 
kamasu(m) II, kamdsu, kamdsu, once hamdsu 

"to kneel, squat down" Bab., M/NA 
[(DOio-)GAM] G (Hi) "kneel, crouch" before 
(= esp. sapal, mahar) god, king; of invalid; of 
part of body; of cow Gtn iter. Gt stat. ~ G stat. 
"is crouched, kneeling" of person, animal; pret. 
MA, of cow D stat. "is kneeling", NA "resides, 
lives" Dt "kneel down" S "make to kneel, 
squat" in cult, enemy in submission N ~ Dt Ntn 
iter, of N "constantly be submissive"; 

> kamsu II, kdmisum; kitmusu; kummusu; — ► 
kimsu 

kamasirum — ► humsiru 

kamasu "rest period" jB lex. 

kamdsu — ► also kamdsu I.II 

kamasseru — ► kamissaru 

kamdsu — ► kamdsu II 

kamasurru — ► kamissaru 

kamatis "to outside" jB; < kawum I 

kamdtu — > kammantu 

kamatu — ► kawum I 

kam'atum, kamatu, NA ka'u ? "truffle" O/jB, 

NA? 
kamdalum — ► kandalu 
kamdum, kandu (desig. of textile) OA, jB lex.; 

< kamddu 
kamessaru — ► kamissaru 
kamesu (a food) NA 
kamesurru — ► kamissaru 
kamgu — > kanku 



kamidu(m) "fabric-beater" O/MB, Mari [LU. 

TTJG.DUg(.A)]; < kamddu 
kamiru (a noble) Am.; -> gdmiru ? 
kamisum "one who kneels" OB lex.; 

< kamdsu II 

kamis "in a bound state" O/jB, NA, esp. k. 

susubu "to make live in bondage"; < kamu I 
kamissaru(m), kamalessaleru(m), occas. 

kamalesurru "pear (tree)" O/jB, NA 
kamitis "in bondage" jB 
kamitu I "bondage" jB, also pi.; < kamu I 
kamitu II "(kind of) ring" jB lex.; < kawum I 
kamitu — > also kawum I 
kamkadu, kankadu (a plant) jB lex., med., 

growing in rock crevices 
kamkammatu(m) "ring" OAkk(Ur III), O/jB of 

metal; transf. astr., round moon; med., desig. of 

part of body 
kamkissu, kamakissu (part of body of animal) 

jB lex. 
kamlu, once kamru "angry" jB of god, man; 

< kamdlu 

kamma "so, thus" Am., Nuzi, Ug.; < kiam + 
-ma 

kammakkum (wooden part of chariot) Mari 

kammallu (a tree) NB 

kammalu(m) "opponent, ill-wisher" O/jB in k. 
natdlu(m) "to identify an opponent"; < kamdlu 

ka(m)mantu, kammandu, kamdtu (an edible 
plant) j/NB [U.AB.DUp] 

kammaru (desig. of gold)? Am., jB 

kammaru — ► also kawdrum 

kammaru — ► kamaru II; kawdrum 

kammu(m) I "board, plaque" Bab., M/NA 
[KAM] 1. "(writing) tablet, board 7 ", "(text on) 
writing tablet" 2. M/NA pi. m. & f. "plaque" of 
gold etc. as ornament; NB pi. f. "board" for 
smoothing bricks, of wood, iron; Mari, of pine; 

< Sum. 

kammu II, NA ka'u ? (a plant used in tanning) 

jB/NA 
kammu III (a metal dowel) M/NA, NB 
kamru "piled up" j/NB of stored dates; of heaps 

of rubble; < kamaru IV 
kamru — > also kamlu; kawdrum 
kamrutu "state of rubble" jB; < kamru 
kamsum I (desig. of garments) OA, jB; 

< kamdsu I 

kamsu II, kamsu "squatting, crouching" MA, jB; 

of animal; < kamdsu II 
kamu(m) I "bound" O/jB [LAL] of man, 

prisoner; the "bound" gods; < kamu II; 

> kamis, kamitu I, kamutu 



kamu(m) II 



145 



kanipanu 



kamu(m) II "to bind" OAkk, Bab. G (Hi, occas. 
ulu) [LAL; OAkk SU.DUg.A] enemy, land; god, 
demon, bird; transf. of spells, diseases; of 
feature of liver D ~ G N pass, of G [LAL]; 
> kamu I.III, kamis, kamitu I, kamutu; kimitu; 
kimutu 

kamum III (or kdmum) pi. "fetters"? OAkk; 

< kamu II 

kamu — > also kawum I.II 

kdmum — ► kamum III 

kamullu, kabullu (a plant) jB lex. 

kamunu(m) I, NA kamu'u, Nuzi also kamannu 

"cumin" [U.GAMUN(.SAR); OAkk U.TIR] as 

spice, drug; k. blni (a tamarisk product); -> 

kamdsu 
kamunu II (a fungus) jB, NA [uzu.DIR] in 

steppe, mountain; on wall; in pot 
kamusas (a bronze component of harness) MB; 

< Kass. 

kamussakku(m) (a kind of chair or bed) O/jB 
[KA.MUS]; < Sum. 

kamussatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kamusu mng. unkn. j/NB; var. of kamunu I ? 

kamutu "bondage" M/NB(lit.) [LAL] in 
kamu(s)su(nu) "in bondage"; < kamu I 

kamu'u — ► kamunu I 

kamzuzu — ► kanzuzu 

kanagurru(m), lex. var. kuriguru (a circular 
threshing-floor path) OB, jB lex.; < Sum. 

kanahu — > kana'u 

kanakku 1. Nuzi (a household item) 2. jB mng. 
unkn. 

kanaktu(m), Am. kanatku (an incense-bearing 
tree) Bab., M/NA [SIM.GIG] samanlzer k. 
"oil/seed of/:."; "aromatic resin (from k.)" 

kanaku(m) "to seal" G (a/u) door, container; 
silver etc.; tablet, letter; NB "transfer s.th./s.o. to 
s.o. by sealing (document)"; as magical act, 
with blood; stat. "is cryptic" D OA, Nuzi, jB 
"seal up" S caus. of G "make s.o. seal"; OB 
"make s.o. draw up sealed document" N "be 
sealed" of grain, textile, tablet; Mari "be attested 
by sealed document"; < kunukku denom.; 
> kanku, kaniku, kaniktu; kinkum I; kanniku; 
maknakum, maknaktu 

kanakurtum (a type of oil) Mari 

kananu(m), qandnu "to roll up" Bab., OA 
[GUR] G (a/u) "wrap up" silver, figurine; of 
part of body "curl up, contract"; "tuck up" 
garment; of snake, refl. "coil (o.s.) up" Gtn 
iter., of parts of body; of snake D ~ G 
"contract" part of body; stat. "is curled up" like 
dog; of horns of moon Stn MA "repeatedly 



bow o.s. down" N of foot "contract" (itself) 

Ntn iter, of N of parts of body; of invalid; 

> qunnunu 
kandnu — > gandnu 
kanasarru(m), kanazerru(m); pi. f., also 

kasansardtum (wooden part of wheel) O/jB for 

carts 

kanasu(m), kanaslsuttu (a red flower) Bab.; 

< Sum. 

kanasu(m) I, OAkk, NA also handsu(m) "to 
bow down, submit" G (ulu, rarely Hi) [gOr] of 
enemy, worshipper, subject; of features on liver 
Gt stat. "is constantly submissive" D "subject" 
people, land; mountains; kisdda k. "bow o.'s 
neck, submit o.s." Dt "be subjected" SD ~ D S 
"make s.o. submit"; > kansu I, kansis, kansutu; 
kinsu; mukannisum; suknusu 

kanasu II "to gather in" NA, NB D people, 
harvest; < Aram.; > kansu II; kinistu 

kandsunu — > kundsunu 

kanasuttu — > kanasu 

kanatku — > kanaktu 

kana'u, kanahu 1 - (a plant) jB 

kanazerru — > kanasarru 

kanazu "to store away" NB food, tools; 

< OPers. kanz "treasure" denom. 
kandaku "(boat's) hold"? NB for dates 
kandalu(m), OB also kamdalum (a metal item)? 

Bab.; — > kundulum 
kandara(sanu) (a linen dress)? NB 
kandaru — > kanduru 
kandirsu — > kundirdsu 
kandu "jar" NB for tar, wine; < Aram. 
kandu — » also kamdum 
kanduru, Nuzi kandaru M/NB 1. (desig. of 

terrain), also as PIN 2. (a vessel, phps.) 

"rhyton" and/or "potstand"; < Sum. 
kanerhu (a plant) jB lex. 
kangannu -> kankannu 
kangiskarakku — > kannaskarakkum 
kangu -* kanku 
kaniktu(m) "sealed document" O/MB; also 

"sealed (consignment)"; < kaniku 
kaniku(m) NA f.; pi. m. & f. "sealed document" 

O/jB, M/NA kanikdt simdtim "purchase 

documents"; MA bit kanikdte "tablet-container"; 

jB also "(clay) sealing" for jar, door; < kandku 
kaniniwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kanipanu (a plant) jB lex. 
kdnisu — > kansu I 
kankadu — > kamkadu 
kankallu — > kagallu 



kankannu 



146 



kapadu 



kankannu, kakkannu, NB kangannu "(wooden) 
pot stand" j/NB, NA esp. for large washing 
vessels 

kankiru (or kankuru) (an object) NA of copper 

kanku(m), kakku, j/NB kanlmgu "sealed" Bab. 
of silver, vessel, document; "sealed 
(document)"; "(clay) sealing", NB "seal"; 
transf. jB "closed off, banned" of sea-port, 
"sealed" of womb, "hidden" of mystery, also in 
kakku sakku (a type of text); < kandku 

kankuru — » kankiru 

kannala — » akanna I 

kannama — » akannama 

kannaskarakkum, kanniskarakkum, kinnaska- 
rakkum, ka(n)giskarakku(m) (a kind of table) 
O/jB [(Gl5.)KA.KARA4]; < Sum. 

kannatu — » kannu II.III 

kanniku "sealer, one who seals" j/NB; NB k. 
bdbi "gate-sealer" as family name; < kandku 

kanniskarakkum — » kannaskarakkum 

kannu(m) I "(vessel-)stand; (a large vessel)" 
OAkk, Bab., NA 1. [GlS.GAN] "stand" for pot, 
for metal vessel 2. [DUG.GAN] "jar" for milk, 
oil, beer etc.; "(drinking) goblet"?; "bucket" for 
well; < Sum.; — » kannulathu 

kannu(m) II; pi. f. "band, binding" Bab., NA for 
hair, attached to clothing; wrestler's "loincloth", 
"(menstrual) cloth"; "binding" for sheaf; (a 
kind of trap); NB also of leather 

kannu III; pi. f. "shoot, seedling" jB, NA of 
vine, fruit-trees 

kannulathu (a household utensil) Nuzi; 
< kannu I + Hurr. -athu ? 

kannutum "accommodation, board"? OA in 
kasap k.; < kanu D 

kansu — » kansu I 

kansu (a milk product) OB lex. 

kansis "submissively" j/NB; < kansu I 

kansu I, kassu, kdnisu, kansu, hansu, hassu 
"submissive" M/NA, M/NB; < kandsu I; 
> kansis, kansutu 

kansu II "work-team" NB; < kandsu II 

kansutu "submissiveness" NB; < kansu I 

kantappu ~ "fish's tail"? jB, part of a figurine 

kantuhhum (attachment to a chariot) Mari 

-kanu — ► -kunu 

kanu(m) "to care (for)" G "dress up, prepare 
o.s.", stat. "is cherished" D of deity "treat 
kindly"; of human "praise, do honour to" deity; 
OA "accommodate, put s.o. up"; "attire (for 
burial)"; "care for, look after" clothes, house, 
statue etc. Dt pass, of D N "be (too much) 



cared for" jB; > kanutu; kinutu; kunnu, kunnutu, 
kannutum; tekn&m, teknitu 

kanu(m) OAkk, Ass. kudnu(m) "to be(come) 
permanent, firm, true" [GI.NA; GIN] G (u) of 
house, land, reign, foundation "be permanent", 
"firmly established"; astr. "remain visible"; of 
market "be stable"; of person "be reliable"; of 
statement "be(come) dependable, immutable"; 
of libbu "be loyal"; of a prediction "be realized"; 
of a sacrificial animal "be in correct state" 
Gtn iter., of planets "repeatedly stay visible" 
Gt "become permanent" D 1. liter., transf. 
"establish firmly" foundation, kingship etc.; 
"give permanence to" sceptre, reign, prosperity; 
"install" building, beam, door etc.; "permanently 
deposit" tablets in library; "fix" bowstring 
2. "define, fix" law, time (for s.th.), heavenly 
movements, boundary; "fix, impose" tax, 
tribute, domination, offering; OB + ace. infin. 
"impose" duty to do s.th.; "assign" payment etc. 
to s.o. 3. OA "make secure" for s.o. 4. leg. 
"establish" (s.o.'s guilt), "convict"; "confirm" 
s.o.('s statement); "prove, confirm" a fact; NB 
eli ram(a)nisu k. "confess" 5. in cult "set up" 
offering, furnishing "correctly" Dtn iter, of D 
Dt pass, of D Dtt NA of person "be confirmed 
in post" D 2 (uka(w)wan, Aram, formation) NB 
"define precisely" St OB ~ "cause to indict" 
person; > kinu, kina, kittu I, kinis, kinutu; kunu; 
kayydnu, kayydnis, kayyamdnu, kayyamdniu, 
kayyamdnu; kunnu; mukinnu, mukinnutu; 
makdnu'-; takittum I 

kanuku mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kanunu — » ganunum II; kinunu 

-kanusu — » -kunusi 

kanutu f. "the cherished" jB epith. of goddess; 
< kanu 

kanwartu, MA kalmartu, NA garmartu (a 
festival; also as MN) Ass. 

kanzabu (a musical instrument) jB; < kazdbu I 

kanzu (a plant) jB lex. 

kanzuzu, kamzuzu jB 1. [ZAG(.GA)] ~ "gums" 
of human 2. (a dung-beetle) 

kapad — » kapdu 

kapadu, MA kapdtu "to plan, scheme" Bab., 
M/NA G (ulu, occas. Hi) "plan, have plan for" 
wish, garden, temple, journey; to do s.th. 
(infin., ace. or ana); battle, evil (against s.o. = 
dat. or itti/anal-is); Mari, of consulting omens; 
NB "hasten" to do s.th. Gt "plan, devote o.s. to 
s.th. consistently" D ~ G "plan, scheme" 
Dtn OB lihtappud "let him take constant care 



kapalu(m) 



147 



kapru II 



of"? S caus. of G; jB also "make s.o. hasten"; 

> kapdu; kdpidu; kappidu 1 ; kipdu; kitpudu 
kapalu(m), qapdlu(m) "to roll up, wind up" 

O/jB, NA G (Hi) reed-mat Gt recipr. "inter- 
twine" each other, of snakes, birds etc.; 
children's game D "roll up" corpse in shroud; 
dung-ball Dt "roll o.s. up" of snake; transf. 
"form a band, conspiracy" of people, land 
N NA of glaze ~ "roll together"; > kdpilu; 
kitpulu, kitpuliitu; kiplu; kapilu'-; kapullum*; 
kappultum; — » muqappil ze 

kapdnu —* gapdnu 

kapapu(m), kabdbu "to curve, bow" O/jB, NA 
[GILIM; GUR] G (alu) of parts of body, stat. 
"are curved, bent"; "surround" s.th. with s.th. 
(= 2 ace.) D "bend, twist" part of chariot; stat. 
of parts of body, foetus "is bent, curved" 
S caus. jB/NA "make" mankind "bow down" 
N "be bent, twisted" of neck, part of liver, 

> kippu, kippatu; kuppupu 

, kaparru(m) I; jB pi. f. kapardti, Nuzi, Hurr. pi. 
kaparrasta "shepherd-boy" OAkk, O/jB 
[(LU.)K A.BAR]; > kaparrutu 

kaparru II ~ "spadix" of palm tree ? j/NB; 
<Sum.? 

kaparru III (a whip or goad) j/NB; < Sum.? 

kaparrutu(m) "work of shepherd-boy" O/MB; 
< kaparru I 

kapartu — » kapru I 

kaparu(m) I "to peel, strip" Bab. G (alu) "peel" 
reed, pole D "clear away, strip off plants from 
land, horns from ziggurrat Dt OB transf., of 
affair "be cleared away"; > kapru III; kapiru 1 -; 
takpuru, takpurtu 

kaparu(m) II "to wipe (clean)" Bab., M/NA G 
(alu) tears, hands etc.; vessel, stone Gtn iter., 
teeth, mouth D [5u.GUR.GUR] "(cultically) 
wipe clean" s.o.; town, house, field; by ritual 
activity N "be wiped clean" jB; > kdpiru^; 
kupirdtu, kupurtum; takpertu 

kaparu(m) III "to smear" Mari, OB(Hana), jB, 
NA G (alu ?) esp. stat. with bitumen (kupru) 
etc. N "be smeared" with bitumen; < kupru 
denom. 

kapdsu — » kapdsu II 

kapasu(m) I, kabdsu(m) (a seashell) O/jB 
[NA4.KA.BA/PA.ZA]; also imitations in stone or 
metal 

kapasu(m) II, kabdsu(m), kaplbdsu(m) "to bend 
back, distort" O/jB G (/'//) of part of body, 
snake, horn of moon, part of liver D "make 



squint" eyes; stat. "is bent" N "be bent up" of 

parts of liver; > gabdsu; kapsu; kipsu; kdpisu 
kapasu(m) O/jB G (stat. kapus) 1. OB, jB lex. 

"be abundant" of smoke 2. Mari mng. unci., of 

acrobat; > kdpisum 
kapatu(m) O/jB G (Hi) of ear, mng. unkn. D "to 

bring together, collect" troops; ominous signs; 

stones; "roll into ball" ingredients (into pill); 

stat. "is rolled up" of lizard, ~ "form ball", of 

flesh, hair etc. Dt pass, of D; > kupputu, 

kupputtu; kupatinnuP- 
kapdtu — » also kapadu 
kapdu — » kaba'u 
kapdu, kapdali, kapad adv. "urgently, quickly" 

NB also ana k.; < kapadu 
kapidu "planner" jB; < kapadu 
kapilu (a leather strap)? NA; < kapdlu ? 
kapilu "winder" OB lex., a prof.; < kapdlu 
kapiru "wiper" or "caulker" jB lex.; < kapdru II 

or III 
kapisu (an official)? jB; < kapdsu II 
kapisum; f. kdpistum, jB habbistu (a cultic 

performer) O/jB; < kapdsu 
kapitum "stony ground" Mari, in eqel k. "stony 

terrain"; < kdpu + -it 
kapizzuhhu (an object) Am. in pairs; of gold; 

< Hurr. 

kapkapu ~ "powerful" M/jB 

kapkuru — » kabkuru 

kaplitu — » kablitu 

kappaltu "groin" jB of man 

kapparinnu mng. unkn. NB; — » kubarinnu 

kapparnu (a copper can) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

kappatinnu — » kupatinnu 

kappidu mng. unkn. jB; < kapadu ? 

kappu(m) I "wing" O/jB [PA] of bird, ant, god, 
statue; on star; transf. of feature on liver, on 
lung (hast), k. ini(m) "eyelid, eyelash"; lex. 
(branch of tree); — » agappu; gappu 

kappu(m) II "hand, palm of hand" 1. [A(.2)] of 
humans, du. kappdya "my hands"; isid k. "base 
of hand"; NB ina muhhi k. "in one go"; of 
animal "paw" 2. "(small) bowl" of wood, gold, 
silver; NA pi. kappdni 3. jB "edge, bank" (or = 
kdpu ?) 

kappu(m) III (part of harness) O/jB lex.; 

< Sum. 

kappultum "wrapping" OA as purpose of 

textile; < kapdlu D 
kapru(m) I; pi. m. & f. "village" [NA URU.SE]; 

sat k., sat kaparti (a kind of bird) 
kapru II (a kind of offering)? M/NB desig. of 

sheep, beer, dates 



kapru HI 



148 



karasu(m) 



kapru III ~ "clipped" lex.; < kapdru I 

kapsu — » kapsu 

kapsu "buyer" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kapsu, kabsu, kaplbsu; f. kahis/stu "bent up, 

distorted" jB of part of liver; < kapdsu II 
kapsarru — » kabsarru 
kapsusihuru (desig. of a kind of sheep) Nuzi; 

< Hurr. 

kaptaru (a tree) jB lex. 

kaptaru; f. kaptaritum "Cretan" Mari; < PIN 

kaptukkum, kabduqqu "two-sutu container" 

O/jB, NA [DUG.2BAN] for liquids, wool; 

<Sum. 
kapu — ♦ kepu 
kapu(m); NA pi. kdpdni "rock, cliff' Emar, jB, 

NA of river, of mountain (jB -+ also 

kappu II 3); OB, in PN of man ?; > kdpltum 
kapu ~ "to oppress, wrong"? jB G (a) 
kapullum mng. unci. OB, feature of wool; 

< kapdlu ? 

kaqda/u, qlkaklqdalu, gag(a)da(m) "constantly" 
Bab.; < qaqqadu ? 

kaqqadu -* qaqqadu 

kaqqarsu — » qaqqarsu 

kaqqaru -* qaqqaru 

kaqqullu — » kakkullu 

karabu(m) I "prayer; blessing" M/NB, NA 
[SISKUR; SiSKUR; A.RA.ZU]; < kardbu II infin. 

karabu(m) II "to pray, bless, greet" G (a/u) 
[SUD] 1. "pray" before (=mahar) deity on 
behalf of (= ana, dat.) s.o., for (= ana) s.th.; 
"make, utter" prayer (ikribu, tamitu); in PNs 
"pray to, supplicate" deity (= ace.) 2. "dedicate" 
votive offering, animal, funerary offering 3. of 
deity etc. "bless, give benediction to" person, 
object 4. "greet (with a blessing)" Gtn iter. 
Gt "constantly pray to, call blessings on" D ~ G 
Mari "pray" for (= ana) s.o. S, Stn caus. of 
G 1 O/jB ? N pass. jB "be greeted"; > karbu; 
kiribtu; kurbu; kardbu I; kdribu; karubu, kirlbu; 
ikribu; -* kurlbu 

karagaldu -* karimgaldu 

karakku -* kurukku 

karaku "to roll up, collect" M/NB, NA G (i/i) 
1. "block" water, canal 2. "wrap, twine" 
3. "gather" troops 4. NA in hendiad. mng. 
unci., phps. "do promptly" or "do again" 
D "wrap up" tongue S NA "have collected" 
St jB med. "surround" finger with liquid? 
N "be wound up" of intestines; transf. of people 
"be assembled"; > karku; kerku I, kiriktu; 
makraku 

karaldnu etc. -♦ kardnu 4 



karallu I ~ "goad" jB lex.; also as desig. of 
jewellery item 

karallu II ~ "happiness" jB comm. 

karammaru, kalammaru, karriammaru (an 
administrative register) NB; < Iran. 

karammu (part of storage facility)? NB; -♦ 
karmu II 2 

karamu(m), NB also keremu "to grasp, restrain" 
Bab., NA G (i/i) person; "withhold, delay" 
payment, journey; "stock up" bricks, seed 
N NA of eyes "be hindered" from seeing; 
> karmu I; nakramu 

karananu "wine-coloured" jB lex.; <kardnu 

karanatu(m) 'little wine' OB as hypocorist. PN; 
j/NB (desig. of stone); < kardnu 

karanu(m), OA, NA kirdnu(m) "vine; wine" 
1. "vine" [GIS.GESTIN] 2. "wine" [GESTIN(.NA); 
later also GIS.GESTIN] good, poor, red, bitter, 
strong etc.; NA rab k. "wine-overseer" 
3. "grapes" 4. in comb.: k. le, k., Idni, also 
karaldnu and var., NA kardn la'u (a kind of 
vine); k. selebi 'fox-wine' (a plant); ser k. 
'vine-snake'; > kardnatu, kardnu; karananu 

karanu "(red) wine-coloured" jB lex., desig. of 
lapis lazuli; < kardnu + -i 

karaphu, karpahu "fallow land, year" Alal., NA 

kararatu (a magical word)? jB 

kararu "midday heat" jB [AN.BIR9] 

kararu I "to put (down), discard" M/NA, Ug. 
G (a/u) "put" s.th. "down, on" somewhere; 
"lay" foundations; stat. of place "is situated, 
lies"; "throw, cast" person, lot; "drop" sweat, 
"deposit" corn etc.; "put, impose" work, duty; 
"cast" o.'s eye on s.th.; "lay low" s.o., with 
weapon N "be set up" of bed 

kararu II mng. unkn. jB G stat. (condition of 
eyes); > karru V-; karriru'-; karurtu 1 

karasu ~ "to tie up" jB lex., NA G; D -» 
mukarrisu ?; > kurussu 

karasu(m), gardsu(m), hardsu "to break off, 
pinch off O/jB G (i/i, occas. a/u) [KID] clay, 
esp. klgersi k. "pinch off a lump"; "gnaw" bone 
Gtlex. only D 1. jB ~ G "pinch off lumps; of 
pig "gnaw" wall 2. OB denom. from karsu 
"slander" s.o.; > karsu; kersu; karrisum; 
takrisu 

karasku "funerary chapel"? Am.(MiL); < Hurr.? 

karasu(m), karsu(m) "leek" Bab., NA 
[(U.)GA.RAS(.SAR); OAkk once RAS.GA.SAR] 
cultivated; wild, in mountains; also (a stone); -♦ 
kurissu 

karasu -* also karsu 

karasu -* karasu II 



karasu(m) I 



149 



karu(m) I 



karasu(m) I "military camp" [KARAS(=KI.KAL. 
BAD, KI.KALXBAD)] Bogh. also "troops, army"; 

< Sum.? 

karasu(m) II, karasu "catastrophe, disaster" 

O/jB 
karasu — ♦ also mukarrisu 
karatasna (or karaurna) (an object) OB(Alal.) 
karatnannu, Qatna qardandnu (an ornament) 

Am., Qatna; in pairs, of gold 
karattu "like a grain-store"? jB; < karu I + -attu 
karatu "to slice" jB, NA G (Hi) "cut off tail; 

"fracture"? figurine D "cut off hand, horn; 

"chew up" lip; > kartu 
karatu(m) G mng. unkn. OB stat., condition of 

gall N "to be merciful", as infin. "forgiveness" 

jB; > nakrutu 
kara'u "to bow (o.s.) down" NB; < Aram. 
karaurna '— » karatasna 
karballatu "(pointed) hat" NA, NB 
karbanum -* kirbdnu 
•karbu "blessed" NB in fPN Karibtil; 

< kardbu II 

kardu (a kind of door) jB lex. 
kargullum - "market value" OB; < Sum. 
karibu; f. kdribtu "one who blesses" M/NA, 

M/NB 1. (a priest), niqe kdribi "offerings for 

the k." 2. (a supplicant deity or genie), occas. 

d K.; MA f. "female genie" in wood; < kardbu II 
karihuri (an official) Nuzi 
karimgaldu, karimtaldu, karagaldu "quiver"? 

M/jB on chariot; < Kass. 
karintu — ♦ karmu I 
karkadinnu — » kakardinnu 
karkamisum "of Carchemish" OB desig. of 

vessel; < PIN 
karkarru (a bird) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
karkartu (an edible plant) MB, NA 
karkarum mng. unkn. OB, desig. of chair 
karkasum, karkasu (a kind of mash) O/jB lex. 
karkittu "prostitute" jB lex.; < Sum. 
karku "rolled, gathered" j/NB, NA of threads, 

textiles; of troops, ina karkdti "en masse"; of 

mash "soaked"?; < karaku 
karmis "into a ruin" j/NB in emilusemi k. "turned 

into a ruin"; < karmu II 
karmu I; f. karintu "delayed" NA; < kardmu 
karmu(m) II "heap, mound" l.Bab. "ruin 

mound", esp. ana till u k. "into mounds and 

ruins" 2. M/NA, Mari ? "grain heap"; bit k. 

"granary"; rab karmdni (an official) (-» 

karammu); > karmis; karmiitu 
karmutu "ruination" j/NB esp. in k. aldku "to go 

to ruin"; < karmu II 



karpahu — » karaphu 

karpanis "like a pot" jB; < karpatu 

karpassu (a fibre, phps.) "cotton" NB; 

< Sanskr. 

karpasu ~ "magnificent" jB lex. 

karpatu(m) "(clay) pot" [DUG] also as measure, 

OA (= '/4 naruqqum), OB for liquids, St. abs. 

karpat; occas. of stone, metal; < karpu 
karpum "pot" OA; > karpatu; karpanis 
karratu mng. unkn. M/jB, desig. of a window 
karriammaru -* karammaru 
karriru (desig. of criminal) jB lex.; < kararu II ? 
karrisum; f. karristum "slanderer" OB; < karasu 
karru I adj. mng. unci. MB epith. of mounds; 

< kararu II ? 

karru(m)II "knob" Bab., NA [GAR(.BA)] 

"pommel" of sword; sikkat k. "knob-pegs", i.e. 

decorative wall pegs; "knob" on throne, also 

"throne" (same word ?); transf. "peak" of 

mountain; < Sum. 
karru III (a mourning garment) O/jB 
karru -* also karu; kerru I 
karsu(m) (a kind of song) jB 
karsillu(m) (or karzillu(m)) "knife, scalpel" 

O/jB [GfR.ZAL (later wr. DU)] of copper, used 

by surgeon; < Sum. 
karsu(m) "slander" Bab., NA [EME.SIG(.GA)] k. 

akdlu(m) "to slander", dkil k., Mari sa k. 

"slanderer"; NB also "(true) accusation"; 

< karasu 

karsanu/u (desig. of bison) M/jB, Bogh. [MB 
GU4.SA.GU4]; < karsu + -an + -i 

karsu(m), karasu m. & f. "stomach, interior"; of 
human "stomach", pi k. "epigastrium"; of 
animal, also as food item; "insides" in gener., 
also "womb"; transf. "mind, understanding, 
mood" etc.; "interior" of house, of ear; k. ubdni 
(fleshy side of finger/toenails); > karsdnu 

karsu — ♦ also karasu 

karsu (a deformation on the exta) jB 

kartappu(m), qartappu(m), jB kerdippu 
"(animal) driver" [LU.KIR4.DAB (-♦ also 
sakrumas)] esp. of horses; M/NB (a high 
official); < Sum. 

kartillu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kartu - "shredded" jB of reeds; < karatu 

kartum "current price" OB in karat ibbassu "the 
existing price"; < karu nom. unit. 

karu(m) I, qaru; MA ace. karu' a, gen. karu'e 
"grain-heap, grain-store" [GUR7]; bit k. 
"granary"; OB also as capacity measure 
(= 3,600 kur); j/NB (g's)/t. "hold" on boat; NB, 
of property held in common; < Sum.; > karattu 



karu(m) II 



150 



kasu(m) III 



karu(m) II "to be(come) short" Bab., M/NA 
G (u/u, also ///') [LUGUD(.DA)] of space, of 
time; of heart, life "be(come) diminished" Gtn 
[LUGUD.MES] "contract repeatedly" of parts of 
body; of life "constantly become diminished" 
D "shorten" time, "diminish" s.o.'s life, "put in 
desperate straits"; stat. "(are) very short", of 
parts of body etc.; MA "deduct, subtract"? 
S "shorten" days; > kuru, kuritu'-; kurrd; — » 
tagritum 

karum — » also heru II D 

karu(m), NB also karru "quay, port" [KAR] 
1. "(river) quay, quay-bank, wall"; NB "bank" 
of ditch 2. "port" on river, on sea, in PINs; rab 
kdri "quay, port overseer"; NB "quay, port 
dues" 3. OB - "chamber of commerce" 4. OA 
"trading colony", e.g. karum Kanes, St. abs. kdr 
karma "colony by colony"; bit k. OA, also NA 
"customs house", NB "shop" S. OB ~ "current 
price" (set by karum); < Sum.; > kdrtum 

karum — » also kerru I 

karu I "to rub" jB med. G part of body; "rub on" 
medicine Gtn iter. D ~ G "rub" flesh with 
(= ina) s.th. 

karu(m) II "to be dazed" O/jB, NA G (pret. 
ikiir) D stat. ~ "is incapacitated"?; > kuru I; 
kirtu 1 

karubu "reverently greeted" M/jB, epith. of 
deities; < kardbu II 

karurtu ~ "hunger cramp" jB lex.; < kardru II ? 

karzillu — » karsillu 

kasaku — » kasku 

kasal — » kaslu 

kasamu(m) "to cut up, chop" OA, O/jB G (a/u, 
jB ///) [GAZ] body, wood, reed; med. 
malmdlis/istenis k. "chop up together"; 

> kasmu; kismu, kisimtum, kisittu; kasimum 
kasanitu (a red stone) jB [NA4.GUG.GAZI.SAR]; 

< kasu II 
kasappum (an object) 7 OB 
kasapu(m) I "to break (into bits)" O/jB, M/NA 

G (a/u) esp. bread, fig. etym. + kusdpu "to 

break bread, have meal"; wood, fingernail etc. 

D ~ G lex. only Dt pass, of D; > kassupu; 

kusdpu, kusipu I, kuspu; — » kaspu 
kasapu(m) II "to make funerary offering" 

OB(Susa), Man, jB G (///, jB once takassap) 

in kispu k. N pass., of funerary offering "be 

offered"; < kispu denom. 
kasaru(m), Bab. also keseru "to block; pave" 

O/jB, M/NA G (///') with stone, bitumen; 

"block" canal N NA of air "be blocked off; 

> kisirtu; kdsiru 



kasasu(m), kasdsu(m) "to chew, gnaw" Bab. 
G (a/u) of human, animal; of fire; of pain 
"gnaw"; OB om. of oil "encroach on" water 
Gtn (u/u) D "gnaw, cause pain"; > kdsistu; 
kissatu I ? , II, kissatu; kusdsu; kussusu; — » 
gasdsu G 

kasilaqqu — » kizaldqu 

kasilutum mng. unkn. OA 

kasimum "(reed) chopper"? OB; < kasdmu 

kasipu -* kusipu II 

kasiru(m) "barrage" O/jB in watercourse; 

< kasdru 

kasistu "gnawer" (f.) jB epith. of fire; of 

demon 7 ; < kasdsu 
kasts "in bondage"? jB; < kasu I 
kasitu "(magical) constraint" jB; < kasu I 
kasiyd — » kasu II 
kaskasu(m) "gristly extension of breast-bone, 

ensiform cartilage" Bab. [GAG.ZAG.GA] of 

sacrificial sheep; NB as cut of meat; OB of part 

of furniture-leg 
kasku — » kasku 

kaslu, kasal (a kind of land-plot) NB; < Aram.? 
kaslu — » also kislum 
kasmu "chopped" MA, jB of tree, plant; 

< kasdmu 

kaspu(m) "silver" [KU.BABBAR; OAkk, OA, 
also OB freq. KU; jB also KI.SAG] as raw 
material; used for objects; as currency; "price; 
money"; — » kasdpu I 

kassibdnu/u, kassibu — » kusipu II 

kassidakku — » kassidakku 

kassupu "broken"? NA; < kasdpu I D 

ka(s)susu(m) "(hunting) falcon" O/jB 
[SUR.MUSEN]; also as figurine; as desig. of 
hero, as PN 

kasu I "bound" j/NB [LA]; as subst. "captive"; 

< kasu III 

kasu II pi. tant.; NB Aram. pi. kasiyd (a spice 
plant, phps.) "mustard" Bab., NA [(U.)GAZI. 
SAR (GAZI freq. wr. SILA4)] as food-plant, in 
med., roasted, crushed etc., me k. "mustard 7 - 
water"; k. serri 'snake A:.' (a plant); transf. ~ 
"granule"; as desig. of semiprecious stone aban 
k. [NA4.GUG.GAZI.SAR (GAZI wr. SILA4)]; 
> kasanitu; kasutu II 

kasu(m) III "to bind" G (u/u, Hi) person, animal; 
foot, hand, of illness "grip" insides; OA transf. 
"obligate" s.o.; j/NB "bind" stone, bricks and 
mortar into wall Gtn iter, of illness D - G 
"bind" person, animal, limb; OB om. stat. of 
part of body "is grown over by" (= ace); OA 
"obligate" Dt pass, of D S caus. of G Mari 



kasu(m) 



151 



kasii(m) III 



N pass, of G; > kasu I, kasis, kasutu I, kasitu; 
kisu III; kisitu*; kusitu, kusiu; maksu, maksutu 

kasu(m) m. & f.; pi. f. "cup, bowl" [GAL; MB on 
(DUG.)GU.ZI] freq. of metal; for oil, wine; MB, 
NA as measure of capacity 

kasulathu (a copper item) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kasumma — » kazumma 

kasurru — » kisurru 

kasusu — » kassusu 

kasutu I "bondage" jB; < kasA I 

kasutu II "mustard 7 plant" NA; < kasu II nom. 
unit. 

kasabu ~ "to reduce, pare off? jB, NA G (a/u) 
stat. of part of body; of gold St 2 mng. unci., 
phps. "reach fullness" N "be reduced"?; 
> kdsibu; — » hasdbu I 

kasadum "to seize hold" OA G not attested 
D person, goods Dt pass, "be seized" N of 
person, goods "be seized"; > kussudu 1 

kasapu, kesepu "to think" NA, NB G (///) 
"reckon, estimate", stat. of goods "are reckoned 
at" value D "take s.th. into consideration, think 
out" s.th.; > kisiptu 

kasaru — » kasru 

kasaru(m) "to tie, knot; gather" G (a/u, Bab. 
occas. Hi) [KESDA; KAD, KAD in PNs] 1. "knot, 
tie up" string, hair, cloth 2. "gather" troops, 
animals, goods; "compose" literary work 
3. "organize" work, battle, protection 4. "gather, 
form" cloud, smoke, astr. glow; absol. of cloud 
etc. "form, be concentrated" S. "join together, 
construct" camp, wall, fort 6. of ice 
"consolidate", of part of body "contract 7 , go 
hard", transf. Id kdsir ikki "not hardening the 
heart", i.e. merciful 7. of god "strengthen" man, 
esp. in PNs Gt stat. recipr. "is interwoven"; "is 
clad in" fear, radiance D ~ G "bind round"; 
"assemble" troops; "organize" battle; 
"construct" camp, fort; Mari "fortify" town; of 
illness "paralyse 7 "; of field, stat. "is hard" 
Dt "gather together" of troops, clouds DRt 
Mari S caus. "cause to organize" battle; stat. "is 
hardened"? St "gather" troops etc. "together" 
N pass, of G "be gathered"; of work "be 
organized"; of part of body "be bound" by 
cramp ?, "paralysed"?; > kasru; kisru, kisirtu; 
kassdrum, kassarutum; kdsiru, kdsirtum 
kdsirutu; kdsiranupsi; kissuru; kuslrum*; 
kussuru; taksiru; maksaru; sutaksuru 

kasasu(m) I, gasdsu "to grind, grate" O/jB, NA 
G (a/u) [KA.GUZ] usu. "grind, grate" o.'s teeth, 
also absol., without obj., as sign of aggression; 



"rub"? tongue, heart; ext. stat. "is rubbed away" 
Gtn iter, "persistently grind" teeth, also absol. 
D "cut down, cut back" wings, nails, fingers 
Dt pass, of D of fingers St ~ G, of Adad 
"grind" (teeth) N ~ G as sign of aggression ? 
Ntn ~ Gtn; > gassu II, gassatu*; gisisu?; 
kassisu; kussusu; taksisitu 
kasasu II ~ "rain"? jB 
kasdsu — » also gazdzu; kasdsu 
kasatam -» kasdttam 
kasatis "in early morning" jB; < kasdtu 
kasa(t)tam "in early morning" OB; < kasdtu 
kasatu(m) f. pi. "early morning" O/jB; 

< kasu lll;> kasatis; kasdttam; — » muskasat 
kasibu ~ "reducing" jB coram.; < kasabu 
kasiranupsi (a functionary) OB(Alal.); 

< kasdru 

kasirtu — » kisirtu 1 ; qasirtu 

kasirtum "female 'knotter', tailor" OB; < kdsiru 

kasiru(m) 'knotter', "tailor"? [LU.(TUG.)KA. 

KESDA] alongside weaver, NA, NB rab k. 

"chief tailor", NB of hats; also jB lex. (a kind of 

mongoose); OA, as var. of kassdrum; < kasdru 
kasirutu "craft of tailor 7 " NB; < kdsiru 
kasisihatu (a spice) j/NB 
kasru(m), jB occas. kasaru "firmly joined, solid" 

of troops, clan; OA "well packed" of donkey; 

"clustered" of skin marks; astr. of halo ~ 

"concentrated"; < kasdru 
kassarum ~ "packing-supervisor" OAkk, OA, 

Mari of goods in boat, in donkey caravan ( O A 

— » also kdsiru); < kasaru; > kassarutum 
kassarutum "function as packing-supervisor" 

OA; < kassdrum 
kassidakku(m), kazzidakkufm) "miller" Bab. 

[(LtJ.)KA/GAZ.zi.DA(- )]; NB also Kassidakku, 

as family name; < Sum. 
kassisu "habitually grinding teeth" jB of person; 

< kasdsu I 

kassu — » gassu II; gazzu; kasu I 

kassutu uncert. NB 

kasu(m) I, Bogh. kassu; f. kasitu "cold" Bab., 
NA [SED7] of water, place; oven; transf. Bogh. 
of words; < kasu III 

kasum II, qasum "the (Mesopotamian) steppe" 
Mari; < W.Sem. 

kasii(m) III "to be(come) cold" Bab., M/NA 
G (//;') [SED7] of water, weather; med. of 
patient; infin. kase umi "cool of the day, 
evening" Gtn iter, of patient, part of body 
"continually become cold" D [SED7] "cool 
down" (trans.) land; horse, after exercise; med. 
part of body, concoction; glass in kiln; transf. 



kasu 152 

"calm" heart; > kasu I, kasdtu, kasdtis, 
kasdttam; kisu; kusu, kusu, kusdyu; mukarsitu 1 ; 
taksdtu 

kasu "to skin, flay" M/NB, NA G (u, Nuzi also 
T) "skin" animal, captive; "flay" skin (of 
captive); "strip" off layer, from eye, plant? 
D ~ G "flay" animal, person S caus. of G Mari 
N pass, of G; > kisu I; kd'isu; makdsu; takdsu 1 

kdsa -* kdsim 

kasadu(m) "to reach, arrive; accomplish; 
conquer" G (alu) [KUR; jB occas. SA.SA] 
1. "reach, arrive at" place, level; person; time, 
day, season; of time, event "arrive"; also + ana, 
ana serlmuhhi, adi 2. "stretch as far as", "be 
contiguous with"; of house "equal" (in value) 

3. "(succeed in) reach(ing)", "locate" s.o., s.th. 

4. "achieve, get" silver, health, offspring, 
kingship; desire, plan 5. "conquer" land, city, 
"defeat" enemy; of demon, curse, ordeal "catch 
up with, overcome"; freq. qdtum as subj. 
6. "complete, accomplish" job, field(-work); 
"master" instructions 7. of supplies, people "be 
sufficient, adequate" Gtn iter, of G OB Gt OB 
lex., mng. unci. D "drive off, chase away" 
person, demon, animal; "send away" 
messenger; Nuzi "disinherit"; OA, Mari, Bogh. 
"pursue, follow up" s.o., M/NA "chase, catch 
up with" animal Dtn iter, of D "constantly 
pursue"; Alal. "repeatedly send away" wife 
Scaus. of G St OB "complete (work on)" field 
N pass, of G; NB also of payment, land- 
holding "belong with, pertain to" Ntn ~ Gtn of 
G 5; > kasdu, kasittu; kdsidu; kisdu, kisittu; 
kussudu; mukassidu 

kasdhum -* hasdhu 

kasdme — ♦ kisamma 

kasansardtum -* kanasarru 

kdsanu — ► kdsunu 

kasapu(m) "to cast spells (on s.o. = ace), 
bewitch" O/jB G (ill) D ~ G; > kispu; kusdpu; 
kassaptu, kassdpu, kassdputu 

kasaru(m), keseru "to restore; have success" 
G (OAkk, OB alu, later Hi) 1. "repair" building 
etc.; "replace" grain etc.; in PNs, of deity 
"compensate" 2. of person "accomplish" s.th. 
"successfully"; of illness "be(come) satis- 
factory" D ~ G "restore" building 
N ingress, of G "be accomplished success- 
fully"; > kisertumr; kusiru; kusurraum; 
taksitu; kisimi?, kisirtu 1 ; kusdru^, kusartu 

kasasu(m) I "to gain control of, acquire" OA, 
O/jB G (alu. Am. Hi) liter., property, leg. 
"assume control of s.o., Am. "control" enemy; 



kassu 



transf., wisdom D OA "make, acquisitions" 
N OB, with kissdtum "be taken as pledge" 
Rtn ? (ptcp. muktassassu) jB "constantly gain 
mastery over" s.o.; > kassu, kaskassu; kdsisum; 
kasusu; kissii, kissu; kissdtum, kissutu; — ♦ 
kissatu I 

kasasu II ~ "to become dizzy"? jB G (ulu) of 
patient 

kasatu(m) "to cut off Bab, NA G (Hi) "chop 
down" tree, vine; "cut off caravan, 
descendants; "cut down" oil issue 

kasaum —* kasu II 

kasdu(m), NB kaldu "achieved, successful" Bab. 
[KUR] of revolt, attack; desire, plan; "sufficient, 
adequate" of work etc.; "arrived" of goods; 

< kasddu; > kasittu 
kaserkana mng. unkn. NB (a plant)? rdg. 

uncert. 
kdsi -* kdsim 
kasidu "conquering" NA in DN A Kdsiduti; 

< kasddu 
kasim. kdsi, kdsu(m), kdsa(m) "to .you" (2 sg. 

pron.) Bab., NA; OB m. & f. dat? "toj"'for you"; 

later kdsa^ = m. and kdsi =^Jjj^iso ace, gen. 

after sa Id "wi\hout rT T^*lcuasim; sdka 
*kasina "(to) you" (2 f. pi. ace, dat. pron.) not 

attested (-♦ GAG §41 i) 
kasisum "creditor, pledge-taker" OB, Ug.; 

< kasasu I 
kasittu(m) 1. OB "recovered (goods)" 2.jB 

"success"; < kasdu 
kasitu f. mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kaskada/innu -* kakardinnu 
kaskassu(m) "all powerful" Bab., as divine 

epith.; OB (desig. of divine weapon); < kassu 
kaskasum "(the cuneiform sign) KASKAL" OB 

ext. [KASKAL] 
kasku, kaskiniwe, kas(a)ku (a kind of land 

holding) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kasmahhum, kasmdhu "first class beer" O/jB 

[KAS.MAy]; < Sum. 
kasmushu (or gasmushu) (an object) 

OB(Alal.); < Hurr.? 
kassaptu(m) "sorceress" Bab. [MUNUS. 

USn(.ZU)]; < kasdpu 
kassapu "sorcerer" O/jB [LU.USn(-ZU)]; 

< kasdpu 
kassaputu "sorcery" jB akle k. me k. "bread of 

sorcery, water of sorcery"; < kassdpu 
kassidu mng. uncert. jB of sign 
kassu "massive, strong" NB of flood-waters; 

< kasasu I; > kaskassu 
kassu -* also kansu I 



kassu 



153 



katu(m) I 



kassu "Kassite" Bab. lex., of words; as PN, as 
gentilic 

kasu(m) I "to cover over" O/jB G {Hi) with 
(= ace.) dust N of person "be mistreated"? 

kasu(m) II, OAkk kasaum ~ "to increase" 
(intrans.) OAkk, OA, O/jB G (Hi) jB of profit 
(taksitu) D "make profit", infin. kussu "profit"; 
stat. "is plentifully endowed with" hair; "ex- 
pand" temple St OB mng. unci.; > kussiP; 
taksA, taksitu 

kasum III mng. unkn. OAkk G (pret. iksu) 

kasu "to delay, linger" M/NA, M/NB G (u) of 
person; of plant "be late" D "hold up, delay" 
s.o.; NA "tarry" St "be held up, delayed"? 

kasu —* also kdsim; kidsum 

kasudu "informer" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kasunu, NA before stress kdsanu- "you" (2 m. 
pi. pron.) M/NB, NA dat., after ana; gen.; ace; 
-♦ kdtunu 

kasurritu (textile from Gasur) jB lex. 

kasu(r)ru(m) "of Gasur" 1. "basalt" jB in myth, 
for door-sockets 2. OA, of person, of textile; 

< PIN (= Nuzi) 

kasusu(m) (a divine weapon) O/jB of Nergal; 

om., as desig. of catastrophe; as epith. of deity, 

king; < kasasu I 
kasutu mng. unkn. jB comm. 
kdta -* kdti 

katabbum -* katappum 
kataduggu "saying, utterance" jB [KA.TA. 

DUG4.GA]; < Sum. 
katamlalu -* kutamlalu 
kdtamma -* qdtamma 
katammu "lid, cover" NB, for kettle, stove; 

< katdmu 

katamu(m) "to cover" G (alu) [DUL] 1. "cover 
(s.th.) up" with (= ace/ma) earth, light etc.; 
stat. "is covered" with (=ace) flesh; "close" 
lips; of dust, sand "cover, shroud" city, sky 

2. of demon etc., fear, radiance "overwhelm" 

3. "hide, secrete", "seize and detain" person, 
animal D ~ G [DUL] "cover" with (=acc./ina) 
earth, garment etc.; "close" eyes, lips; "cover 
over" vessel, oven; Am. "conceal" Dtn "keep 
constantly secret", words Dt pass, of D of 
mouth "be closed"; of person "be clad" with 
garment SD ~ D ? S caus. "make" dust "cover 
sky"; "close" lips Stn iter, "constantly close" 
mouth N "be covered" with (= ace) garment 
Ntn [DUL.DUL]? iter, "be constantly over- 
whelmed", also ~ Gtn; > katmu, katammu; 
kitmu, kitimtu; kutmu, kutwnmu; kutumtu; 



kdtimtu; kuttumu, mukattimtu; naktamu, 

naktamtu; saktumu; taktimu; kdtimisi 
katappatu, once haltappdtu (part of animal's 

breast) jB lex.; < katappum or katappu ? 
katappum (an object) OA, OB of wood, silver, 

copper; < Sum.? 
katappu "bridle, halter" M/jB [Am., Bogh. 

KUS.KA.TAB(.ANSE)] for donkey, horse; 

< Sum. 

katarru (a kind of fungus) jB, NA [KA.TAR] in 

house, on wall; < Sum.? 
kataru I "to get (as) help" NA/jB G {Hi) of 

troops; < kitru I denom.? 
kataru II ~ "to wait" NA G {Hi); < Aram. 
katatu(m) "to quiver, vibrate"? O/jB G (pret. 

iktut) of part of liver ? D "shake"? (trans.) lex. 

only Stn of flesh "quiver continually"? St "be 

disturbed", astr. "descend" 
katatu "needle"? jB lex. 
kata'um "to distrain, take as pledge" OA 

G (ala) slave, tool Gtn iter, of G D ~ G with 

pi. obj., slaves; > kdtu; kattu; kututum 
kati, kdta, jB also kdtu "you" (2 sg. pron.) Bab.; 

kdti m. & f. ace, gen.; kdta m. only, ace, gen., 

Mari also nom., jB only dat.; -♦ kudti; sdka 
katimattu, katimuttu (a bird) jB 
katimisi (a climbing plant)? jB lex.; <kdtim + 

isu 
katimtu -* katmu 
katimtu 1. jB "net" for birds etc. 2. (desig. of 

kind of door); < katdmu; -* mukattimtu 
katimuttu -* katimattu 
*katina "you" (2 f. pi. ace pron.) not attested 

(-♦GAG§41i) 
katinnu — ♦ kattinnu 
katmu(m) "covered" O/jB of earth; "concealed"; 

f. katimtu "a secret", k. sade "secret places of 

mountains" etc.; < katdmu 
katrti — ♦ kadru 
kattamma -* kayydnu 
kattd'um — ♦ kattti 
kattillu, kattellu (a predatory animal) Bogh., jB 

killing horse; among demons, diseases 
ka(t)tinnu (a metal weapon) MB(Alal.), Nuzi, 

Emar 
kattu — ♦ gattu I; ku 
kattu(m), kattd'um, kattu'wrp- "corroborator" 

OAkk, OA ? , O/jB of judicial statement; 

< kata'um 
katum (a tool) OB? 

katu(m) I "weak, needy" O/jB; < katum II; 
> katutu 



katum II 



154 



keltum 



katum II "to become poor" OA; > katu I, katutu; 
— » qadd'um 

katu "surety, pawn" MA for loan; < katd'um 

katu — » kati; ka'um; qayydtu 

katunu "you" (2 m. pi. pron.) M/jB ace, gen., 
after ana; — » MSunu; kunuti 

katum — » kitturru I 

katutu "poverty" jB; < katu I 

katdpum — » qatdpu 

ka'u — » kam'atum or kammu II; kayyu 

ka"u D NA "to wave" frond 

ka'um; pi. Aratam (a cloth) OA 

fcfl'j/ — » ga'w 

ka"ulu — » /:«//« III 

kauriyannu mng. unkn. Nuzi in desig. of gold 
vessel 

ka'urraku "carver of reliefs"? jB lex.; < Sum.? 

kawali — » qawali 

kawalzuru (a metal object) Nuzi; < Hurr.; — » 
qawali 

kawarum, MA kabdru, NB kamma/dru, kamru 
~ "ramp" Bab., MA; Man also (a component of 
jewellery) 

kawatumma in k. epeSu ~ "to plunder" or 
"confiscate"? Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

kawum I, kamu "outer" Bab. [(AN.)AS.A.AN; 
BAR(.RA)], bdbum k. "outer gate"; f. kamitu 
"(area) outside", kamltuS "to the outside"; f. pi. 
kawlmatu(m) "environs" of city, "open 
country"; > kamdtiS; kamitu II, kimd, takwurrC- 

kawum II, kamu "to burn" (trans.) Bab. G rare 
D "roast, bake" N pass. lex. only; > nakmu; 
takwum'- 

kayyaman(a) — » kayyamanu 

kayyamaniu — » kayyamanu 

kayyamanu(m) "permanent, regular" Bab., NA 
[SAG.US] "permanent" water etc.; astr., ext. 
"normal(ly present)" of features; as adv., also 
kayyamdnfa) "constantly"; (desig. of planet) 
"Saturn" [also TUR.DIS]; <kayydnu (irreg. 
extended form); > kayyamaniu, kayyamdnd 

kayyamanu, NA kayyamaniu "reliable" j/NB of 
words; NA "permanent" [(LU.)SAG.US] of 
soldier, of lion; of offering "regular"; as adv. 
"constantly"; < kayyamanu + -I 

kayydn(alu), kayyanamma — » kayyanu 

kayyanis "constantly" OB; < kayyanu 

kayyanu(m) "constant, regular" OA, Bab. 
[SAG.US; jB also GUB] of tribute, rain, famine 
etc.: of person "constantly present"; of part of 
liver "normal"; OB klma kayyantimfma) "as 
normal"; in adv. usages OB kayyantam, also 
(ana) kattam(ma), O/jB kayydn, M/NB 



kayydna/u, kayyanamma "regularly, con- 
stantly"; jB "in usual meaning"; < kdnu; 

> kayyamanu; kayyanis 
kayyanzu ~ "property"? Emar 
kayyipu "criminal" jB lex. 

kayyu, ka'u, akayu "(donkey) stick" jB lex.; also 

part of loom 
kazabu (a plant) jB lex. 
kazabu(m) I "to be attractive, alluring" O/jB 

G stat. of cow D "flatter, fawn" of man, dog; 

> kazbum; kuzbu, kuzbdnu, kuzbdnltu, 
kuzubtum; kuzdbum; kanzabu; kuzzubu; 
mukanzibtu 

kazabu II "to tell lies" Am. G (Hi); < W.Sem.; 

> kazbutu 

kazallu (a plant) jB [U.KA.ZAL] as drug 

kazalluhu (a plant) jB lex. 

kazan, kazanena — » qazan 

kazdru — » kezeru 

kazazakku mng. unkn. jB lex.; < Sum.? 

kazdzu — » gazdzu 

kazbum "charming, alluring" OB as fPN 

Kazubtum; < kazabu I 
kazbutu "lies" Am. in awdt k.; < kazabu II 
kazirsu mng. unci. Nuzi 
kazirtum (desig. of slavewoman) OB 
kaziru "fringe, curl"? M/jB of plant, also med. (a 

plant); of stone ornament, pi. kazirdnu; 

< kezeru ? 

kazitassu mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kaziztu subst. "cutting off 'jB ext.; < gazdzu 

kazratu — » kezretu 

kazu — » kizti 

kazumma (or kasumma) in k. epesu of woman ~ 

"to scratch" s.o.? Nuzi; < Hurr.? 
kazurhu, kazuShu (a garment); < Hurr. 
kazzapurushu (an implement) Nuzi, of copper; 

< Hurr. 

kazzaurnu ~ "substitute, compensation"? Nuzi; 

< Hurr.? 
kazzidakku — » kassidakku 
kazzu — » kizzu I 

ke, a(k)ke, ikke "how?", "how!" in exclamations 
before vb., adj. in st. abs.; in rhetorical 
questions; OA before number, "approximately"; 
— kl 

ke' am — » klam 

kike — » klkl 

kelesu — » kaldsu 

keltum (a disease) OB lex. 

keltum — » also kaltum 

keltuhlu — > geltuhlu 

kem — » klam 



kenniwe 



155 



kibarru 



kena — » kina 

kenu — » kinu 

kenutu — » klnutu 

kenniwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 

keppu(m) "skipping rope" O/jB; also as an 
attribute of Istar; < kepu 

kepu(m), kapu "to bend (back)" O/jB G [GAM] 
stat. of part of liver, of body, horns of moon 
"are curved" D ~ G stat. "is curved" Dtn OB 
mng.? St(n ? ) of Istar "make s.th. whirl 
round"?; > keppu 

kerdippu — » kartappu 

keremu — » kardmu 

kergllu — » gergllu 

kerhu(m) "enclosure wall; enclosed area" Bab., 
NA of city, temple court 

kerku(in) I "blockage"? Bab., of water-flow; NB 
in susdnu sa ker(e)k(et)i (an irrigation work- 
er)?: < kardku 

kerku II "roll" NA, NB of cloth, of papyrus; 
< Aram. 

kerlainmu (a small vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 

kerperushu (an object on wall) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kerretu — » genu I 6; kirretu; kirru; qerltu 

kerridir — » genidir 

kerru(m) I, Mari karrum, kdrum "male sheep" 
OAkk, OA, Mari 

kerru(m) n "(area of) collarbone" Bab., of 
human, left, right; also du.; of bird 

kerrum — » also gerru I 

kersappu — » gistappu 

kersu, gersu "pinched-off piece, lump" M/jB, 
OA ? of clay; of dough; OA of piece of metal ?; 
of miscarried foetus ? , also um k.; < kardsu 

kern — » klru I 

kerzizu (an object) jB in Marduk Sa k.; rdg. 
uncert. 

keseru — » kasdru 

kesu — » klsu II 

kesu (a prof.)? jB lex. 

kesu(m) mng. unkn. OB, jB lex. G 

kesepu — » kasdpu 

keSeru — » kaSdru 

kettu — » kittu I 

ketu — » kittu I; kltu 

kezertum — » kezru 

kezeru(m), kazdru "to give s.o. a (special kind 
of) hair-do" O/jB, NA G (Hi) king, woman, 
animal; OB nebehlparsl kezerim (a payment 
relating to function of a kezretum); > kezru, 
kezretu, kezrutu; kizirtu; kuzlrum; kaziru*- 



kezretu(m), kazratu "woman with (special kind 
of) hair-do" O/jB, NA [MUNUS.SUHUR.LA] a 
type of cultic prostitute; OB wakil kezretim 
"overseer of the prostitutes"; jB issur kezreti (a 
bird); < kezeru 

kezru(m); f. kezertum "with (special kind of) 
hair-do" O/MB lex., NA [lu.SUHUR.LA] also 
as PN, fPN; < kezeru 

kezrutu "status of a kezretu" MB; < kezretu 

-ki, -k, NB -ku "you" (2 f. sg. ace. suff.) (-» 
GAG §42g-k) 

-ki — » also -kim 

ki "like; how?; as" 1. prep.: "like"; "according 
to"; "for" (a price); "on account of; before 
infin., kl Id meke "without negligence", kl Sakdn 
bilte "by imposing tribute"; MB kl qdt, jB kl Sa 
"instead of 2. interrog. adv.: "how?", NA PNs 
before prec. "How should I ...?"; — » kiyd; 
masu I G 6 3. conj. usu. + subjunct. [NB GIM] 
temporal: "when" before pret., perf., pres., stat. 
4. condit.: NB "if before perf., pres.; Id 
introducing oath = neg., e.g. kl undeSSer "if I 
abandon" = "I will not abandon", kl Id = pos. 
(kl adi before pres.); kl ...kl "whether ... or"; 
Sa'dlu kl "to ask" etc. "whether" 5. MB 
"because" 6. "that" after vb. of knowing, 
saying, swearing 7. "just as", usu. kl Sa; > klam 
etc.; klkl; klma, klme; ke; kiSuma; — » akanna I; 
akl; klnaniia 

kla — » klam; kiyd 

kia'im in k. u k. "here and there" Mari; also Am. 
ki-ia-am . . . ki-ia-am; — » klam 

kiaki "thus"? OB(poet.) 

kiam, kla, Mari also kem, M/NB also kd(m) "so, 
thus" [UR5.GIM] 1. of way of speaking, writing, 
calculating etc.; "etc., and so on"; SI lu k. "so be 
it (for ever)"; OB Summa Id klamma "if it is 
not the case", MA u Id kla 2. O/MA k.-ma "just 
so, in the same way" 3. OB as pred. ~ "it is", 
warhum klam "it has been a month"; + pron. 
suff. klaSSa "she is like that" 4. after prep., 
inalana k., OA akklam, OB(N.Mes.) also 
ikkem "hence, in consequence"; aSSum k. "for 
that reason, purpose" 5. Jfc. . . . Jfc. "once... 
another time, now ... then", of person jfc.' jfc. "so- 
and-so" 6. O/jB interrog. "how (much)?"; < kl 
+ -am; > kdmma; — » akia; kia'im; klaSSu 

kia(s)su Bab. lex. = klam + -Su "in that way" 

kiasum, jB kdSu "to help" O/jB, esp. infin. 
"assistance, support"; > kiSamma ? 

kibaltu (a kind of semiprecious stone) jB lex. 

kibalu, kipald "rebel land" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kibarru "boat of inflated skins"? NA/jB 



ki(b)bu(m) I 



156 



kigallu(m) 



kibasu — » kibsu II 

kibbdtu — » fc'Mu II 

ki(b)bu(m) I; pi. ki(b)bdni (an object) Bab., NA; 
of gold; < Sum.? 

kibbu(m) II; lex. pi. f. "bum mark, brand"? Bab.; 
Mari (an extispicy procedure)?; < kabdbu II 

kibegum "initial state" OB math.; < Sum. 

kibiltu unci. jB lex.; — » kabdlu 

kibinu (syn. for) "father" jB lex. 

kibirru(m); pi. m. & f. 1. Bab. ~ (a weapon) 
2. Bab. lex. "taper, fire-brand"; < Sum. 

kibittum — » kabittu 1 

kiblu — > kiplu 

kibnu — » &;/j/w< 

kibrdtu — » fa'A™ 

kibritu, kubritu "sulphur" M/jB [PlSio(=Kl.A). 
( d )lD; PlSio- d lD.LU.RU.GU; also kibri- d lD (folk 
etym.)] as drug, of various colours; rit, om.; 
isdt k. "fire of s." 

kibru(m), kipru(m); pi. m. & f. "bank, shore, 
rim" [PlS|o(=Kl.A)] of river, canal, sea, as safe 
place; "rim" of oil cup; "border, edge" of 
furniture, boat; of part of body, k. inim "rim 
(=white) of eye"; in kibrdt erbetti(m)larba' 'i(m) 
[UB.DA.LIMMU(.BA)] "the four edges" of the 
world, jB also kibrdtum alone [UB.MES] "the 
world" 

kibru. kubaru - "old man" jB lex. 

kibrum — » also kiprum 

kibsu(m) I; pi. m. & f. "track, footprint" [KI.US] 

1. "tread, imprint" of foot, k. redu "to follow a 
track", sa kibsi "tracker" (NA — » rddiu 2); 
"droppings" of animal, as drug; MA "rung" of 
ladder, jB "step"; k. sepe "soles of feet" 

2. "track, route" of person, animal, k. sakdnu 
"to make o.'s way"; transf. "mode of life, 
behaviour, course of life" 3. math, "way of 
calculation"; OA kibsdtum "deducted amounts"; 
< kabdsu 

kibsu II, NB also kibasu (a garment) M/NB usu. 
of deity 

kibsum I (or kipsu) "donkey foal"? OA 

kibsu II (or kipsu) (a fungal mould) jB as skin- 
complaint; zer k. as drug 

kibsu (or kipsu) (a bird) jB lex. 

kibtu(m); pi. kibdtu, Mari kabdtum "wheat" 
Bab., NA [(SE.)GIG(.BA); NB also GIG.Bl] 

kidam "to the outside" OB; < kidu 

kidadabru (a plant) jB lex. 

kidanu(m), kididnu adv. "outside" Bab., MA of 
buildings salana k, "exterior"; of persons 
"away" from home, family, land; as prep, 
"outside" gate etc.; < kidu + -dnum 



kidanu "external" MB of wall; < kiddnu + -i 

kidapasse — » kindabasse 

kiddum — » kidu 

kiddudu — » kidudu 

kidennu — » kidinnu 

kididnu — » kiddnu 

kidil — ► kidinnu 

kidimuri — » kadmuru 

kidinetu "forest" jB lex. 

kidinnu(m), kidennu(m), kidinu - "protection, 
aegis" OB(Susa), M/NA, M/NB [UBARA; in 
PNs also BAR] at Susa ~ "divine protection" for 
person; later also privileged status (incl. tax 
exemption) of cities and their citizens, amelldl 
k. "exempted man/city"; in PN Kidin-DN (NB 
also Kidil- before Ellil, Iltar); jB "protective 
watch"; < Elam.; > kuddunu; kidinnu I, 
kidinnutu 

kidinnu I; f. kidinnitu "protege(e)" M/NB, esp. 
as (f)PN; < kidinnu 

kidinnu II (or kitinnu) 1. NB (a fabric, textile)? 
(-» kidintu) 2. j'/NB (a metal object) 3. NB (a 
payment or delivery) 

kidinnutu "exempt status, protection" j/NB, NA 
esp. in k. kasdru, k. sakdnu "to establish 
(s.o.'s) exemption"; < kidinnu 

kidintu f. var. of kidinnu II 1 ? 

kidinu — » kidinnu 

kiditu "exterior part" O/jB [SA] om. (a part of the 
liver); pi. kldetum, kididtu - "outlying 
establishments"; < kidu 

kidkidru — » kukkudru 

kidmuri — » kadmuru 

kidrum — » kadru 

kidu(m) "exterior" O/jB of part of geometrical 
figure; "external" of plaster on wall; astr. of 
moon's halo; MB as fPN "(Woman) from 
outside"; < kidu + -i; > kiditu 

kidu(m), OB also kiddum; pi. m. & f. "outside, 
countryside", esp. as opp. to in the city; as 
habitat of plants, animals; "outside" of building, 
of human body; > kidam; kiddnu, kiddnu; kidu, 
kiditu 

kidudu, kiddudu pi. tant. "rites" jB, NA 
[KI.DU.DU] of ritual in temple, freq. with parsu; 

< Sum. 

kigallu(m) "socle, pedestal" OAkk, Bab., NA 
[KI.GAL] of building, statue; "(foundation of 
earth =) underworld", also in DN Eres-kigal; 

< Sum. 

kigallu — » also igigallu; kagallu 
kiga(l)lu -> kikallu 



kigamlum 



157 



kima 



kigamlum, OA also kugamlum, M/NA gugamlu 

"animal pen" Ass., OB; OA for donkeys, MA 

lambs 
kigullatu (desig. of a woman) jB, among 

paupers etc. 
kigullu ~ "place of destruction" jB lex.; <Sum. 
kigurrum (a mathematical body) OB; < Sum.? 
kihullu "mourning rites" jB [KI.HUL]; also 

"mourning place"; < Sum.; — » gihlu 
kika "thus, like"? Am.; < W.Sem. 
kika(l)lu, kiga(l)lu "hard ground" Bab. [KI.GAL 

(.LA)]; < Sum.; — » kagallu 
kikamunu "third in line" Nuzi [3-mu-nu] of 

person for duty; < Hurr.; — » kukumnu 
kikarpu "three-year-old" Nuzi, of animals; 

< Hurr. 

kikl, keke, kikiva "how?" M/jB in exclamation; 

<ki 
kikittu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kikittu "ritual procedure" M/jB [KiD.KID 

(.DA/Bl)];<Sum. 
kikiya — » kikl 
ki(k)killu — » kilkillum 
kikkimu, kikkisu (desig. of a reed artefact) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
kikkiranu(m), kikkiridnu, kirkiranu, kilkillrdnu, 

kiskiranu, kiskaldnu, MB(Bogh.), Ug. 

kirkiriyannu "pine or juniper seeds" O/jB, MA 

[SIM.SE.LI/LA(.BABBAR)] 
kikkisu(m), NA kikkisu "reed fence, wall" O/jB, 

NA [GI.SIG]; as enclosure for field, orchard; as 

hut for ritual 
kikkisu — > kikkimu 
kiksu ~ "splinter of wood" jB lex. 
kikunannum, kipunannum (an item of dress) 

OA 
kikunnum — » gegunnu 
kikurru ~ "temple foundation" jB; < Sum. 
kilallan, kilallu(n); f. kilattdn, OA also kilaltdn, 

OB gen. kilettin "both" [MAS.TAB.BA] of 

persons, things, as subst. or adj.; with pron. 

suff., e.g. OA kilalldkunu "both of you"; OB st. 

abs. kilalal kilalal "in pairs"; — > kalu II 
kilamu — > gildmu 
kilattdn — » kilallan 
kilatu pi. tant. "barrage" M/NB in watercourse; 

< kalu V 
kildu — » kisdu 
kill — ► kalu II 

kilibbu "total" jB lex.?; < Sum. 
kilibbum — » also kilimbu 

kilidar (desig. of horse) MB, also as name of 
horse 



kilildnu — » kardnu 4 

kilTlis "as with a wreath" jB with vb. of 

surrounding; < kililu 
kililu(m) "wreath" OAkk, Bab., NA [GILIM] 

1. head ornament for humans, gods, of silver, 
gold; OAkk, OB transf. desig. of DN in PNs 

2. jB, NA, NB also killilu "parapet" of wall, 
building 3. Bab. lex. (a kind of rush)? 4. (issur) 
k. (an owl); d K. (a female demon); > kililis; 
kullulu II, kulilum II; — » kululu 

kilimbu, kilibbum, kilimmu "reed bundle" O/jB 

[GI.GILIM]; < Sum. 
kilimmu -*kilimbu 
kilippu — » kuluppu 
kilitum "restraint" Mari, as function of door; 

< kalu V 
kilkildnu — » kikkirdnu 

kilkillum, jB ki(k)killu (a reed structure) O/jB, 

for rituals 
kilkirdnu — » kikkirdnu 
killatu — » kullatu I 
killilu -» kililu 2 
killilu — » kulilltu 
killu(m) mng. unci. 1. OB ext. (part of liver)? 

2. jB lex. in aban killi (a stone) 
killu — > also ikkillu; kllu I 
kilpum I "profit"? OA 

kilpu II mng. unkn. NB 

kilsukku (or kirsukku, habsukku ?) (part of 

plough) jB lex. 
kilsu ~ "(physical) contraction" jB comm.; 

< kaldsu 
kiltappu — » gistappu 

kllu I, NB killu "enclosure, confinement" M/NB 
[KI.SU] of prisoner; bit k. "prison"; sa k. 
"prisoner"; issur k. "cage-bird"; < kali) V; — » 
k. II 

kilum II "finale" of song Mari; = k. I ? 

kilubu "(bird) cage, trap" Am.; < W.Sem. 

kilullu ~ "massacre" jB lex.; < Sum.? 

kilupinnum — » kulupinnum 

kilzappu — » gistappu 

-kirn, -ki "to you" (2 f. sg. dat. suff.) (-» GAG 
§42g-h) 

kim — » kima 3 

kima adv. "outside" jB; < kawum I 

kima "like; when, as, that" [GIM] 1. "like", in 
similes; "according to" measure, word, decree 
etc.; math, "equal to", "equal in rank to"; "as" of 
person's role, number's function 2. "in place of, 
instead of, sa kima PN "PN's repre- 
sentative^)"; kima kunukki "instead of a seal" 

3. OB klm(a) inanna "right now", kima 



kima' 



158 



kinitu II 



saldsisu "just three times", kima pdnisu "at 
once"; Am. + adv. "... as possible", e.g. kima 
mddis "as much as possible" 4. before infin. "in 
order to", kima libbika Id mardsim "so that you 
should not feel insulted"; OA kima itappulim 
ittanapulunidti "they will pay us as far as 
possible"; OB kima Id nabsi "as though it had 
not occurred"; "instead of doing s.th.; "in spite 
of doing s.th.; "as soon as", kima ase samsi 
"as soon as the sun rises/rose" 5. adv., OB after 
sa "from time to time, on occasion"; asar kima 
sapdrim "wherever he may send" 6. conj. 
"when" (NA + indie.) 7. conj. "because", "in 
such a way that" 8. conj. "that" after vb. of 
saying, knowing 9. conj. "as" in comparative 
clauses, kima tidu "as you know", also ana 
kima, akkima; kima sa "just as though"; < ki + 
-ma; — » kime; kimu; kum 

kima' "how much?" NB; < Aram. 

kima(h)hu(m), gimdhu "grave, tomb" Bab., NA 
[KI.MAH]; bit k. "mausoleum"; < Sum. 

kimdnu — » kimu 

kimarru — » gamarru 

kimatu — » kimtu 

kimdu(m) (a kind of cloth) OB, Ug., jB ? ; 

< kamddu 

kime "like; as, that" Alal., Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. 

1. prep, "like", "according to" 2. conj. (freq. + 
indie.) "when", "if; "because"; "that" after vb. 
of saying etc.; "in order that"; "as, in the way 
that"; < kl + -me II 

kimek (part of a vehicle) jB lex. 

kimiltu "wrath, anger" M/NB of deities [DIB; 

DINGIR.SA.DIB.BA]; < kamdlu 
kimirtu(m) "sum, total" Bab. esp. math.; 

< kamdru IV 

kiinitu "bondage" jB; < kamu II 

kimkimmu, kinkimmu l.jB "wrist (joint)" 

2. lex. (syn. of taboo) 

kimmagatu pi. tant. (a kind of textile) MB 

kimru(m) "layering), heap(ing)" O/jB, NA of 
dates; NA ( udu )£. (a sacrificial sheep); Am. (a 
festival); < kamdru IV 

kimrum — » also gimru 

kimsu(m), kimu, kissum "shin, lower leg" Bab., 
NA [DUio-GAM] 1. "shin, calf of human, left, 
right, also du.; of animal, constellation; of boot 
2. Nuzi (a measure of length, = esemtu, 3 /4 
cubit) 3. "support", OB of DN in PN; math, of 
three-dimensional body; Nuzi (part of a lock); 
— » kamdsu II 

kimtu(m), kintum, kimatu f. "family" [IM.RI.A] 
bit k. "family house"; -» kimu 



kimu "family" jB; — » kimtu 

kimu, NB also kimdnu "instead of Bab., M/NA; 

as prep. OB kimusulsa "instead of him/her"; "in 

return for"; Nuzi "as" share, gift etc.; — » kima; 

kimufalu; kum 
kimuhlu "substitute"? Nuzi; < kimu + Hurr. 

-uhlu 1 
kimiitu "bondage" jB; < kamu II 
kimzuru mng. unkn. jB in k. sa ameluti "human 

k." as drug 
-kin(a) "your" (2 f. pi. gen. suff.) (-► GAG 

§42g-k) 
kina, kena "yes!" OA; < kinu 
kinahhu; Hurr. pi. kinahfyena "purple" Nuzi in 

minas; garments sa k.; < PIN Kinah(n)i ? 
kinakata adv.? mng. unkn. MA 
kinaltu — » kinistu 
kinanna "so, thus" Am., Nuzi, Bogh.; — » ki; 

inanna 
kinartu — » kinistu 
*kinasi(m) "to you" (2 f. pi. dat. pron.) (— » 

GAG §4 If) 
-kinasi(m) "to you" (2 f. pi. dat. suff.) (-» GAG 

§42g-k); jB also ace. 
kinastu — » kinistu 
kinati "you" (2 f. pi. ace. pron.) Bab. unattested 

(-»GAG§41f);OAdat. 
-kinati "you" (2 f. pi. ace. suff.) Bab. (-► GAG 

§42g-k);OAdat. 
kinattu(m), kindtu; pi. m., later also f. kindtdtu 

1. "employee, menial"; as coll. "staff; 
OB(Chagar Bazar) sut k. (a sutu-measure); 

2. j/NB, NA business or prof, "colleague" 
kinattutu "colleagueship" jB; Am. "personnel"; 

< kinattu abstr. 
kindtu — » kinattu 
kindtu — » kinu; kittu I 

kinayyatu pi. tant. (a present, payment or 

offering) j/NB, N A 
kinburru (a nest)? jB of a bird; < Sum. 
kindabasse, kindabasse, kidapasse etc. ~ 

"loincloth" M/NA 
kingallu "leader of assembly" jB epith. of Nabu; 

< Sum. 

kingu — » kinkum I 

kinis "reliably, genuinely" OAkk, Bab. 

"faithfully, truly"; "duly, legitimately"; "right-' 

eously"; < kinu 
kinistu, kinastu, kinaltu, kinartu "priesthood, 

religious staff NB [LU.UKKIN]; < kandsu II 
kinitum I (a kind of emmer) Mari 
kinitu II (or qinitu) "concubine"? jB lex. 
kinkimmu — » kimkimmu 



kinkum I 



159 



kiribinnu 



kinkum I, j/NB kingu "sealing" Bab., of bag, 

door; OB "sealed tag"; < kandku 
kinkum II (a festival) OB; (name of 6th month 

at Esn.) 
kinnanu (syn. of) "father" jB lex. 
kinnarum; pi. f. ~ "lyre" Mari, Ug.; < W.Sem. 
kinnaruhuli "lyre player" Alal.; < kinnarum + 

Hurr. -uh(u)li 
kinnaskarakkum — » kannaskarakkum 
kinnikem "over there" Mari 
kinnu, ginnu, gennu "mountain" M/NB nereb(i) 

k. "mountain pass"; < Sum. 
kinsigu — » kinsikkum 
kinsigubbu (one present at afternoon meal) jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
kinsikkum, kissikkum, kinsigu, kinzigu "late 

afternoon" Bab. [KIN.SIG]; < Sum. 
kinsu — » kimsu 
kinsu "slope" j/NB, constructed round house, 

field; < kandsu I 
kintillii "completed job" jB; < Sum. 
kintum — » kimtu 
kinturru — » kitturru I 
kinu(m), Ass. kenu(m) "permanent, true" 

[GI(.NA); GIN, esp. in PNs; ZI.DA] 

1. "permanent" of health, life etc.; of part of 

liver, station of planet, temple 2. "reliable, true" 

of word, command; of person, servant, partner 

"honest"; "loyal", "righteous" of king 

3. "legitimate" of son, ruler, math, "correct", 

also of standard measures; < kdnu; > kina, 

kittu I; kinis; kinutu 
kinunatu (a tree) jB lex. 
kinunu(m), M/NA kanunu; pi. f. "brazier" 

[KI.NE; NB also KI.NE.NE] of copper, silver etc.; 

MA "oven" of brick; (a festival) esp. as name 

of 10th month, Mari, Nuzi, NA [m.AB (-► 

Tebetu)]; also in PNs; > Kinunu 
Kinunu; f. Kinunitu; Kilanundya "bom on the 

Kinunu festival" M/NB, NA [KI.NE(.NE)- ; NA 

ITI.AB- ]; < kinunu 
kinuphussi mng. unkn. Nuzi; < Hurr. 
-kinusu — » -kuniisi 
kinutu ~ "nickname" jB comm. of word for 

illness; < kanu 
kinutu, NA kenutu "loyalty, steadfastness" NA, 

NB; < kinu 
kinzigu — » kinsikkum 
kipalallu (a piece of furniture) Am. 
kipalu — » kibalu 

kiparu (an official at Susa) Bab.(Elam); < Elam. 
kipattu "vulva"? jB in sapat k. 



kipdu, kipidu "plan(s), efforts" jB, esp. with 
suddii "to make s.o. abandon plan"; < kapddu 

kipilu — » kiplu 

kipkippu (a bird of prey)? jB 

kiplu, kiblu, NA kipilu 1 "twisting, twine" M/jB 
of rope; decorative "twine" on whip, on door; 
of withies, as packaging material; also (part of 
body)?; < kapdlu 

kipnu (or kibnu) (a plant) jB lex. 

kippatu(m) "circle, hoop, ring" Bab., M/NA 
[GAM; math, also KA.KESda] 1. math, "circum- 
ference; circle" 2. "perimeter" of heaven and/or 
earth; of baldachin 3. "ring" of metal; held by 
ruler, of door; "handle, grip" of vessel, musical 
instrument; (feature on liver) 4. kakkab k. (a 
star) 5. "tendril, twining stem" of vine 6. k. 
lemutti "ring of evil"; < kapdpu 

kippu(m) "loop, trap" O/jB, NA as trap for 
birds, animals; pi. "loops" of intestines of 
sacrificial sheep, "(resultant) omens"; < kapdpu 

kipputtatu pi. mng. unkn. Susa, a device for 
casting lots or sim. 

kiprum (or kiblprum) (an object or substance) 
OB 

kipru — » also kibru 

kipsu — » kipsu; kispu 

kipsu, kipsu "constriction, contraction" jB ext.; 
< kapdsu II 

kipsanti mng. unkn. Nuzi in sa k., desig. of 
chariot 

kipsu — » kibsu I. II 

kipsu — » kibsu 

kipu; pi. kipdni (a linen cloth) NB 

kipualu, kupudlu (a kind of tamarisk) jB lex. 

kipunannum — » kikunannum 

kiqillutu "rubbish dump" NA; < Aram. 

kiradu(m) (leather container) O/jB for oil 

kirdnu — » kardnu 

kiraru mng. unkn. OB(Alal.), as MN 

kirassu — » kirissu 

kirbanu(m), karbdnum, ki/urbannu "lump (of 
earth)" Bab., NA [LAG] 1. "clay lump" in 
symbolic acts, k. nasakumlnadumlfyepu "to 
throw/cast/break a lump"; k. laqdtum "pick up 
lumps"; mag., math. 2. of other materials, 
"lump" of lapis lazuli, salt 3. k. eqli [LAG 
GAN/A.sA] (a plant, phps.) "camomile"; also ~ 
(a grasshopper) 

kirenzi "proclamation" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kirgunnu (a container) jB lex. 

kiri(b)bu (or kiri(p)pu) (a garment) jB lex.; -» 
kiribinnu 

kiribinnu (a garment) NA lex.; -» kiribbu 



kiribtu 



160 



kiskisum 



kiribtu "blessing" M/NB, NA from deity; k. DN 

"one blessed by DN" freq. in PNs; < kardbu II 
kivibu — » kiribbu 

kiribu "blessed one" NB in PN; < kardbu II 
kirikarum (a bird) OB 
kiriktu "collection, accumulation" M/NB of 

water at regulator; < kardku 
kiriinahhu "park" jB/NA, NB [GlS.KIRl6.MAy] 

of botanical garden at Nineveh; city sector at 

Uruk; < Sum. 
kirimmu "(crook of) arm" M/jB; as protection to 

child, supplicant etc.; also du. 
kirinnu/u ~ "clay lump" M/jB lex., of potter; 

< Sum.? 

kirinnu — » also girimmu 2 

kirinnu — » kirinnu 

kirippum (an oil jar) Mari 

kirippu — » also kiribbu 

kirissu(m), MA kirassu ~ "hairpin, clasp"? 

O/MA, O/jB [GIS.KIRID(=SIR)]; < Sum. 
kiris, kirlsum — » kirii 
kiritum I (a container) OB, for foods 
kirltu II 1. (a rope) jB lex., for boat 2. NB pi. 

kirala (an ornament in gold) (or — » kirratu) 
kiritu — » also qiritu 
kirium — » kirii 

kirkiranu, kirkiriyannu — » kikkirdnu 
kirlammu (a container) jB lex.; < Sum. 
kirmahhu (or gelirmahhu) "large oven, kiln" jB 

lex.; < Sum.; -» kiru I 
kirnaya (desig. of a coat) NA lex. 
kirratu(m) (or girratu(m)) (an ornament) 

OAkk, Mari, in gold; MB, attached to chair; — » 

kiritu II 2 
kirretu (a kind of meat) jB lex. 
kirru(m), kiru (a big jar) [(DUG.)KIR; OAkk 

DUG.GIR; Bogh. DUG.GIR.GAN/KIS] for liquids; 

of stone, metal; < Sum.; -» kerru; kirratu 
kirsukku — » kilsukku 
klrtu "daze, coma"? jB lex.; < kdru II ? 
kirii(m), OA kirium, term. -adv. kiris, kirlsum; pi. 

m. & f. "(fruit) plantation, orchard" [GIS.KIRI6; 

Mari also GIS.KI.SAR] esp. of date palms; 

<Sum. 
klru(ni) I, keru f. "oven, kiln" Bab. [GIR4] OB 

esp. for bitumen; < Sum. 
kiru II (an official) NB 
kiru — » also kirru 

kisal (a weight) NA/jB [KISAL] prob. V20 shekel 
kisalbarakku "outer court" OB(N.Mes.), Mari; 

< Sum.; — » kisallu 



kisallu(m), MB also kisellu; pi. f. "forecourt" 

Bab., M/NA [KISAL] of temple, palace, house; 

k. ndri "river foreshore"; < Sum.; — » 

kisalbarakku; kisalluhhu;kisalmdhu 
kisallu — » also kisallu 
kisalluhhatu(m) "female courtyard sweeper" 

O/jB [MUNUS.KISAL.LUH]; < kisalluhhu 
kisalluhhu(m) "courtyard sweeper" O/jB 

[KlSAL.LUtj]; < Sum.; > kisalluhhatu; -» kisallu 
kisalluhhutu "role of courtyard sweeper" Nuzi, 

Bogh. [KISAL.LUH- ]; < kisalluhh(at)u abstr. 
kisalmahu(m) "main court" Bab. [KISAL.MAH] 

of temple; < Sum.; -» kisallu 
kisbu — » kupsu 
kisellu — » kisallu 
kisibirritu(m), ki(s)sibirru(m), kusibirrltu, 

M/NB ku(s)sibirru, Ass. kisibarru(m) 

"coriander" [(U.)SE.LU(.SAR)]; M/NB also a 

metal object ? 
kisiggu, kisikku pi. tant. "funerary offerings" jB; 

< Sum.; — » kisikkum 

kisikkum (a vase) Mari; = kisiggu ? 

kisikku — » kisiggu 

Kis(i)limu (9th Bab. month) M/NB [ITI.GAN 

(.GAN.NA); OB rdg. uncert.]; > kissilimu 
kisilimu — » kissilimu 
kisillu — » kisallu 
kisimmu - "sour milk"? Bogh., jB 

[(U.)GA/HAB]; < Sum. 
kisimtum (a vegetable) OB; < kasdmu 
kisinnu (a bronze object) MB( Alal.) 
kisintu — » kisittu 
kisirru (a tool) NB 
kisirtu "wall facing" Mari, M/jB( Ass.) of stone, 

brick; on quay-wall, city-wall, tower, building; 

< kasdru 

kisittu(m), kisintu, kisittu "branches, boughs (of 
tree)" Bab., M/NA of cedar; for fuel; "stem" of 
reed, of stag's horn; transf. "descent" of person, 
city, k. sdti "primeval ancestry"; "descendant, 
offspring"; < kismu 

kisitu (or gislsltu) (a weapon) Nuzi; < kasu III ? 

kiskibirru, kiskibirru (a trap)? or "kindling 
wood" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kiskilatu (or kiskildtu) pi. tant. (a musical 
instrument)? jB/NA; — » kiski'u 

kiskilili (a demoness); — » lilium 

kiskirru(m), kiskirru(m) (a wooden board) 
Bab.; NB (a type of temple contribution 
(recorded on a wooden ledger)) 

Kiski(s)sum (3rd ? month) Mari, OB(Esn.) 

kiskisum (a wooden siege implement) Mari 



kiski'u 



161 



kisam 



kiski'u (a musical instrument)? jB lex.; — » 

kiskildtu 
kislahu "threshing floor" jB lex.; < Sum. 
kislaqqu — » kizaldqu 
Kislimu — » Kisilimu 
kislum, kaslu (part of body) O/jB, NA of 

human; animal; to right and left of backbone; 

OB kisil riff; "side ? of hand" (or — » kisallu) 
kismu(m) "cutting" O/jB; Mari "stubble"?; jB 

lex. (a growth of leeks)?; < kasdmu 
kispu(m), Nuzi, NA, NB kipsu; Nuzi pi. f. 

"funerary offering" (to ancestors) Bab., NA 

[KI.Sl.GA] food, drink ana k.\ k. kasdpu "to 

make a funerary offering"; um k. "day of 

funerary offering"; > kasdpu II 
kispu — » also kupsu 
kissatu(m) I, NB also kissatu "fodder" Bab., NA 

for domestic animals, birds; NA, NB rab k. 

"fodder-official"; jB k. serri 'snake-fodder' (a 

plant); < kasdsu ? 
kissatu II "(action of) gnawing" jB; of fire; k. 

(libbi) (an illness); < kasdsu 
kissikkum — » kinsikkum 
ki(s)silimu "born in Kislimu" MB in fPN 

Kissillmitum; < Kisilimu 
kissu (part of a plough and a chariot) MB 
kissu — » also kisu I.II; kissu 
kissu — » kisu 
kissugu (a fish) jB mag. 
kissuku — » kisukku II 
kissurratu — » kisurratu 
kistum (topog. term)? OB 
kisum — » kizum 
kisu(m), kissu(m) "footing, plinth" Bab. [KI.SA] 

around base of building, gate, wall; < Sum. 
kisu — » also kizu 
kisu(m) I, kissu (a kind of reed) O/jB lex. [Gl.Zl] 

(a reed; an object made of reed); < Sum.? 
kisu(m) II, kesu, kissu, kisu f. "money-bag; 

money" [(KUS.)NIG.NA4] of leather, for gold, 

silver; k. sa tamkdri "merchant's money-bag"; 

transf. (sum of money as capital investment); 

aban k. (stone weight); nas k. (merchant); jB 

"(gardener's) bag" 
kisu III, occas. kisu "binding, bonds" M/NB; kis 

libbi "heart constriction" (a medical complaint); 

< kasu III 
kisukku — » kisukku II 
kisurratu, kissurratu, OB also kiturratum (a 

reed pipe)? Bab. as musical instrument 
kisurru(m), kisurru, kasurru; pi. m. & f. 

"border, territory" Bab. [KI.SUR] "boundary" of 



field; "ground plan" of building; "territory"; 

< Sum. 

kisallu(m), kislsillu, kisallu f. "ankle" O/jB 
[ZI.IN.GI] of human; left, right; of animal; 
"astragalus, knucklebone" as "jacks, fivestones" 

kisaru — » kisru 

kisillu — » kisallu 

kisiptu "calculation" jB, NA; < kasdpu 

kisirtu(m) l.jB med. - "thickening, constric- 
tion", also NA kasirtu 2. O/jB ext. (a feature on 
liver) 3. OB "rental payment" 4. jB (a kind of 
construction) 5. M/NA (a kind of document, 
phps.) "envelope, case-tablet"; < kisru 

kisru(m), occas. kisaru; pi. usu. m. "knot; 
concentration, group; rental" [KA.KESDA; 
KES(.DA); l.KESDA] 1. "knot, bonding" of reed- 
stem, string; "joint" of arm, finger; "clasp" etc. 
of shoe, container; of mountains k. sadi, pi. f. 
kisrdt s. "natural rock, bedrock" 2. "concen- 
tration, conglomeration" of tangled reed; "lump" 
of material; "accumulated wealth"; "group, 
band" of men, esp. military, OB k. (sarrim), 
NA k. (sarruti) "(royal) contingent", pi. also f.; 
rab k. "centurion"; astr. "group" of stars; 
"crossing" of path with ecliptic ? 3. transf. k. 
libbi "anger" of deity, person; k. zikruti 
"concentrated manliness"; k. DN "strengthened 
by DN", esp. in PNs 4. OAkk, Bab. "rental 
(payment)"; NB (a collection of dues); 

< kasdru 

kissatu, gissatu "hair loss, shedding of skin" 
M/jB med.; < kasdsu 

kissu(m) "shrine" [ITIMA] as residence of deity; 
M/NA also desig. of (holy) city 

kissum — » also kimsu 

kissuru "interlocked, entwined" jB of 
iconographic elements; < kasdru Gt 

kisu I "flayed" jB; < kasu 

kisu(m) II "coolness" OAkk, Bab. k. (umi) "cool 
(of day), evening"; < kasu III 

kisa — » kisamma 

kisab(k)u — » kusabku 

kisadanussu "on his neck" jB; < kisddu du. 

kisadu(m); pi. f. "neck; bank" [(UZU.)GU] 1. of 
human, deity, statue; du. "(both sides of) neck", 
"back of neck" (as recipient of load, yoke); as 
place of necklace, seal etc.; of animal 2. OB f. 
(a neckcloth) 3. "necklace", "(stone worn at) 
neck, neckstone" 4. "bank, shore" of sea, water- 
course, also du. "both banks" 5. (part of a 
wheel) 

kisahu (an offering) jB lex.; < Sum. 

kisam ink. ... k. ... "either ... or ..." OA 



kisa(m)ma 



162 



kitmu(m) 



kisa(m)ma, MB kisa, jB also kasdme "forgive 
me" O/jB as interj., implying polite contra- 
diction; < kidsum imper.? 
kisaranum, kiselirdnum (an edible item) OA 
kisdu, MA kildu "acquisition" O/MB, MA; jB in 
k. eperi (an illness); lex. "limit, boundary"; 

< kasddu 
kiserdnum — » kisardnum 

kisertum, kisersum "bondage, captivity" Early 
Mari, OA; OAkk bit k. "prison"; < kasdru ? 

kishi "chair" jB lex.; < Hurr. 

kisibbu, kisippu "seal(ing)" jB; < Sum. 

kisibgallu "seal-owner" OB, jB lex. [KISIB.GAL]; 
<Sum. 

kisinnu — » kissanu 

kisippu — » kisibbu 

kisirdnum — > kisardnum 

kisirru(m) "success"? OA Id sa k. "unsuc- 
cessful, failure"; jB of DN dlik k. "helper"?; 

< kasdru ? 

kisirtu (a food)? NB; < kasdru ? 

kisirum (or qisirum) mng. unci. OB math. 

kisittu(m) "achievement, acquisition; conquest" 
[KUR(- )] 1. pi. OA, OB "acquisitions" (other 
than by purchase) 2. "conquest" of land, town;- 
"items acquired by conquest, spoil", also freq. 
k. qdti, of town, property, population 3. k. Hint 
(a serious illness); < kasddu 

kisittu — > also kisittu 

kisitu ~ "rebellion" jB lex. 

kiskalanu — > kikkirdnu 

kiskanu, MA kiskand'u (a tree) M/NA, M/NB 
[GIS.KIN]; growing at Eridu; used as wood, 
drug; < Sum. 

kiskattu(m), kiskitiu(m), NA/jB kitkiitu, pi. f. 
kitkitdte [GIS.KIN.Tl] 1. "(industrial) kiln" 
2. "craftsman" Bab., NA esp. military 
craftsman; OB bit k. "workshop"; < Sum. 

kiskibirru — > kiskibirru 

kiskildtu — » kiskildtu 

kiskirdnu — » kikkirdnu 

kiskirru — » kiskirru 

kiskittu jB lex. 1. (part of a ship's keel) 2. (a 
leather item) 

kiskittu — > kiskattu 

kispu(m) "sorcery, evil spell" Bab., M/NA usu. 
pi. [USn; USn.ZU] k. pasltdru "to dispel 
sorceries"; qdt k. causing illness; < kasdpu 

kissappum — » gistappu 

kissanu, ki(s)si/ennu (a leguminous vegetable) 
Ass., O/jB [GU.NIG.HAR.RA] 

kissatu(m) I "totality, world" Bab., M/NA [KIS; 
SU; SAR; KI.SAR.RA] 1. before subst. "totality, 



all of, k. nisi "all people" etc. 2. alone "the 

world, universe"; sar k. "king of the world" 

3. of river "full flood", esp. mil k.; — > kasdsu I 
kissatu(m) II "emmer" O/jB [As(.A.AN) (-» 

kundsu)] 
kissatum III (a garment) OB 
kissatu — » also kissatu I 
kissatum, hissdtum pi. tant. "debt-slavery; 

distraint" OB of persons, property; "indemnity" 

for lost property; < kasdsu I 
kisselinnu — » kissanu 
Kissftu(m) "of Kis" O/jB epith. of Istar; < PIN 

Kis 
kissu(m), kissu "(reed-)bundle" O/jB [GI.SA]; 

also math, "truncated cone"; < Sum. 
kissu pi. tant. ~ "exercise of power"? O/jB; 

< kasdsu I 

kissu "empowered, authorized" jB; < kissu(tu) 

+ -i 
kissutu "exercise of power, authority" M/NB, 

NA [SU; KIS] k. sabdtulepesulbelu "to 

seize/exercise/take control of power"; dl k. 

"capital city"; of king "personal authority"; 

< kasdsu I 
kisu — > kisu n.III 

kisu pi. tant. ~ "pain(s)" jB 

kisubb(an)is "into a waste" jB; < kisubbu 

kisubbu(m), NA also qisubbu, NB gilusubbu 
"waste ground" [KI.SUB.BA] k. petit "to bring 
w.g. into cultivation"; NB eqel k. "waste field", 
"waste (building) plot"; < Sum.; > kisubbdnis 

kisubu "ending of hymn" jB [KI.SU.BI(.IM)]; 
<Sum. 

kisukkis "in captivity" jB; < kisukku I 

kisukku I "captivity" j/NB(lit.); < Sum.; -» k. II 

kisukku II, NA ki(s)suku - "grating"? j/NB, 
NA; = k. I ? 

kisuma (or kisuma) "so, thus" Am., Ug.; < ki 

kitbarattu ~ (bed-frame) jB lex. 

kitekaru "prostitute" Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 

kiterru — » kitru II 

kitimtu "secret, mystery" Ug., of scribal craft; 

< katdmu 
kitinnu — > kidinnu U 
kitintu — > kititu I 
kitirru — > kitru II 

kititu(m) I, kitinlttu, NA qititu "linen robe" Bab., 

NA; < kitu 
kititu II (a metal tool) MB 
kitkittu — > kiskattu 
kitmu(m) O/jB 1. "cover(ing)" of bed, vehicle 

2. (a musical interval sounded by strings 6 + 

3); also (a lyre-string); < katdmu 



kitmulu 



163 



ku(m) 



kitmulu "very displeased" jB; < kamdlu Gt 
kitmuru "piled up" jB of treasure; of disease 7 ; 

< kamdru IV Gt 

kitmusu "kneeling, squatting" jB; 

< kamdsu II Gt 

kitpudu "cunning" jB, of spells; < kapddu Gt 
kitpulu "entwined" jB, of snakes; of wrestler 7 ; 

< kapdlu Gt 

kitpulutu in kilpulussunu "in an entwined state" 

jB; < kitpulu 
kitru I "help, reinforcements" j/NB, NA ana k. 

sapdrulaldku "to send/go for reinforcements"; 

"ally"; also of DN in PNs; > katdru I ? 
kitru II, kitelirru ~ "legacy, bequest" Nuzi; 

< Hurr.? 

kittabru (or kittapru) (syn. for arm) M/jB [SE]; 
also (a growth)? on lung, face; < abru II ? 

kittu(m) I, later also kelitu, Ass. kettu(m); pi. 
kindtum etc. "steadiness, reliability, truth" 
[NIG.GI.NA; jB also NIG.ZI; GI.NA]; pi. ~ sg. 
1. "stability, solidarity" OB of work, transf. 
"stable conditions" 2. "reality", ina k. "really, 
truly", ace. "honestly!, indeed!", "reliability, 
truth" of omens; zer k. "true, legitimate heir", 
esp. in PNs 3. "loyalty" of subject, slave 
4. "righteousness, justice", sari dayyanl din k. 
"just king/judge/verdict"; WfC. as DN; Id k. 
"iniquity", ana Id k. "unjustly" 5. "truth", NB 
ina kittisu "sincerely"; Id k. "untruth, lies"; 

< kinu 

kittu II (or qittu ?); pi. kildta (a stand, support)? 

NB 
kitturru I, kinturru, katuru "toad, frog" O/jB 

lex.; also "(stone figure of) frog" 
ki(t)tu(r)ru II (a kind of chair or stool) jB/NA; 

sa k.-su "chair person"; Nuzi — > kutturu 2; 

< Sum. 

kitu(m) "flax; linen" [(TUG.)GADA; occas. 

GIS.GADA] 1. as plant; zer k. "linseed" 2. "linen 

fibre", qe k. "linen thread" 3. as textile "linen"; 

ispdr k. "linen weaver" 4. "linen garment"; jB k. 

isinni "festival of linen clothing", labis k. "one 

entitled to wear linen"; Nuzi, NB "linen" for 

bed clothes; < Sum.; > kititu I 
kitu(m), ketu (a reed mat) OA, M/jB [GI.KID]; 

<Sum. 
kitu — > also kittu I 

kitullu (a troop formation)? jB(Ass.) 
kiturratum — > kisurratu 
kitu(r)ru — > kitturru II 
kiurum I (desig. of shrine at Nippur) OB lex.; 

<Sum. 
kiuru II (a metal basin) jB, NA [KI.UR]; < Urar. 



kiuru III "ground, earth" jB lex.; also (chthonic 
deity of Lullubu)?; < Urar. 

kiusu "step, tread" M/jB lex.; < Sum. 

ki'utukku syll. wr. not attested (an incantation) 
jB lex. [KI. d UTU(.KAM)]; < Sum. 

kiya "how much?" OB; — > ki 2 

kiyahum adv.? mng. unci. OB lex. 

kizalaqu, kiz/sla(q)qu, NB kasilaqqu ~ "treasure, 
treasury" NA, NB; of goddess 

kizapuzzu (an object) Qatna, of gold; < Hurr.? 

kizehhuru (a functionary) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kizibiannu — > zibibidnum 

kizinu — > gizinakku 

kizirtu "lock of hair, pigtail" NA; < kezeru 

kizitu (or kizzutu ) mng. unci. MA in suti sa ki- 
zi-ti (a kind of sutu measure); also (an 
emblem)? 

kizla(q)qu — > kizalaqu 

kizum (or kisum) ~ (a pastry)? Mari 

kizu(m), NB also kisu, Nuzi, Ug. also kazu - 
"animal-trainer" Bab. [(LU.)KU§7] later esp. 
associated with horses, "groom"; > kizutum 

kizutum "job of a kizum" Mari; < Icizu 

kizzanis mng. unci. jB 

kizzanu, gizzdnu; f. klgizzdnitu (desig. of star, 
phps.) "goaf(-star)? jB; < kizzu I 

kizzatu(m), gizzatu(m) - "deduction, curtail- 
ment"? Bab., NA 1. OB transf. "curtailment, 
retrenchment"? due to famine 2. "deduction"? 
from yield of field, "diminution"? of field 3. pi. 
NA, NB (reserved land)?; < gazdzu 

kizzatu — > also kizitu 

kizzihu mng. unkn. Qatna, desig. of golden pin; 
< Hurr.? 

kizzu I, kazzu, gizzu "(young male) goat" jB 
[MAs.ZU]; > kizzanu; — > gazdzu 

kizzu II (a cloak for offering ceremony) MB 

-knu — » -kunu 

-ku — > -ki; -kum 

ku — > kum 

ku(m), O/MA ku(w)d'u(m), jB also kummalu; f. 
kattum, OA ku(w)dtum; pi. m. kuttun, kuttin, 
OA ku(w)d'utum; f. kdttun, kuttum "your; 
yours" O/MA, O/jB 1. with subst., OA esp. 
before, kuwdtum tertaka "your instruction", OB 
after, suhdre kuttin "your lads" 2. alone "yours" 
3. as pred., OA kaspum Id kud'um "the silver is 
not yours"; OB kumma "is yours", "is in your 
control/gift"; NA — > ikku 

kudnu — > kdnu 



kuasim 



164 



kuduktu II 



kuasim, Ug., M/NA kudsa/u "to you" (2 m. sg. 

dat. pron.) OAkk, O/MB, M/NA; after a(na)\ 

also Bogh. for gen.; NA for ace; — ► kdsim 
kuati, jB kudta "(of, to) you" (2 m. sg. pron.) 

OA, jB lex., as ace, gen., dat.; — ► kdti 
kuatum. kud'u — ► ku 
ku'dtu — ♦ kuydtu 
kuba'atum pi. (a topog. term) OA (or — ► 

kupdtum ?) 
kubddu — ♦ kubdtu 
kubarinnu, kubarindu (a vessel) jB lex.; — ► 

kapparinnu ? 
kubartu(m) (heavy garment)? O/jB; < kubdrum 
kubaru — ♦ &//?/-« 

kubarum "thick, heavy" OAkk as PN; < kabdru 
kubdrum — ► also gubdrum 
kubasu (a foodstuff) MB; < kabdsu 
kubatu, kubddu "veneration" j/NB, NA; 

"honorific ceremony"; < kabdtu 
kubbu — ♦ quppu II 
kubbu(m) I, Nuzi also hubbu "sewn" O/jB 

< kubbu II 

kubbu II, NB hubbu "to sew" M/NB, NA: 
birma k. "sew" s.th. with (= ace.) coloured 
thread; NB "sew" s.th. "on"; > kubbu I: 
kabbd'um; mukabbu 

kubbudu — ► kubbutu 

kubbulu(m), kumbulu(m) "crippled" O/jB [AD4] 
of humans, sheep; < kabdlu 

kubburu(m) "very thick" O/jB lex., and in PNs; 

< kabdru; — ♦ kabbaru 

kubbusum "downtrodden" OB; < kabdsu 
kubbusu (or kuppusu) (a cake) NB 
kubbuttu; pi. kubuddti "honorific gift" Am., 

Ug.; < kabdtu 
kubbutu(m), kubbudu, Ass. kabbutu(m) 

1. "very heavy, solid" 2. "very honoured"; 

< kabdtu 

kubbu'u D mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kubdum — ► kubtu 

kubntu — ♦ kibritu; kuprltu 

kubru(m) "thickness" O/jB, M/NA; as 
dimension, also "diameter"; "thickest part" of 
tail, horn, arm; "fattest" of sheep-flock, "mass" 
of army; < kabdru 

kubsu (or klqublpsu) mng. unkn. Ug. in eqlet 
kubsdti 

kubsanu (a crested bird) jB; < kubsu 

kubsu(m) occas. f. "headcloth, turban" 
[(TUG.)SAGSU] 1. "turban" worn by man, by 
king, god; NA sa kubsesu "turban-purveyor" 

2. "crest" of bird in kubsi barmat [SIPA. 
TIR.RA.MUSEN] 3. Qatna "cap" of seal 4. "top" 



of part of body, of heart (libbim), lung 

(hasim), k. kimsi "kneecap"?; > kabdsu; 

kubsanu, kubsuhuli 
kubsuhuli "turban-maker" MB(Alal.); < kubsu 

+ Hurr. -uh(u)li 
kubtu(m), Mari kubdum 1. "lump, clod" O/jB, 

NA [IM.DUGUD] of clay; "ingot" of lead, 

copper; Mari "(net) weight" 2. jB "heavy yield, 

tribute"; < kabdtu 
kubu(m) I, qupu "foetus" [N1GIN] esp. ( A )K. as 

DN 
kubu(m) II (or kupu(m)) (a building) jB 
kubu III (a drinking vessel) Am.; < Eg. 
kubudda'u(m) ~ "honorific gift"? Mari, Emar, 

< kabdtu 

kubukku(m) f.; du. kubukkdn "strength" 

OB(Susa) ? , jB; of god, man 
kuburrii(m) "thickness, reinforcement" Bab., as 

dimension; j/NB "projection", of gate tower; 

< kabdru 

kubussii(m) (a kind of legal decree) OB(Susa) 

esp. k. kabdsum, k. sakdnum "to promulgate a 

decree"; warki k. "after the decree"; < kabdsu 
kubusu(m) (or kupusu(m)) ~ (a handle)? O/jB 

on door, box 
kubuttu "abundant wealth" j/NB; < kabdtu 
kudadu(m), gudddu(m) "very small, tiny" j/NB 

lex.; as PN (also OAkk, OA ?) 
kudanu(m), kudannu, Ass. kudunu, gen. kudini 

"mule" Bab., M/NA [ANSE.GIR.NUN(.NA); NA 

abbr. GIR; OB ANSE.LA.GU ?] 
kudaru, kudddru (kind of terrain)? NA; rab k. 

(an official) 
kudaru — ► also kudurru I 
kudddru — ♦ kudaru 

kuddilu, lex. also kuddulu ? (a garment) MA 
kuddu (a container) jB lex., of wood, of reed; 

<Sum. 
kuddubbu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < Sum. 
kuddulu — ♦ kuddilu 
kuddunu D "to seek sanctuary" jB; <kidinnu 

denom. 
kudimeru, kudimelardnu (a plant) jB lex., med. 
kudimmu(m), kuttimmu(m) (a herb) Ass., jB 

yielding "salt"; seeds sown across destroyed 

city 
kudin(i) — ► kudanu 
kudkuddu (a plant) jB lex. 
kuduhtas (a prof.) OB(Susa) 
kuduktu I; pi. kudketu (a unit of measure) Nuzi, 

for textiles and wool 
kuduktu II mng. unkn. j/NB 
kudunu — ♦ kudanu 



kuduppanu 



165 



kullizu(m) 



kuduppanu "(a kind of) pomegranate" M/jB 

[GIS.NU.UR.MA.LAL ? /KU7.KU7] 
kudurranu (a crested bird) M/NB; [NIG.DU-««] 

also as PN; — ► kudurru II ? 
kudurru I, NA kadurru, NB also kudaru; pi. m. 

& f. "carrying frame, (builder's) hod" NA, 

j/NB [NI'G.DU] for hay, bricks, mud; NA 

"(earth-carrying) labour (obligation)"; Nuzi (a 

wooden container); NB k. tikki "neck-yt." mng. 

unci.; < Hurr.?; > kaddru IV ? 
kudurru II; pi. m. & f. "boundary; boundary 

stone" M/NB [NIG.DU] k. kunnu, nasdru, 

nukkuru "to fix, observe, change boundary"; k. 

nasdhu "to remove boundary stone"; 

M/NB(Ass.) "territorial limits"; >kaddrulll; 

— ♦ kudurranu 
kudurru III "eldest son" M/NA, M/NB [NIG.DU; 

BULUG]; usu. in PNs; < Elam. 
kugamlum — ♦ kigamlum 
kug(u)rum "granary-supervisor" OB [KA. 

GUR7]; < Sum. 
kuhdtu — ♦ kuydtu 

kuihku (container for oil) Am.; < Eg. 
kukittu; pi. NA quqinetu ~ "inappropriate 

location"? jB/NA lex., ext. 
kukkadru — ► kukkudru 
kukkallanu, gukkalldnu ~ "of fat-tailed type" jB 

lex. 
kukkallu(m), gukkallu(m) "fat-tailed sheep" 

Bab., MA [GUKKAL]; < Sum. 
kukkanltu (a garden plant) j/NB; -♦ kukku I 
kukku(m) I, gukku f. "(a kind of) cake" Ass., jB 

[GUG; jB NINDA.KA.DU]; < Sum. 
kukku II, kuku (part of a balance) jB lex. 
kukkum "darkness" O/jB lex.; as desig. of 

nether world; < Sum. 
ku(k)ku(b)bu, NA also kukkupu, quqqubu; pi. 

m. & f. 1. M/NA, M/NB (an offering vessel, 

phps.) "rhyton" for liquids, of metal, stone 

2. jB lex. "pig's stomach" 
ku(k)kudru(m), kukkadru, kidkidru "sheep's 

stomach" O/jB lex., ext. 
kukkupu — ► kukkubbu 
kukkurratum -* kurkurratu 
kukkusu(m), kakkusu, kukkustu(m) (a low 

quality flour) O/jB, also qem k.; k. (sa) buqli 

"malt-flour"; < Sum. 
Kukkuzannum — ♦ kurkuzannu 
kukru -* kukuru 

kuksu (a garden tool) jB lex.; < Sum. 
kuku — ♦ kukku II 
kukubu — ♦ kukkubbu 
kukudru — ► kukkudru 



kukudum -* gugutum 

kukullu — ♦ kakkullu 

kukumnu "three-year-old" Nuzi, of ox; < Hurr.; 

— ► kikamunu 
kukunnu — ► gegunnu 
kukuru(m), kukru (an aromatic tree) [SIM/GIS. 

GUR.GUR; SIM.KU7.KU7] (an aromatic product 

from the tree), also med., mag. 
kukusum (part of body) OB lex. 
kukutu (or kukutu) (a reed artefact) Am. 
kukutum — ► also gugutum 
kula'e (a garment) Nuzi 
kula'utu "delay, procrastination"? Bogh. in k. 

epesu; < kalu V (or = kulutu ?) 
kulbab(an)is "like ants" j/NB; < kulbdbu 
kulbabtu "female ant" Bogh. lex.; < kulbdbu 
kulbabu, Bogh. also kulbibu "ant" jB, NA 

[KISI8/9]; eggs, earth of ants as drug; 

> kulbabtu; kulbdbdnis 
kulbannu — ► kalbdnu 
kulbattu — ♦ kulmittu 
kulbibu — ► kulbdbu 

kuldu (or klqultu) (a copper object) Am. 
kulllanu (a plant) jB lex.; < kulilu I 
kul!l(T)tu, killilu "dragonfly" jB; < kulilu I 
kulilu (a kind of curtain)? jB lex.; < kulilu III ? 
kulilu I, kulilu "dragonfly" jB; mil k. "flood 

bearing dragonfly (corpses)"; >kuMitu; 

kulildnu 
kulllum II "small crown, headband" Mari, of 

silver; < kililu dimin. 
kulilu III, kulullulu "fish-man" jB [KU6.LU. 

U18/19.LU]; in myth; "(figure of) fish-man" in 

copper, clay; < Sum.; > kulilu'- 
kulinas mng. unkn. Nuzi, desig. of textile; 

< Hurr. 

kullanum (or qulldnum) (a metal item) Mari 

kulldnu — ► also kullu I 

kullaru I "Kullar-juniper" jB lex.; < PIN Kullar 

kullarum II (a disease) OB mag. 

kullatan "universally" NB(lit.); <kullatul; -* 
mitutdn 

kullatu(m) I, Bogh. also killatu "totality, all 
of..." OAkk, Bab.(lit.); absol. "whole 
(world)"; before subst., pron. suff. "all of..."; 

< kalu II; > kullatan 

kullatu(m) II "clay pit" O/jB [KI.GAR], for 

figurine clay etc. 
kullizu(m) "ox-driver; plough-ox" OAkk, Bab. 

1. "ox-driver" [(LU/ERIN.)SA.GU4], lisdn k. 
"ox-driver's slang"; occas. of woman 

2. "plough-ox" [GU4.SA.GU4] 



kullizutum 



166 



kumru(m) 



kullizutum "role of ox-driver" OB [GU4.SA. 
GU4- ; NAM.SA.GU4- ] 

kullu I; pi. kulldni "nut(-kemel)" NA 

kullu II"hoe"jB lex. 

kullu(m) III, Ass. ka"ulu(m) D "to hold" [DIB] 
(stat. NB only) 1. "hold, be holding" s.th., in 
the hand; "hold up" roof; "hold on to, hold 
back"; "be in possession of country, property, 
field; "hold ready" offering etc., "have 
available"; NA (ina qdti) k. "consider, take" 
value (as given); "maintain, keep to" cult, 
righteousness; "bear in mind" words, dream; 
"have tenure of office, prebend; "wear" 
garment; of things "contain"; of person, body 
"have, suffer from" illness; of month "bring, be 
characterized by" rain, eclipse 2. resa(m) k. of 
people, things "be at s.o.'s disposal", "be ready, 
be at the service of, serve"; "look after, care for, 
pay attention to" Dtn iter. Dt pass, of D OA of 
silver "be retained" isti kaspim; "be held back, 
restrained" Dtt NA "be restrained"; > mukillu; 
takiltwn II; — » tdkaltu 

kullultu "coronation, crenellation"? jB ext.; 

< kullulu I 

kullulu I "veiled, covered" M/jB of bride; 

< kullulu II 

kullulu(m) II D "to veil, crown" O/jB, M/NA 
face, lips, in distress; MA "crown" king; jB 
stat. of gate "is crowned" with crenellations 
Dt pass, of D; < kililu/kululu denom.; 

> kullulu I, kullultu; — » kutamlalu 
kullumu(m), Ass. kallumu(m) D "to show, 

display" [IGl] 1. "show s.th. to s.o." (= 2 ace), 
"make s.th. apparent, reveal", "expose" to light 

2. abstr. obj. "show s.o." anger, love, power 

3. "make s.o. experience" trouble, hunger, profit 
4.+ infin., subord. clause "show how to..., 
where..." 5. "instruct, teach" person, horse 
Dtn iter. Dt pass., of thing "be revealed"; of 
person "be informed of DR OB S "reveal" a 
sign, a fact Stn iter. SD — » muskallimu; 

> kallimum; kullumutu; mukallimtu; muskal= 
limu; takllmu, taklimtu 

kullumutu "exhibition, display"? jB in bdb k. 

"gate of k."; < kullumu 
kulmandu — » zermandu 
kulmasitu(m) (a cultic prostitute) Bab. [NU. 

BAR] 
kulmdsum — » kulpdsum 
kulmittu (or kulbattu) (a vessel) NB 
kulpasum, also kulmdsum ? (a divine weapon) 

OB 
kultdru — » kustdru 



kultlbu —* kustibum 
kultu — » kuldu; kustu 
kulu — » kalu II; kulu'u 
kulullulu — » kulllu III 

kululu "crown" M/NA, j/NB as mark of royalty; 
"veil"?; "crenellation" of gateway towers; 

> kullulu II; — » kililu 
kulumum — » kalumu 

kulupinnum, kilupinnum mng. unci. OA, phps. 

"sickle", or unit of measurement, for straw 
kuluppu (a worm) jB 
kuluppu, kilippu (a bird) jB 
kulutu "role of a kulu'u"! MB(Susa); — » 

kuldutu 
kulu'u(m), kulu(m) (male cultic prostitute) 

OAkk ? , Bab., NA, esp. of Istar, also in PNs; 

> kulutu 

-kum, -ku "to you" (2 m. sg. dat. suff.) 

kum, ku(m)mu(-), ku, kumi-, ikkum, NB also 

akku "instead of NA, NB, occas. jB 1. prep. 

"in place of, "in exchange for", also inalana k. 

2. conj. + subjunct. "instead of doing s.th. 

(= pres.); "since, in view of the fact that" 

(+ pret., stat.) 3. adv. "instead", "in return", 

also ina k.; — » kima; kimu 
kumahu (a plant) jB lex. 
kumanu (a surface measure) MA, MB(AlaL), 

Nuzi (= '/6 ikfi; Nuzi '/2 awiharu); Ass. also 

linear measure (= Wpuridu ?); < Hurr.? 
kumaru; pi. f. 1. (a kind of terrain) M/NA, j/NB 

2. (desig. of precious stones) NB; 

< kamdru IV ?; — » qumdru 
kumasu ~ "bush offering refuge"? jB lex. 
kumbulu — » kubbulu 

kumdilhi (a functionary) OB(Susa); < Elam. 
kumi — ► kum 

kumirtu (a priestess) jB; < Aram.; — » kumru 
kumiru mng. unci. Am.; < W.Sem. 
kumma — » ku 

kummaru (a white garment) jB lex. 
kummu(m) I "cella, shrine" [AGRUN] "innermost 

room" of shrine, also of house, palace; in gener. 

"shrine, temple"; also term.-adv. kummis 
kummu II "(the cuneiform sign) KUM" jB 
kummu — » also ku; kum 
kummu — ► kum 

kummulu "very angry" jB; < kamdlu 
kummusu "fearsome"? jB lex.; < kamdsu II 
kumru(m) "priest" O/MA, Mari [OA GUDU4]; 

— » kumirtu 
kumsillu — » kunsillu 



kumteniwa 



167 



kuppittu 



kumteniwa mng. unkn. Nuzi, in topog. desig.; 

< Hurr. 
kumu (a water bird, phps.) "pelican" jB 
kumu(-) — » kum 
kumurru(m) "heaping up" O/jB 1. math. 

[UL.GAR; GAR.GAR] "addition" 2. jB "piling up, 

accumulation" 3. jB lex. "laying out" of dates to 

ripen; < kamdru IV 
kumuru — » gumuru 
kumusa'u mng. unkn. Nuzi 
-kun — » -kunu 
kunaggu — » kunangum 
kunahi (a building) Ug. 
kunangum, kunaggu (a metal drinking vessel) 

OB [wr. KU/GU.NA.(AN.)GI 4 ] 
kunastu mng. unci. jB; < kundsu ? 
kunasu(m), jB also kunsu, Nuzi, Bogh. kunlsu 

f.; pi. freq. m. "emmer" [OAkk AS.AN; Bab. 

AS.AN.NA; j/NB, NA (SE.)AS.A.AN (-» 

kissatu II)]; > kunastu 1 
kunasunu, NA kandsunu "to you" (2 m. pi. dat. 

pron.) M/NA 
*kunatunu "you" (2 m. pi. ace. pron.) MA 
kund'u — » kunum 
kundirasu, kundardsu, kandirsu (a piece of 

apparel) NA 
kundulum (a bronze vessel) OB; — » kandalu 
kungu I (a kind of house) jB lex. 
kungu II, gungu (a kind of rush) jB lex., med. 
kungusakkum (desig. of a servant) Mari 
-kuni "your" (2 m. du. gen. suff.) OAkk 
kunibhu, kunibu (a garden plant)? j/NB, NA 
kuni(n)nu(m) (a basin for liquids) O/jB, of 

stone, metal, bitumened basketry; qanu k. 

"drinking-straw"; < Sum. 
kunisu — » kundsu 
kunkunnu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kunnir (a window) jB lex. 
kunnu "fixed" M/NB, NA; "firmly established" 

of table, heir; "fixed in place" of bolt; 

"confirmed" of statement, "loyal"; astr. 

"correct"; < kdnu D 
kunnu — » also kdnu D; kunu 
kunnu "cared for, cherished" j/NB of person; jB 

lex., of textile "well-finished"; < kanu D 
kunnupu (or kunnubu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kun nut u "care, cherishing" j/NB; < kunnu 
kunsaggu "turning-point, apogee"? jB of 

planet's course; < Sum. 
kunsillu, kumsillu "carder" M/jB 1. "carding- 

comb" or "teasel" for fabric 2. MB as prof. 



desig. "carder", also abbr. kun& 3. lex. (part of 

the body) 
kunsu(m) "ball" of wool jB 
kunsu — » also kundsu 
-kunu, -kun, OA also -knu, NA -kanu before -ni, 

NB after n or m also -gunu 1. "your" (2 m. pi. 

gen. suff.) 2. Ass. also "(to) you" (2 m. pi. 

ace, dat. suff.) 
kunum, kunu' um, MA kund'u "your(s)" (2 m. 

pi. pron. adj.) O/MA; f. as subst. "your 

(affair)" etc.; — » ikkanu 
kunu, kunnu "firmness" M/NB, NA [GIN] in k. 

qdti "fixed procedure"; k. libbi "loyalty"; k. 

kussi "permanence of throne"; < kdnu 
kunukku(m); pi. m. & f. "seal" [(NA4/IM.)KISIB; 

Nuzi also NA4] 1. "(cylinder) seal" 2. "seal 

impression, sealing, bulla" 3. "sealed (tablet)", 

NB ina kandk k. sudti "at the sealing of that 

document" 4. ext. "vertebra" of sheep (and 

associated muscle) [also UZU.KISIB]; med., of 

human k. kisddilesemserim "neck/backbone 

vertebra"; > kandku 
kunusi(m) "to you" (2 m. pi. dat. pron.) O/jB 
-kunusi(m), NB also -kunusu, -kalinusu, after m 

also -gunusu "to you" (2 m. pi. dat. suff.) Bab.; 

M/NB also ace. 
kunuti "you" (2 m. pi. ace, gen. pron.) OA, 

OB; OA also dat.; — » kdtunu 
-kunuti, arch. OB also -kunut "you" (2 m. pi. 

ace. suff.) O/jB; OA dat. 
kunu'um — » kunum 

kunzu (a leather bag) jB, for aromatics 
kunzubu — » kuzzubu 
kupanna mng. unkn. Nuzi 
kupartu "expiation" NB; < Aram. 
kupatinnu, kuptatinnum, ka/uppatinnu, 

kuppitannu "globule, pill" O/jB [NU.KAR.KAR] 

as golden ornament; med., mag., of clay; 

< kapdtu ?; — » kuppittu 

kupatu(m) ~ "com(field)"? OA, j/NB, NA; 

more than one word ? (-» kuba' alum) 
kupfratu pi. tant. ~ "swabbings" jB rit.; 

< kapdru II 

kupiru "bitumen"? NA for building; -» kupru 
kupitu I (a marsh-bird) jB, NA; < kupu 
kupitu II (animal dropping)? jB lex. 
kupkudum (a reed artefact) OB 
kuppatinnu, kuppitannu — » kupatinnu 
kuppatu (a kind of building) Nuzi; < quppu II 

pi.? 
kuppittu; pi. kuppineti jB var. of kupatinnu ? 



kuppu 



168 



kurru(m) I 



kuppu; pi. m. & f. "cistern, water-source" M/jB, 
me kuppdni sa sade "water from mountain 
springs" 

kuppu(m) I "eel"? O/jB [GU.BI.KU6]; marti k. 
"eel's gall" as drug; also (a bird), (a snake); 

< Sum. 

kuppu II "snow, ice" NA 

kuppupu(m) "very bent" Bab.; as PN; < kapdpu 

kuppurtum — » kupurtum 

kuppusu — ► kubbusu 

kupputtu (a measuring vessel) j/NB; < kupputu 

kupputu "conglomerated" j/NB of parts of liver; 

(desig. of carnelian); < kapdtu 
kupritu(m) (or kubritu(m)) mng. unci. O/MB; 

< kupru ? 

kupru(m), kupuru "bitumen, pitch" Bab., M/NA 

[ESIR/ESIR.UD.(DU.)A] usu. in dry form; for 

building, ship, figurine; > kaparu .III; 

kupritunP; — > kuplru 
kupsu, kuspu, kisblpu "husks, bran" M/NA, 

M/jB [DUy.SE.GIS.i] usu. of sesame; k. dispi 

"honey remnants", i.e. "wax"; Ug. k. passuri 

"table crumbs" 
kupsu — ► also kubsu 
kuptatinnum — > kupatinnu 
kupu ~ "reed thicket" jB; > kupitu I 
kupu — > kubu II 
kupudlu — » kipudlu 
kupulhu (a linen cloth)? NB 
kupursinnum, kurup/bsinnu(m) (desig. of gold) 

OA, Bogh.; < Hitt.? 
kupurtum (or kuppurtum) "anointment" OB 

(Susa); < kaparu II 
kupusu — » kubusu 
kurabdu (a plant) jB lex. 
kuradu (an implement) jB lex. 
kurangu, kuraggu "rice" jB, NA 
kurapanu "neck-protector" NB; < OPers. 
kurartu, glkuralirlstu (a skin complaint, phps.) 

"boil"? jB med.; < kurdru 
kuraru(m), gurdru O/jB 1. "glowing ashes" 

2. (a boil, carbuncle)? [GIR.GIG; occas. GIG. 

GIR]; > kurartu 
kurassu — ► kurustu 
kurastu — > kurartu 
kurbannu — » kirbdnu 
kurbasi (a kind of thistle)? jB lex. 
kurbu f. "blessing" jB; < kardbu II 
kurdillu (a kind of cucumber; a fruit) jB lex. 
kurdinnu (or kurtinnu) (an evil-smelling plant) 

jB lex., NA 
kurdissu (a storage facility for straw) M/NA 
kurduppum -» gurduppum 



kurgarranu (a kind of stone) jB; < kurgarru 
kurgarru (a cultic performer) M/NA, M/NB 

[(LU.)KUR.GAR.RA] freq. with assinnu; bearing 

sword and mace; rab k. "chief k"; NA f. 

[munus.KUR.GAR.RA] = kurgarrdtu ?; < Sum.; 

> kurgarranu, kurgarrutu 
kurgarrutu "function of the kurgarru" NB; as 

prebend; < kurgarru 
kuriallum (a functionary)? OA; -» kurniyallu ? 
kuribinnu (a kind of land)? Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kuribu (an ethereal spirit) NA/jB freq. d K.; 

"(figure of) a k." of silver etc.; -> kardbu II 
kur(i)giqu (part of a building) jB, rdg. unkn. 

phps. mat(i)giqu 
kuriguru — » kanagurru 
kurillu — » kurullu I 
kuriltu — » kurustu 
kurinnu — > kurrinnu 
kuripinnu (a kind of terrain)? Nuzi 
kurissu; pi. f. ~ "leek" NA; -> karasu 
kuristu — » guristu; kurartu 
kuritu(m) "shin, tibia" Bab. [GiR.PAD.DU/DA. 

LUGUD.DA] of sheep, ox etc.; OB k. kappim 

"wing-bone" (desig. of part of liver ?); < kuru ? 
kurkanu (a medicinal plant) M/NB, NA [U/SIM. 

KUR/KUR4.GI.RIN/RIN.NA] as drug; root of k. 
kurkatta(m) "like a goose" jB; < kurku 
kurkizannu — » kurkuzannu 
kurku(m) "goose" Bab., NA [KUR.GI.MUSEN; 

NB also MUSEN.KUR.GI]; as tribute, offering; 

med. saman k. "goose-fat"; < Sum.; > kurkatta 
kurkudum mng. unkn. OB, as PN 
kurkurranu (desig. of a sheep) jB lex. 
kurkurratu(m), kukkurratum (a vessel) OAkk, 

O/jB; for honey, wine; < kurkurru 
kurkurru jB, NA 1. lex. (a bird) 2. (a vessel), 

of copper 3. astr. (a phenomenon associated 

with stars); > kurkurratu 
kurkuzannu(m), kurkizannu "piglet" O/jB, 

M/NA [SAH/SAH.TUR]; as PN, also Kukku= 

zannum 
kurmatu — > kurummatu 
kurmittu "butterfly"? jB 
kurmu — » kurummu 

kurniya(l)lu (a functionary) Ug.; -» kuriallum ? 
Kurnugi "The Underworld" Bab. lex.; < Sum. 
kurpisu — ► qurpissu 

ku(r)rinnu; pi. f. (a neck ornament) M/jB, NA 
kurru(m) I occas. f. "(measure of dry capacity:) 

gur, kor" OAkk, Bab., OA [GUR] OB kur 

kittim "normal gur", loc.-adv. kurrum "per gur"; 

k. saqdlu "to weigh the gur"; Bab. as measure 

of ship's capacity; < Sum.; -> kursisakkatum 



kurru II 



169 



kusapu 



kurru II (part of body, phps.) "pelvis" jB; med. 

left, right 
kurru(m) III "tanning fluid" Bab., NA 
kurru — > also kuru III 
kurru(m); st. abs. du. kurridlkurrd "short" OB, 

Bogh., jB as pi. of kuru; < kuru 
kursallum, kursullum (a basket) Bab. of reed; 

also, as an ornament; < Sum. 
kursdnum — ► gusdnu 
kursimtu, kursimtu, kursittum, jB kurs/sindu, 

kursiddu, NA kussimtu ? "scale, plate" O/jB 

1. of snakeskin 2. (a tool) 3. for scale-armour 

4. NA on door ? 
kursimtu — » also kusimu 
kursindu — > kursimtu 
kursinnu(m), Bogh. kursinnu; pi. m. & f. 

"ankle"; of human, sheep; as cut of meat; MB 

"astragalus", as game; lex. (an object) 
kursinnum — > also gusdnu 
kursisakk(at)um; pi. f. "grain-container" OB, of 

1 gur; < Sum.; -> kurru I 
kursissu — ► kurusissu 
kursittum — > kursimtu 
kursu — > kurustu 
kursibtu — > kursiptu 
kursiddu — » kursimtu 
kursimatu -* akusimu 
kursimtu — > kursimtu; kusimu 
kursindu — > kursimtu 
kursiptanu (a plant) jB lex.; < kursiptu 
kursiptu (or kursibtu) "butterfly" jB, NA; k. alpi 

(a flower); k. eqli "nettle"? [GI.ZU.LUM.MA] 

lex., med. 
kursu(m) "fetter" Bab., OA [Nuzi GIS.GiR] of 

copper, for feet; k. purrurumlhepd "to loosen/ 

break bonds"; NB (an ornament) "chain" of 

gold; jB desig. of a star 
kursinnu — > kursinnu 
kursullum — > kursallum 
kurtinnu — » kurdinnu 
kuru(m); f. kuritu(m) "short" OAkk, Bab. 

[LUGUD(.DA)] of things, part of body, time; as 

subst. "short (person), dwarf", also as (f)PN; 

transf. medical complaint libbi kuri "my heart is 

short"; < karu II; > kurltu 1 -, kurru 
kuru I "depression, torpor" jB, NA [U.SA] of 

physical and mental apathy; NA k. ene "weak- 

sightedness"; < karu II 
kuru(m) II f. "kiln, furnace" Ass., OB for metal, 

glass; uqne/abne k. "kiln-made lapis lazuli/ 

stone" i.e. (blue) glass 
kuru(m) III, kurru (part of a reed) jB 
kurum IV (a short reed mat) Bab. lex.; < Sum. 



kurubsinnu — » kupursinnum 

kurubu (a bird) jB lex. 

kurukku, karakku (a bird) M/jB 

kuru(l)lu(m) I, kurillu "sheaf, stook" O/jB, 

M/NA; "(single) sheaf, coll. "sheaves, the 

harvest"; MA, Nuzi (a harvest festival); Mari 

pi. f. "bundles" of vine-prunings; -> k. II 
kurullum II ~ "catastrophe, death-toll" Mari; = 

k.ll 
kurullum IE (a spice)? OAkk, OB 
kurultti — > kurustu 
kuru(m)manu (a vessel, or kind of fruit)? Am., 

of ivory 
kurummatu(m), kurmatu "food allocation, 

ration" [SUK(.gl.A)] for human, deity, animal; 

OB eqel k. "field for subsistence"; "bread 

(ration)", OA silver, tin as "ration"; — > 

kurummu 
kurummu (or kurmu ?) jB, by-form of 

kurummatu ? 
kurumtu (a stone) Ug. 
kuru(n)nu(m) (a kind of beer) Bab.(lit.) 

[KURUN.NAM/NA] offered to deity; drunk by 

men, in ritual; < Sum. 
kuruppu(m) "(vegetable) basket, hamper" Bab.; 

also a reed structure; NB in mdsihu sa k. as 

measuring unit for grain, dates, legumes and 

onions 
kurupsinnu — > kupursinnum 
kurusi(s)su(m), kursissu (a rodent) O/jB, esp. 

fond of sesame 
kurussu "strap" M/jB; of leather; also "band" of 

copper; < karasu 
kurussu — > kurustu 
kurus (a spice) jB lex.; < Kass. 
kurusta'u "fatted animal" MB, Nuzi, of sheep; 

< kurustu 

kurustu(m), gurussu, MA kuru/iltu, kuru/assu, 
kursu (fodder for fattening) O/jB, MA; usu. in 
sa k. "animal-fattener" [LU.KU7]; < Sum.; 
> kurustd' u, kurustumma 

kurustumma in k. epesu "to fatten" Nuzi; 

< kurustu 

kurzahhu; Hurr. pi. kurzahhena mng. unkn. 
Nuzi, in topog. desig.; < Hurr. 

kurzidakkum "flour-basket" OB; < Sum. 

kusa, kusi in kusa/i ydmi "algae"? jB, liter, "sea- 
covering"; < W.Sem. 

kusannu — > gusdnu 

kusapu l.jB "crumb, scrap" of bread [PAD] 
2. NA "bread" [NINDA.MES (-» also akalu 1)]; 

< kasdpu I 



kusarikku(m) 



170 



kussikku 



kusarikku(m), kusarakku, husarikku, Bogh. 

kusarihlyu "bison" OAkk, Bab.(lit.) [GU4.A. 

LIM; GU4.ALIM] jB also d K.; salme k. "images 

of bison"; astr. (a star) 
kusasu pi. tant. "gums" or "chewed bits"? jB; 

< kasdsu 
kusi — » kusa 

kusibirr(it)u — > kisibirritu 
kusigau — > kusiqu 
kusigu — > husigu 
kusipdnu — > kusipu II 

kusipu I; pi. m. & f. "bread (crumbs)" j/NB; 

< kasdpu I 

kusipu II, ka(s)siplbu (a plant) jB lex., med.; pi. 

(or derivative?) kusipdnu, kassibdn&lu; jB lex. 

desig. of a snake 
kusiqu, kusigau (a garment) jB lex. 
kusitu(m), Bogh. kusitu "robe" [TUG.BAR. 

DUL/DUL5/8]; OA fine (raqqdtum), of Akkad; 

Am. of linen; NB for divine statue; < kasu III 
kusiu (a headband) jB lex.; < kasti III 
kuspu in kusup libbi "heartbreak"? NA; 

< kasdpu I 
kuspu — > also kupsu 
kussalili (a functionary) Nuzi 
kussimtu — > kursimtu 
kusslum — > kussu 

kussu (an ornament) Qatna, of gold, attached to 
disc 

kussu(m), OAkk, OA kusslum f. occas. m. 
"chair, stool, throne" [(GIS.)GU.ZA; (GIS.)AS. 
TE; (GIS.)AS.Tl] as piece of household furn- 
iture; "seat" in boat, chariot etc.; OA "saddle" 
on donkey; k. serde, k. sa lyarrani "travelling 
seat, sedan-chair"; Nuzi k. sa eberi "sedan- 
chair"?; k. sapiltum "low chair, stool"; judge's 
"seat"; king's "throne", transf. kussAm kusslam 
isannan "one throne (= dynasty) will rival 
another"; deity's "throne"; NB bit k. "throne 
land, royal estate"?; nid k. (part of liver); 

< Sum.; — > kuzd'u 

kussusu "gnawed (reed)" jB lex.; < kasdsu 

kusu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kusullum (a wooden object) OB 

kusummu (a garment) jB lex. 

kusdnu — » kusdyu 

kusa'u "spillage"? MA; < kussu 

kusayu(m) "of winter"? Bab., of harvest, pig; 

NB of date palm, also kusdnu; < kiisu 
kusi (a plant) jB lex. 
kusibi (a garden herb) NB 
kusillatu (an illness)? jB lex. 
kusimdnu — » akusimu 



kusimu(m), kurslsimtu (a bent stick) O/jB; as 

part of door 
kusippum (or g/kuzippum); pi. f. mng. unkn. 

OAkk 
kusirum (or kuzirum) (a binding)? OB; 

< kasdru ? 
kussu — » kusu 

kussu D "to tilt" NA a bowl for libation; 

> kusa'u 
kussu — ► also kiisu 

kussudu ~ "cripple(d)" jB; < kasddu ? 
kussu lu (or kuzzulu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kussuru(m) "thoroughly knotted" O/jB; 

< kasdru D 

kussusu(m) "(one) crippled by lack of hand"? 
O/jB lex.; < kasdsu I 

kusu(m), kussu(m) "coldness, winter" [EN.TE. 
(EN.)NA; SED7] "cold temperature", "cold 
weather"; med. "chill, shivering"; "winter 
(-time)", OB ina k. k. ibassi "there will be cold 
weather in the winter"; < kasu III; > kusdyu; 
kusu 

kusu, kussu adj. "winter('s)" j/NB, of sheep, 
vegetable; NB "winter stores"; < kusu 

kusu'u (an animal)? jB lex., equated with mus'u 

kusabku(m), kisab(k)u, kusdbu (a thorny tree, 
shrub) O/jB [GIS.AB.BA] OB for fuel; < Sum. 

kusafyhum — > husahfyu 

kusdnu — > gusdnu 

kusapu; pi. m. & f. "sorcerous materials" jB; 

< kasdpu 
kusarifrhu — » kusarikku 

kusartu "repair, patch" M/NB; < kasdru 
kusaru ~ "reed stalk" Bab. mag.; also lex. (a 

shelter); < kasdru ?; — » kusru I 
kuser(dt)u — » kusiru 
kusgugalu (a drum, liter.) 'skin of great ox' jB 

[KUS.GU4.GAL- ]; < Sum. 
kusharu (a wall) jB lex. 
kusiru(m), kuseru; lex. pi. f.? "success, profit" 

O/jB, NA; st. abs. Id kusir "profitless"; 

< kasdru 
kusitu —*' kusitu 

kuspa'e (an edible item)? Nuzi; < Hurr.; — > 

kusupfra 
kusrahhum ~ (leather strap) OB, for chariot; 

<Sum. 
kusru I, kuzuru (a plant) j/NB, NA [U.KU.GAG 

(or tus-ru ?)] as drug; — > kusaru; tusru 
kusru II ~ "ingot" NB of silver, copper 
kusrum III (component of a boat) OB 
kussatu(m) (a garment) OA, Bogh. 
kussikku (a clay) jB lex. 



kussu 



171 



kuzippu 



kussu/u mng. unkn. jB lex.; < kasu II ? 
kussudu "chased (off)" jB of bird, person; 

< kasddu D 

kussuku (prof, desig.) OB(Susa); < Elam. 

kustappu — ► gustappu 

kustaru(m), jB freq. kultdru; pi. m. & f. "tent" 
Bab.; bit seri k. sarrutisu "desert house, his 
royal tent"; (Afylamu) sut k. "tent people"; OB 
PIN Kustdrdtum 

kustibum, kultibu "(kind of) shovel" O/jB 

kustu, kultu (a kind of grass) M/jB 

kusu ~ "crab" j/NB(lit.) [KUSU]; < Sum.; -» 
alluttu 

kusu "skin" jB lex.; < Sum. 

kusum — > also qusum 

kusuhannu (a wooden object) Nuzi; < Hurr.? 

kusupha, kusuppara (kinds of bread or pastry) 
Nuzi; < Hurr.; — > kuspa'e 

kusurra'um "restitution" OAkk, in sibut k. 
"witnesses to r."; < kasdru 

kusurru mng. unkn. jB 

kutahu; pi. m. & f. ~ "spear, lance" NA 

kutallanu(m) "backward" jB adv. in kutaltdnikka 
"behind you"; OA as PN; < kutallu 

kutallu(m) "back" [GU.tAl; GU.TAR] 1. "back of 
head" of human, animal; jB mukil k. "supporter, 
helper" 2. "back" of lung, ear etc.; "rear" of 
chair, building, army etc.; inalana k. "behind" 
as prep., as adv., st. abs. ina kutal 3. of time, k. 
satti "end of year", ina k. "later" 4. NA, NB 
(sa) k., NB pi. f., also Mari ? "reserve" soldier, 
NB also "spare (ox)"; <Sum.; >kutallutu, 
kutalldnu 

kutallutu "position as reserve" NB; < kutallu 4 

kutamlalu, katamlalu mng. unci. jB lex.; — ► 
kullulu II 

kutanum, occas. kutinum (a textile) OAkk, OA, 
Mari: or qutdnum ? 

kutasu (a log)? jB lex. 

kutdtu — > kutu 

kutatuphuhlu (a functionary) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

kutimmutu "position as goldsmith" NB 
[LU.KU.DIM- ], as prebend; < kutimu 

kutimu(m), ku(t)timmu(m) "goldsmith, silver- 
smith" Bab. [(LU.)KU.DIM; NB usu. KU.DIM]; 

< Sum.; > kutimmutu 

kutkim mng. unkn. MB in skins of A:.; < Kass.? 

kutlalu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

kutlanum (a bird) OB 

kutlu(m); pi. f. ~ "rail, fence, side-wall"? Bab., 

MA of oven 
kutma'isu (a container) Ug., of bronze 
kutmanu ~ (a tamarisk)? jB lex. 



kutmu(m) "cover, covering" O/jB [DUL] in k. 

libbi "stomach tissue" of animal; < katdmu 
kutpii "black frit" M/jB [(NA4.)AN.ZAy.GE6] 
kutrannu (or qutrannu) (an object) Nuzi 
kuttenaswe (desig. of cattle) Nuzi; < Hurr. 
kuttim (prof, desig.) Nuzi 
kuttimmatu "female charcoal-burner" jB mag. 
kuttimmu "charcoal-burner" jB lex. 
kuttimmu — » also kudimmu; kutimu 
kuttu — » kutu 
kuttumu "covered over" j/NB; of bride "veiled"; 

of ship "with deck"; of land "inaccessible"; 

< katdmu 

kutturu 1. OB(Alal.) (a class of person)? 

2. Nuzi (a wooden object) = kitturru II ? 
kuttutu mng. unkn. jB lex.; phps. = huttutu 
kutu(m), kuttu(m), kutu; pi. m. & f. "jug, can" for 

liquids O/jB, M/NA [(GIS/DUG.)UD+MUNUS+ 

KAB] of wood, clay, copper; transf., elephant's 

"trunk" 
kutullu — > kuzullu 
kutultu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
kutumdu — » kutumtu 
kutummu(m) "cover(ing)" Bab., OA; for axe; 

of reed, leather for interior of boat; "protection, 

covering garment" for person; "outer sheath" of 

reed stem; < katdmu 
kutumtu, kutumdu - "covered basket"? jB 

< katdmu 

kutuniwe mng. unkn. Nuzi; desig. of yoke-team 

< Hurr. 

kututum; pi. kutu'dtum "security" OA 

< katd'um 
kuwdti — > kudti 
kuwd'um — > ku 

kuyatu, ku'dtu, kuhdtu (a plant) M/jB, as drug; 

Qatna, as ornament in gold, lapis lazuli 
kuzabum "alluring" OB in fPN Kuzdbatum; 

< kazdbu I 
kuzallu(m), OB also guzdlum; pi. f. "shepherd" 

O/MA, O/jB; (warah) K. (3rd month) Ass. 
kuza'u "throne" jB lex.; < Sum.; — ► kussu 
kuzazu jB 1. "wood-wasp" 2. (a goat); 

< gazdzu ? 

kuzbanitu "alluring" M/jB, of goddess; as fPN; 

< kuzbu 

kuzbanu (a bird) jB lex.; < kuzbu 

kuzbu(m) ~ "attractiveness, (sex) appeal" Bab. 

[JJI.LI] "charms" of woman, goddess, za'nat 

kuzbam "is laden with allure"; female genitalia; 

"sexual potency" of male; transf. of field, water, 

temple; < kazdbu I 
kuzippu, guzippu "cloak" M/NA 



kuzirum 



172 



kuzzubu(m) 



kuzippum — ► also kusippum 
kuzirum (cultic person) jB; < kezeru 
kuzirum — ► also kusirum 

kuzubtum "flattery, seduction"? OA, of words; 
< kazabu I 



kuzuru — ► &«.?/•« I 
kuzzalum — ► guzalu 
kuzzisallum (a basket) OB; < Sum. 
kuzzubu(m), kunzubu "very charming, attrac- 
tive" OA, O/jB, of goddess; as fPN; OA of 



kuzullu(m), kutullu(m), guzullu "bundle of speech; jB also desig. of illness; < kazabu I 



reeds" Bab. 



kuzzulu — ► kussulu 



L 



la prep. jB( Ass.), NA, NB 1. spatially "from" a 
place 2. in la qatlle "from" a person 3. Emar 
"to"; < W.Sem.; > lapdni 

la "not, no; without, un-" [NU] A. negation of 
individual words: adj. Id damqu "not good", la 
su "not his own", ptcp. Id mupparku 
"unceasing", subst. Id kittu "injustice", adv. Id 
plqam "not once"; + infin. gen. or st. abs. e.g. 
Id mahdr "irresistible"; + gen. "without", OB 
kasap la kanlkim "silver without a tablet", OA 
la sibe "without witnesses", OAkk la surrdtim 
"no lies"; NA dibbi Id dibbi "unspeakable 
things", NB amdt la amdt "every single word"; 
Ass. Id... Id "neither ... nor" B. negation of 
clause, placed immediately before pred.: 
1. subord. clauses before subjunct. (OA also 
inverted la sa + vb.) 2. condit. clauses (— » 
summa 1) 3. oaths before subjunct. (j/NB pos. 
statements — ► kl 4; summa 2; GAG §185j) 4. in 
interrog. clauses 5. in proh. before pres., stat. 
6. Ass. as negation of main clause, OA also 
— ► ula; la. ..Id... "neither ... nor ..."; before 
subst. for emphasis, e.g. NA la kusdpe takkal 
"she eats no bread at all" 7. OAkk, Bab. rarely 
as strong negation of main clause (— » ul), 
OAkk mandma la illik "no one at all went", NB 
Id dmur "I definitely did not see", OB la tutta 
"you surely will not find" C. in comb.: 1. sa la 
"without", esp. "without agreement of s.o.; 
"except for" 2. — » adi 3; anal 13, alia; ezib; 
ina 7, ilia; laman; summa 4 

la'abu(m), le'ebu ~ "to harass" O/jB G (Hi) of 
demons etc. "afflict" person, lung; jB of 
la'bulli'bu "infect" s.o. D "infect" s.o. with /. 



illness N pass, "be infected"; > li'bu, la'bum, 
la'ibum; tal'abum'- 

la'dmum — ► lemu 

la'asu(m) - "to dirty, defile"? jB lex. G; D; 
> li'su, la'su II, la'isu; lu'astu 

la'atu "to swallow (up)" Bab. G (u/u) of 
persons, animals D ~ G; — » aldtu; ma'ldtu 

la'd'u — » le'u 

lababu(m) "to rage" O/jB G (a/u) of person, 
demon S caus., of fever "make s.o. rage" St OB 
"exert o.s."? N "become furious" of flood, "be 
feverish"? of lips; > libbdtu; labbibu; salbabu; 
salbubu; nalbubu, nalbdbu 

labaku(m) "to be(come) soft" OAkk, O/jB, MA 
G (Hi) of part of body; of bow "be supple"; of 
drugs, in liquid D "make soft, soften up" part of 
body etc.; drugs in liquid Dtn iter, of D S ~ D 
"soften, soak"; > labku; labbuku; lubku; 
lubkdnu 

labanatu "incense" jB 

labanu(m), NB also le/abenu "to spread, stroke" 
G (///'; NA perf. issibin) 1. "stroke" part of 
body, esp. nose (appa), gesture of submission, 
respect [KIR4.SU.GAL] 2. "spread out" (mud to 
make) bricks, libittam I. "make bricks", agurra 
I. "make baked bricks", also absol.; jB/NA 
"brick over" D MA, jB lex. ~ G 2 "cover, 
reinforce with brickwork" S caus. of G 1 jB 
appa I.; caus. of G 2 "have bricks made", also 
NA "cause to brick over"; > labnu I; libnu; 
labinu, labbinu 1 -; libittu; lubbundu, labbunu; 
nalbanu, nalbattu, nalbanatta 

labdnu — » labidnum 

labaris j/NB 1. in /. aldku of buildings "to 
become old, dilapidated" 2. in /. time "in days to 



labarmanna 



174 



labnis 



G + 



come" (in future), "with the passage of time" 
(in past); < lahdru 

labarmanna ~ "for the future, henceforth" Bogh. 

labaru(m) "to be(come) old, long-lasting" 
G (Hi) [TIL] of persons "live long, live to a 
great age"; of city, food, work "become old"; of 
time "last long"; labdr (dur) Ami "long 
duration; longevity; distant future"; labdr pale 
"long reign"; in PNs lilbir, -lilbur (-* 
bdru III) Gtn iter. jB litabbur dadml "long 
survival of (separate) settlements" D "make 
long-lived, long-lasting" [TIL; also LIBIR.RA], 
of god "give" s.o. "long life", "make" s.o.'s life, 
reign "last long"; of man "hold" e.g. sceptre 
"for a long time", OB kussdm ulahbar "will 
hold the throne for long"; ellipt. "live long" 
Dt "be allowed to live long, reach old age" of 
person, building S 1. caus. "bring to old age, 
allow to last long" reign, priesthood 2. of 
person, building "become old, dilapidated"; 
> labiru, labiris, labirtu, labirutu; labdris; — ♦ 
lubdru; labarmanna 

Labasu, Lapdsu (a disease demon) jB 
[ d DiM.ME.A] as demon, as disease 

Iabasu(m) "to clothe o.s." G (a/a, jB Hi) "put 
on" garment (=acc); stat. "wears, is wearing", 
subdtam la labsdku "I wear no clothing"; 
transf. "is clad in" fear, soreness, radiance etc.; 
Nuzi for D "clothe" s.o. Gt 1. stat. transf. "is 
clad in" sickness, fear etc.; of object "is overlaid 
with" gold etc. 2. OA, OB "provide with 
clothing" 3. liter, "get dressed (in)" [MU4.MU4] 
D "clothe" [MU4.MU4], "provide with clothing" 
esp. as gift; transf. OA "enclose" tablet in 
envelope; MB/MA "face" wall with bricks; NB 
"overlay" object with metal; "wrap" s.o. with 
leprosy Dt "clothe o.s. with, put on" garment 
etc. S "clothe, array" transf. with greenery, fear 
etc.; "overlay, bedeck" with precious metal St 
"clothe o.s. with"; stat. "is clothed with" N ~ G 

">"put on" garment (=acc), also transf. light, 
justice; sfafr'Ts'^clad in"; > labsu, labsutum, 
libsu, lubsu, luhdsu, lubusu, lubustu; labbasu'-, 
lubbusu; lithusu; nalbasu; talbisum, talbustu 

labatu (a kind of wool) jB lex. 

labdtu — ♦ also labtu; lapdtu 

labatu(m), jB labbatu "lioness" OAkk, O/jB as 
epith. of goddess; in fPN Si-ldbat; < lahu 

labatu, lapitu (a plant) jB lex., comm. 

labd'u — ♦ lawum II 

labbdndtu — ♦ kalhdndtu 

labbdnu — » alappdnu 

labbasu (prof, desig.) NB; < labasu ? 



labbasute — ♦ lubbusu 

labbatu — ♦ labatu 

labbibu "very furious" jB of weapon; < labdbu 

labbinu (a fly) jB lex.; < labdnu ? 

labbis — ♦ labis 

labbu 1. ~ "weak"? OB of oxen 2. (desig. of low 

quality dates) j/NB [GIS.GISIMMAR.BUR ?] 
labbu — ♦ also labu 
labbuku "softened, steeped" MA of aromatics; 

< labdku D 

labbunu; pi. f. (a stand or pedestal)? M/NA for 
statues; in bit ( d )l. (a religious building); also in 
PN; < labdnu 

labbusu — ♦ lubbusu 

labenu — ♦ labdnu 

labertu — * labirtu 

labiru — » labiru 

laberutu — ♦ labirutu 

Iabianum, labdnu, NA liblpdnu "neck( tendons)" 
O/jB, M/NA [SA.GU] of human, animal 

labinu(m), NB lebinu "brick-maker" Bab. esp. 
Idbin lihitti(m); < labdnu 

labiris "of old" OB in istu I., ina I. "for a long 
time"; < labiru 

labirtum, labertum OB 1. "long-standing 
property" esp. of fields 2. "long-standing, old 
debt" [LIBIR] 3. "earlier time"; < labiru 

labiru(m), laberu(m), jB also labru; NB f. also 
labistu "old" [LIBIR(.RA); TIL] of objects, food, 
drink etc.; of building; "former, previous, long- 
standing" of field, person, king etc.; "old- 
established" of customs, measures; of tablet, in 
col. as subst. kima labirisu "according to its 
original" [LIBIR.RA.BI.GIM]; as subst. "former 
time", kima I., ina I. "(as) in the past"; 

< labdru; > labiris, labirtu, labirutu 
labirutu, laleberutu "old age" M/jB(Ass.), 

Bogh., NA of person, building /. aldku "to 
grow old, become dilapidated"; Bogh. ki I. "as 
of old"; < labiru 

labis, labbis "like a lion" M/jB; < labu 

labistu — ♦ labiru 

labisu (a plant) jB lex. 

labittu — ♦ labnu I; libittu 

labitu in /. ilabbi fig. etym. of guard, "makes the 
round" NA; < lawum II 

labiu — ♦ lamu 

labku; NA f. labaktu "soft" M/NB, NA 1. Nuzi 
"supple" of bow 2. MB "moist" of plaster; NB 
in subst. use "moistening" of soil 3. NB (a type 
of beer) 4. NA "tender" of meat; < labdku 

labnis "as (if using) throwsticks"? jB(Ass.); 

< labnu II 



labnu I 



175 



lahtu 



labnu I; f. labittu "(spread) flat" MA, jB of face, 

nose; "moulded" of bricks MA; (a type of 

basket) jB lex.; < labdnu 
labnu II, lihnu "throwstick" jB lex.; > labnis 
labru — ♦ labiru 
labsum "foreigner"? OB lex. 
labsu "clothed" jB esp. in labis kite "linen- 
wearer" (a temple official); Nuzi "worn" of 

clothes; < labasu 
labsutum "clothed state" OB in labsussa 

"clothed" of woman; < labsu 
labtu(m), also pi. labdtu "(oven-)parched grain" 

O/jB, NA [NA. SE.SA.A] 
labu, lehu "to howl, whine, squeal, cry out" jB 

G (ulu, also Hi) of dog, pig etc.; of sick person 

"cry out", of baby; of wind in stomach; of 

house "creak"; zubbi labe (a type of fly) jB lex. 

Gtn iter, of invalid; > labd 
labu — ♦ also lawum II 
labu(m), OAkk, OA lab'um, jB also labbu 

"lion"; also transf. as desig. of god, king, 

demon; > labatu; labis 
labu — ♦ also li'bu 

labu adj. "howling, bleating" jB lex.; < labu 
lab'um — ♦ labu 
la'bum adj. "suffering from li'bu disease" OB 

lex.; < la'dbu 
la'hu — ♦ also li'bu 
labubi(t)tu (a plant) j/NB 
labunu — » labbunu 
labussu — » lubustu 
ladinnu, ladnu, ladunu (an aromatic, phps.) 

"ladanum resin" j/NB, NA 
ladiru — ♦ aladiru 

ladiru "fearless" MB/MA for Id ddiru 
ladnu — ♦ ladinnu 
ladu(m), NA luddu "to bend down" O/jB, NA 

G (u) of wrestler; tree; path; of part of exta; t$A 

"bow" in shame ? 
ladunu — ♦ ladinnu 
la' e hum — ♦ la'ibum 
lagabbis "like a lump" jB; < lagabbu 
lagabbu(m) "lump, clod" OA, O/jB lex.; < Sum. 
lagagu "to cry out" jB lex. only G; D 
lagallum, laga(r)ru(m) — ♦ lagaru 
lagarturru "apprentice lagaru priest" NB; 

< Sum. 
lagaru(m), lagarru, lagallum (a priest) Bab., 

Susa; < Sum. 
laga(s)takkas (desig. of horses) M/NB; < Kass. 
laga'u, lagu "scale, dirt, scum" jB on lips, ears, 

scalp; in bitumen oven 



laginu (an agricultural occupation) jB lex., also 

lagin isitti "rich, important" 
lagu mng. unkn. jB lex. in absu lagu (a kind of 

legume) 
lagu — ♦ laga'u 
lahabu, lehebu ~ "to rumble, growl" MA, jB 

G (('/(') of patient's belly, horse, wolf Stn 

"cause to growl continuously" 

lahddu — » lahdtu 
lahagu (a plant) jB lex., med. 
lahamu — ♦ lahmu 
lahamu(m) I, lehemu "to be hairy" O/jB G stat. 

only sdrta lalehim "is covered in hair" D, S lex. 

only; > lahmu, lahimu; luhhumu 
lahamu II G unattested D j/NB "to brew" beer 

from malt or dates 
lahanatu, lahandu —* lahantu 
lahangiddu (a slender flask) jB lex.; < Sum. 
lahannu(m); pi. m. & f. (a flask) Bab., M/NA 

[DUG.LA.JJA.AN] of pottery, stone, metal; 

< Sum.; — ♦ lahidnum 

lahantu, lahanatu, lahandu (a bird) jB lex.; of 

girl in song 
laharum, laharitum (desig. of a garment) OB 
laharuhsum, laharussu, laharuskalu "quiver 

(on chariot)" O/jB 
lahasu(m) "to whisper" O/jB G not attested 

Gt jB "pray in a whisper" D "whisper" Dtn 

Mari iter. Dt jB "whisper to o.s."; > lihsu; 

Mulahhisu 
lahatu (or lahdd/tu) mng. unkn. jB lex. D; S 
lahhinu — ♦ alahhinu 

lahhinutu (a female official) M/NA; < lahhinu 
Lahhum (a month) Mari, OB(Susa) 
lahianum (a vessel) OB = lahannuT, 

> lahiydndtu 
lahimu "hairy" jB lex.; < lahamu I 
lahi(y)anatu(m) pi. tant. (a kind of shell) O/jB; 

< lahidnum 

lahmu(m), lahamu 1. 'hairy' jB lex.; OB as PN 
2. (a mythical being) OAkk, Bab. guardians of 
sea, sky, earth, apsu; "(statue, image of) /."; 

< lahamu I 

lahru(m) m. & f. "sheep", mostly f. "ewe" 

OAkk, Bab., NA [(UDU.)Ug]; lit. "flocks", also 

deified Lahar 
lahsatu f. pi. (implements)? NB of iron 
lahsu — ♦ lashu 
lahtangiddu (a narrow beer vessel) jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
lahtanu(m); pi. f. (a beer vat) OA, O/jB 

[LAHTAN]; < Sum. 
lahtu "pit" jB lex. 



lahu I 



176 



lam an 



lahu I "jaw(s)" M/jB 

lahu II "dry wood" jB lex.; < Sum. 

lahu "young shoot" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 

la'ibum, la'ibum "suffering from li'hu disease" 

OAkk as PN; < la'dbu 
la'ir(i)anu, lawirdnu(m) "standing water" O/jB; 

— » awirdnum 
la 'is "like a small child" jB; < la'u 
la'isu(m) "oppressive, merciless" O/jB of 

goddess, death; < la'dsu 
Id'ium — » li'il 
lakadu(m) "to run" O/jB G (;'/;') of person, 

animal; > lakittu 
lakanum (or laqdnum) (a type of sheep)? OA, 

also as PN 
lakbum (or lakpwn, laqblpwn) (a vessel) OB 

lex. 
lakittu "(a type of) boat" jB lex. (liter. 

'runner'?); < lakddu 
lakku (or laqqu) (a vessel) Qatna of silver 
lakpum — » lakbum 
laku(m) I "weak" of person, "suckling" of 

animal, child; also as fPN Lakitu(m); of date 

palm; < laku II; — » Idu 
laku(m) II "to be(come) weak" OA, O/jB G (;'/;') 

of person, foundation D "weaken" s.o.; > laku I 
laku III "crooked" jB lex.; < Sum. 
laku — » leku 
lalagu — » lallangu 
lala'is "like kids" jB; < laliu 
lalanu "indigent, powerless" jB lex.; > luldnW 
lalanu "flourishing" jB of person; "luxuriant" of 

garden; < laid I 
lala'u mng. unkn. jB 
lald'u — » laliu 
lalenu, Idlenna in ina I. "above (in document), 

supra" NB; < Aram. 
lalgar "cosmic (underground) water, apsu" jB 
lalikku — » liligu 1 
laliu(m), lali'u, lalu(m), lald'ufm) "kid, young 

goat" O/jB, MA [MAS.TUR]; also OA, OB 

Laliya as PN; > lala'is 
la(l)langu, lalagu (a leguminous vegetable) jB 

lex. 
lallaratu pi. tant. "lamentation" jB; < lallaru 
lallaris "like a mourner" jB; < lallaru 
lallaris "like honey" jB; < lallaru 
lallartu(m), lallaritu "female mourner" O/jB; 

also as desig. of bird, insect; of squeaky shoe ?; 

< lallaru 
lallaru(m) "(professional) mourner" O/jB; also 

(a bird); desig. of owl, cricket etc.; > lallaratu; 

lallartu; lallaris 



lallaru "white honey" jB; also transf., of lips; 
> lallaris 

lallasu mng. unkn. OB lex. 

Lallubu(m), Lanlubu, jB also Lullubii (a month) 
O/jB; 6th month, OB(Susa); 7th month, jB 
astr.; OB fPN at Susa Lallubitu 

lalsagakku "midwife" jB lex.; < Sum. 

lalu(m) I "plenty, exuberance" OAkk, Bab., NA 
[la] 1. "plenty, wealth; abundance" of luxury, 
vegetation 2. "exuberance, (sexual) charms, 
attractions" of woman, goddess, rarely also 
man; of god, man "prime of life" etc.; OB also 
pi. f. as PN; /. malii "to be full of charms", /. 
sebu "to be satisfied, sated with attractions" of 
woman, life, palace etc. 3. "desire" for s.th., to 
do s.th.; "longing" for god; > lalanu; lalutu; 
lulu I; lullu H 

lalu II "to bind"? jB lex. 

lalu — » also laliu 

lalutu(m) "vigour, prime of life" OB as PN, jB 
of man's middle age; < lalu I 

lama, M/jB also lam; before pron. suff. Idmi/u- 
"before (in time); in front of OAkk, Bab., OA 
1. prep, "before" person; "before" an event, 
lama esidim "before reaping", lam libbiya 
"before I wish"; > elldmu- 2. adv. OAkk, OB 
before pret. "not yet"? 3. conj. "before" + 
subjunct. 

lamadu(m) "to learn" G (a/a; imper. limad) [ZU] 
"learn, come to know" a fact, a matter (esp. 
with obj. timum, awdtum); "learn" how to do 
s.th.; "comprehend, understand"; OA 
"recognize, acknowledge" a claim, obligation; 
OA, O/jB "know (sexually)" Gtn iter, 
"(repeatedly) ascertain" s.th.; OA "repeatedly 
study" tablet, MB(Shechem) "study" (as 
apprentice) Gt 1. "learn thoroughly, com- 
pletely", esp. stat. 2. recipr. OB "get to know 
one another" D 1. "inform" s.o. of s.th. (= 2 
ace.) 2. "teach" s.o. a fact, a craft etc. 3. OA 
"charge" s.o. with an expense S M/jB, NA 
"have" s.o. "learn" s.th. N of command, plan, 
demon "be comprehended, fathomed"; > lamdu; 
limittum; lummudu; mulammidu; talmldu 

lam(a)hussu f. (a ceremonial garment) Bab., 
Am., Bogh. [TUG.NIG.LAM]; < Sum. 

lamamahhu "human-headed bull colossus" 
jB(Ass.) [ d LAMMA.MAH]; < Sum. 

lamamu I "to chew" jB G (aJu) of animal, 
person D ~ G ? "masticate" alum 

lamamu II, lemimu "to test"? MB, NA in glass 
manufacture 

laman "not yet" jB lex.; < Id + -man 



lamaqartu 



177 



lapatu(m) 



lamdnu — » leminu 

lamaqartu, lamaqurtu (a container of standard 
capacity) NA for fish 

lamassannu ~ "fortunate, blessed" MB of 
correspondent's superior; < lamassu 

lamassatu(m) "tutelary goddess" O/jB 
[ d LAMMA]; also "(image of) tutelary goddess", 
e.g. /. Istar "figurine of Istar"; /. ini "pupil" of 
the eye; OAkk, OA, OB also fPN; < lamassu 

lamassu(m) f. "(female) tutelary deity" 
[ d LAMMA]; freq. in PNs; as source of good 
fortune, /. rasu "to have personal god, i.e. good 
fortune"; OB lex. awil I. "lucky man"; OB 
Mardukma lamassaka "Marduk is your 
personal deity"; /. mdti "tutelary deity of land"; 
"(image of, figurine of) /. deity"; in NA palaces 
(a type of sphinx) also [MUNUS. d LAMMA]; 
aban I. (a precious stone); > lamassannu, 
lamassatu 

lamastu(m), NA also lamassu (a demoness) 
[ d DIM.ME] attacking esp. new-bom and suck- 
lings; also in aban /., sam(mi) I. (kinds of 
stone, plant) 

lamattu "ant" jB lex. 

lamatu in sa la-mat-su "one with no true claim" 
jB; also lex. (an interj.); < Id + awdtu 

lamdu "experienced" jB; of virgin Id lamittu; 

< lamddu 
lamhussu — » lamahussu 
Idmi — ► lama 

la'mis "like ashes" jB; < lamu 

lammu I, lummu (a tree) M/jB, NA; < Sum. 

lammu II jB 1. (desig. of the underworld) 

2. mul /. (a star); < Sum. 
lammudu — » lummudu 
lammunum — » lummunu 
lamnis — » lemnis 
lamnu — » lemnu 

lamsisu, lamsisu (a brewing vat) jB; < Sum. 
lamsatanu "fly-bitten"? MB as horse's name; 

< lamsu 

lamsu, lamsatu(m), nams(at)u (a big fly) O/jB 
[NIM.SAHAR.RA]; also med., "fly(-bite)", esp. 
lamsat hildti; > lamsatanu 

lamu (a branch) jB lex. 

lamu — » also lawum I.II 

lamu, lamu "glowing ashes" Bab. esp. with 
belulbullu "to (be) extinguish^ ed)"; > la'mis 

lamu — ► lama 

lamu, limit, NA Idhiu M/NB, Nuzi, NA adj. 

1. Nuzi of witness "walking round" land 

2. "surrounding" (with obj.); < lawum II ptcp. 
lamu — » lamu 



lamutanu, lamutu, lautdnu m. & f.; f. latdnu, 
mostly pi. "slave(s), retainer(s)" NB 

lamuttu — » lemuttu 

lamutu — » lamutanu 

lanihu — » anihu 

Lanlubu — » Lallubu 

lanu(m) "form, stature" Bab., NA [ALAN] 
"outward form" of human; "height, size" of 
person, deity, image, tree, ark; mag. "(image of) 
human form" 

lanu — » also kardnu 4 

lanuqanu (part of a statue)? MB 

lapan(i) "in front of j/NB spatially; with vb.s of 
fleeing, fearing etc. "from before"; taking, 
stealing "from" s.o.; attitude "towards, with 
regard to" s.o.; occas. commanded, engendered 
"by" s.o.; < la + pdnu I 

lapanu(m) "to be(come) poor" G (;'/;', occas. 
ulu) [UKU] of persons D "make poor, 
impoverish"; > lapnu; lupnu; lappanu; 
luppunum 

lapapu(m) "to wrap around" Bab. G (pres. 
ilappap) med., mag. with wrappings (lippi) etc. 
D - G ?; > lippu 

Lapdsu — » Lahdsu 

lapatu(m), labdtu "to touch, take hold of 
G (a/u) [TAG] 1. "touch" person, part of body; 
also with sexual connotation; transf. OA 
"touch" s.o.'s ear, in court; "involve, call in" 
palace (officials); "undertake" job (liptu) 

2. "(wrongly) lay hands on" property etc. 

3. "attack (with violence), grasp violently" o.'s 
throat (in oath-taking); with knife, sword, whip 
etc. 4. OB "levy, call up" troops 5. OA, OB 
math, "inscribe, enter (on tablet)" 6. "affect 
with, harm with" fire, damp, pest, disease etc. 
7. "apply" s.th. to s.th. (= 2 ace), "smear, 
anoint" s.th. with (= ina) e.g. bitumen, oil, 
blood etc. 8. stat., of omen etc. "is 
unfavourable" 9. of omen "affect" s.o., "be 
applicable to" s.o. 10. MB of sun "touch" the 
sky, "rise" Gtn [TAG.MES] iter, of G 6, 7 
Gt [TAG.TAG] 1. - G 5 OA "write down, enter 
(on tablet)" 2. ~ G 7 "smear" s.th. with s.th. 
(= 2 ace), ellipt. "infect" weapon (with poison) 
D [TAG.TAG; TAG.MES] 1. ~ G "grasp" throat 
(~ G 3), "touch" part of body "roughly", "play" 
stringed instrument, "make contact with" dirt, 
pollution, genitals 2. "have bad effect on" s.th., 
"upset" situation, omen 3. OA, OB "delay", 
stat. "is delayed"; ellipt. "tarry, make a stop" 

4. OA "write" message, answer, tablet etc. to 
s.o. 5. "sprinkle, fumigate" with liquid, incense 



laplaptu(m) 



178 



lasmu(m) 



etc. 6. NA ~ G 6 of eclipse "affect" land Dtn 
iter, of D 4 "repeatedly write" tablets Dt pass, 
of D3 OB "be delayed" S [HUL.MES; 
TAG.TAG] "ruin, destroy, plunder" land, city, 
building; gods, people, images; cult; "pound 
up" in mortar St 1 [pUL(.MES)] pass, of S St 2 
caus. of pass. OB "allow to be touched" 
N pass, of G [TAG.TAG] of work "be under- 
taken"; of possession "have hands laid on, be 
appropriated"; OA "be entered, recorded" as 
(=acc.) surety; "be affected" by weevils, by 
fire, by injury; of salt "be applied" to fish; 
> laptu I; laptanu; liptdnu; liptu, lipittu; lupputu; 
mulappitu, talpittu; nalpatu, nalpattu; salputtu, 
sulputu 

lapitu — ► labatu 

lapiaptu(m) "thirst"? OB lex., jB, NA 

lapnu(m); f. lapuntu, laputtu "poor; pauper" 
[Oku; NIG.NU.TUKU] as adj. (opp. = saru I) 
and subst.; NB as fPN; < lapdnu; > lappanu 

lappanu "very poor" jB; < lapnu 

lappanu — » alappdnu 

laptanu "tainted" jB with blood etc.; < laptu I 

laptanu "turnip-coloured" jB lex. of stone; 

< laptu II 

laptu(m) I; f. lapittu "touched, affected" Bab., 
NA [TAG] of limb "injured"; animal, wood 
"affected" by disease, insects; of omen 
"unfavourable"; of lyre "struck, played"; 

< lapatu 

laptu(m) II, liptu "turnip" Bab., NA 
[LU.UB.SAR] also lex., med. lapat armanni (a 
plant); > laptanu; — » labtu 

lapu — ► liapum 

laputtu(m), luputtu ~ "lieutenant; overseer" 
OAkk, Bab., OA [NU.BANDA/BAN.DA] a milit- 
ary officer; also as epith. of deities, rulers; 
<Sum. 

laqahu "to take" Am.; < W.Sem.; = lequ II 

laqalaqa — » laqlaqqu 

laqdnum — ► lakanum 

laqatu(m) "to gather up, glean" G (a/u, NA pres. 
ilaqqut) of humans, animals "pick up, collect" 
clods, seeds, flour, animals; human tears; of 
bees "gather" honey; "take away by force, 
subdue" enemies, descendants etc. D ~ G 
"gather together hastily" commodities, troops 
etc.; "plunder, strip" house Dtn iter, (or pi. 
obj.?) S caus. of G "cause to collect, gather up" 
N pass, of G "be taken away by force, 
destroyed"; > laqtu; liqtu; laqitu, Idqittu; 
laqqatum; luquttum; malqatu 

laqa'u "to suffer" NA; < Aram. 



laqd'u — » also lequ II 

laqbum — » lakbum 

Ld-qepu — ► qipu 1 

laqianu "buyer" MA; < lequ II 

laqittu(m) "female collector" OB of grain; of 

clods; < laqdtu 
laqitu(m) in /. kilurbdni(m) "clod-collector" O/jB 

[lO.LAG.RI.RI.GA]; < laqdtu 
laqlaqqatu — » laqlaqtu 
laqlaqqu, laqalaqa, raqraqqu "stork" jB [RAG. 

RAG.MUSEN; A.RAG.MUSEN]; also desig. of 

vulva 
laqlaqtu, laqlaqqatu (a skin complaint) jB med., 

on head 
laqpum — ► lakbum 

laqqatum "gatherer" OAkk as PN; < laqdtu 
laqqiqu (a stone) jB lex. 
laqqum mng. unkn. OB lex., desig. of person 
laqqu — » also lakku 
laqtu "gathered, gleaned" jB of seed; transf. 

"destroyed"; < laqdtu 
laqtum ? mng. unkn. OB 
laqu — ► lequ II 
laqu — ► llqu I 
laradu — » lardu 
larandu (a big cat) jB 
lardu, laradu (a grass, Nardus) j/NB, NA 

[U.KI.KAL.m.RI/RI(.IN)] in field, as drug, as 

soap; — » herinum 
larindu — ► lurmum 
laripu (a linen garment) NB 
larsinum, larsinnu f. "hoof O/jB of animal; of 

pig, as drug; OB lex. sa larsindtim "club- 
footed"? 
laru(m) "branch, twig" O/jB, MA [PA] of plant; 

as ornamental design; ext., in sheep "branch" of 

rib, of vein 
larum — » leru 

larussu mng. unkn. jB in larus tdmti "sea /." 
lasamu(m) "to run" Bab., M/NA G («/«) [KAS4] 

of god, human; of animal, bird; "gallop"; "serve 

as a runner" NA, of army service Gtn 

[KAS4.KAS4] iter., of demons, animals S caus. 

OB lex.; > lasmu; lismu; lassamu, lussumu; 

Idsimu- 
lasimu(m) 1. "swift" of horses, knees (birkd) jB 

2. "runner, courier" Bab., NA [OB LU.KAS4.E; 

later (LU.)KAS4] as official; also as PN; d L. (a 

deity); < lasdmu 
lasmu(m) "speedy" M/NA, jB [KAS4] of animal; 

of feet; < lasdmu 



lasqum 



179 



leku 



lasqum, lasqu (a kind of pastureland)? Mari, 
MB, MB(Ass.) 

lassamu "speedy, nimble" NA of feet; < lasdmu 

lashu, lahsii "gum(s)" jB; /. saplu "lower g." 

lasi — » lassu I 

laslasu "valueless" NA of words; < lassu II 

lasqu — ► lasqum 

lassu I, NA also lasuli "(there) is not, are not" 
Ass., occas. Bab.; OA klma emdru lassuni "as 
there are no donkeys", 2 f. stat. lassudti; NA 
niqittaka lu lassu "may you have no anxiety", 
summa ibassi summa lassu "whether there is 
or not", absol. lassu "no!"; <ld + isu 

lassu(m) II "absent; alien"? OA, O/jB; > lassutu; 
laslasu 

lassutu (response that there is not) MA; 
< lassu II 

lasu (part of body) jB lex. 

lasu — > lassu I; la'su I 

lasu I "to knead" Bab. G («) [SILA M (=SID)] 
dough, clay etc.; > llsu 

lasu II "to lick"? jB lex.; > melestu 

la'su I, lasu (a copper ore) jB lex. 

la'su II "polluted" jB; < la'dsu 

lataku(m) "to try out, test" G (a/u) food, drink; 
animal, person; opinion, mathematical exercise; 
"question" s.o.; "be circumspect"; jB mag. 
saman I. (a type of oil) D ~ G "test" s.th.; 

> latku; litku, litiktu; maltakum, maltaktu 
latdnu — ► lamutdnu 

latd'u — ► letu II 

latku(m) "tested, checked" jB, NA of textile, 
metal, drug; < latdku 

lattu (a container of standard capacity) NA for 
fish 

latu — ► letu 

latu — ► lltu II 

latu(m) "to confine, keep in check" Bab., NA 
G (w) with bridle, stock; of animal "wrap itself 
round"; of god "encircle" world; of ring 
"enclose" enemy; "bind up" weapons D ~ G 
"encircle, enclose" world, enemy; > lltu I, lltutu; 
malutu 

la'u — > kardnuA 

la'u(m) "small child; baby(ish)" OA, O/jB 
[LU.TUR] as adj. and subst.; OB as PN, and 
fPN La'ltum; of reed; > la' is; — ► laku I 

la"upum I "wrapped in cloth" OA of textiles; 
<la"upum\\ 

la"upum II D "to wrap in cloth" OA; 

> la"upum I 
lautdnu — ► lamutdnu 
lawa'um — ► lawum II 



Idwirdnu — > Id'iridnu 

lawitum "encirclement, siege" OB in dl lawltika 
"city you are besieging"; < lawum II 

lawum I, lamu "besieged" OB of land; Nuzi 
"fenced" of threshing floor; < lawum II 

lawum II, lamu, OAkk, OA lawa'um, M/NA 
labd'u, labu "to surround; besiege" G (///; NA 
perf. assibi) [NIGIN; NIGIN] 1. "surround, en- 
circle" s.th. with (= ace, also ina) s.th., with 
wall, ornament, mag. with lime, flour, astr. with 
halo (tarbdsa) 2. "encircle, besiege" city, 
enemy etc. 3. "wrap up" in cloth, string etc. 

4. "go round" in survey; in cult; of animals 

5. Nuzi of witness "walk round (the land of)" 
s.o. 6- NB "keep company" with (= itti) 1. of 
part of liver, weather, incense "turn round, veer 
round" Gtn iter, of demon "continually 
encircle" s.o.; of part of liver "repeatedly be 
wound round" Gt jB "be wound round (each 
other)", stat. (tilmi) "is surrounded" 
D "surround"; OA "wrap" S [Nuzi NIGIN 
(.MES)] "encircle" building with brickwork, 
wall, ornament; "cause to besiege"; "make" s.o. 
"walk round", Nuzi "survey" (field); NB 
"bring by circuitous route" N 1. "be besieged" 
2. OA "embrace one another"; > lawum I, 
labltu, lawitum; lamu; liwitum, Umu II, limutu; 
muselwu; nalbetu; nalbdn; talmitu 

lazdnu — > lezenu 

lazazu "to endure, persist" jB G (pres. ilazzaz) 

[zal(.ZAL)] of rains; illness Gtn ~ G; > lazzu, 

lazzis; luzzuzum; lezu II 

lazzis "persistently" jB [ZAL-/i]; < lazzu 

lazzu "enduring, persistent" M/NB, NA 

[ZAL.ZAL] of rain, injury, illness; < lazazu; 

> lazzis 

le — > kardnu 4 

le'dmu — > lemu 

le'd'um — ► le'ii 

lebenu — ► labdnu 

leberutu — > labirutu 

lebinu — ► Idbinu 

lebu — ► labA 

lebu — ► libu; li'bu 

le'ebu — ► la'dbu 

lehebu — > lahdbu 

lehemu "to consume" Am., j/NB G (///) food or 

drink 
lehemu — > also lahdmu I 
le'is jB in la le'is "like an incompetent"; < le'u 
leku, lequ "to go" G jB lex. 



leku(m) 



180 



le'Q(m) 



leku(in), Idku "to lick (up)" O/jB G (pres. ile/dk) 
of person, animal D of cow "lick" hide; 

> maldku V 
lememu — » lamdmu II 

lemenu(m), Ass. lamdnu(m) "to be(come) bad" 
G (/'//; stat. lemun; NA pret. also ilmun) [yUL] 
"become" (stat. "is") "unsatisfactory", "unfav- 
ourable", "unlucky"; of heart, person "be 
malevolent", "become angry" towards (= dat.) 
Gtn of heart "repeatedly become angry" Gt stat. 
"is very angry, malevolent" D 1. "make" s.th. 
"unfavourable" e.g. word, fate 2. "do evil, treat" 
s.o. "badly" 3. "trouble, burden" s.o.'s heart, 
o.s. Dtn OB "repeatedly trouble" s.o.'s heart 
Dt "become angry with one another" 
St "become hostile to one another" SD jB 
"make difficult"; > lemnu, lemnis, lemuttu, 
lemuttanu; lemmenu; lumnu, lumndnu, 
lumnatta; lummunu, lummuttum; nelmenu 

lemmenu "very bad" jB; < lemenu 

lemmu — » lemu 

lemnis, OA, OB lamnis "badly" Bab., OA; esp. 
/. epeldsu(m) "to treat badly"; < lemnu 

lemnu(m), OAkk, O/MA also lamnu(m); f. 
Ie/amuttu(m) "bad" [yUL] person, demon, 
animal; illness, curse etc.; day, wind, word, 
action; of taste or smell; as subst. (pi. also 
lemnu) "evil person, enemy"; mimma lemnu 
"all that is evil", also as demon [N1G.HUL]; 

< lemenu; > lemuttu, lemnis 

lemu(m) I "to consume" O/jB, Mari G (e/e) food 

and drink 
lemu(m) II "to be unwilling" OB, Bogh. G stat. 

only lemi/u "is unwilling"; > lemu; — » mud'um 
lemu, lemmu "disobedient (one)" M/jB; 

< lemu II 

lemu — » lamu; leu 

lemu(m), OAkk la'dmum, NA le dmu'- "to 
consume, eat and drink" G (e; OAkk pres. 
tala"am) of human, of lamb; jB akla u sikara 
Id Hem "should not consume bread or beer" 

lemuntu — » lemuttu 

lemuttanu "scoundrel" NB; < lemuttu 

lemuttu(m), lemuntu(m), Ass. usu. lamuttu(m) 
"evil, wickedness" [yUL- ; MUNUS.yUL] often 
pi. le/amne/dtu (OB also lenneti), of bad 
intentions, words, actions; OA /. aldkum "to 
intend, plot harm"; "misfortune" of weather, 
flood etc.; Bab. bel I. "adversary"; OB lex. sa I. 
"evildoer"; issur I. (a bird, owl); < lemnu; 

> lemuttanu 
lennetu — » lemuttu 

lepu — » llbu; lipium; llpu 



lequ I "adopted" jB lex.; < lequ II 

lequ(m) II, laqu(m), OAkk, Ass. laqd'u(m) "to 
take, take over" G (e/e) [TI; SU.TI; SU.BA.AN. 
Tl(.MES)] 1. "take hold of weapon, earth etc., 
"take delivery of animal 2. "be in receipt of, 
take over" goods, money, ground, slave, bribe, 
document 3. "receive" share, ration, bequest 
4. "take away with o.s., take off gift, person; 
vent, "bring, fetch" 5. "take away, carry off 
booty, captives etc. 6. idioms: "adopt" child, 
brother; "take" as wife, for slave; qdtlqdtdti PN 
I. "stand surety for PN"; of planet kakkaba leqdt 
"contains, absorbs star"; parsa/l I. "perform 
ritual(s)"; of part(s) of body sdra leqe/d 
"suffers from draught; from wind" 7. "accept" 
abstr. obj., prayer, wish; judgement; name; 
office, function; math, "take" number etc.; — » 
setutu 8. OB "get to know" s.th. 9. Am. also G 
pass, forms 10. Ug. in sa laqe isdti "fire tongs" 
Gtn iter, of G D Ass. ~ G pi. obj. 
S caus.; esp. of G 7 "cause to take office, 
appoint" s.o. N pass, of G 1-5 Ntn iter. OA; 
> leqii I; lequ; Idqidnu; liqutu; luqu; luqutum; 
melqetu; — » laqdtyu 

lequ — » also leku 

lequ "foster father" O/jB; < lequ II 

leru, llru , OA Idr(um) (a gold paste) j/NB, OA, 
NA measured by weight 

lesu — » Usu 

letu I "split, divided" jB lex. of wood, reed; 
< letu II 

letu(m) II, latu, MA(Ug.) latd'ul "to split" 
Bab., MA ? G (e/e) part of body; stat. of parts 
of liver "are split"; "divide" into portions 
D "shatter" skull, legs, mountain, stone N OB 
"be divided" ana Una "in two"; > letu I; lutu 

letu(m), lltu f. "cheek; side" Bab., MA [TE] 
1. "cheek" /. mahdsu(m) "to slap"; sdrat I. 
'cheek-hair', i.e. "beard"; /. nadu(m) 'to drop 
o.'s cheek' i.e. "give o.'s attention" to, also "be 
careless" 2. transf. "side" of parts of entrails; of 
building, wall, gate 3. M/jB as prep, ina I. 
"beside", ana I. "to" s.o.'s "presence", adi I. 
"up to" s.o., istu I. "from" s.o.; > ellet 1 ; — » 
lltu I 1 

letu — » also lltu I 

letu -► lutu 2 

letu — » lltu II 

le'u(m), OAkk, OA le'd'um, MA la'd'u "to be 
able, powerful" G (///, e/e) (-► GAG §106t) 
[ZU; in PNs also DA, A.gAl] 1. after (occas. 
before) infin. "be able" to do s.th., eberam ul 
il'u "they were unable to cross"; before subst. 



le'u(m) 



181 



libittu(m) 



"be competent to do, master"; absol. "be able", 
also with second vb.; NA, NB(Ass.) of king, 
god ki sa Ha' 'uni "as he chooses" 2. "be (more) 
powerful" than s.o. (= ace), ina dinim 
ile"isunuti "he defeated them in the lawsuit"; 
"gain power over" s.o. (= ace.) R Mari Gtn 
iter, of G 1 OB Gt OA "be competent, capable" 
with respect to s.th. S OB of gods "give power 
to, empower"; >le"u, lets, le'utu; lltu I, lltdnti; 
tele' u, telltu I, teliitu'- 

le'u(m), leyu, lu "board" [GIS.ZU; GIS.DA; GIS.LE. 
Us(.UM)] 1. "(writing-)board" of wood infilled 
with wax; DN nds I. "holding a writing-board", 
/. sa baldti "b. of life" 2. "(wooden) board" of 
door, chariot, plough; "sheet, plaque" of metal 

le'u(m), OAkk Id'ium, OB also leyum, NB also 
lemu; MA f. Id'ittu "powerful, competent" 
[A.GAL; in PNs also DA, ZU] of deity, king; of 
worker, doctor "competent"; + gen. "skilled in" 
s.th., soldiers le'ut qabli "skilled in battle"; in 
PNs, of deity, father, brother; Id I. "weak, 
powerless"; <le'u;> lets, le'utu 

le'utu(m), OB also leyutum "competence, skill, 
power" Bab., NA [A.gAl- ; ZU- ] "power" of 
god, king; "victory" in lawsuit; "skill" of 
craftsman, scribe; Id I. "incompetence"; < leu 

leyu — » leu 

leyum — » le'G 

leyutum —* le'utu 

lezenu, Ass. lazdnu "to ridicule, jeer (at)" Bab., 
NA G (ili) person; "speak" word 
"slanderously" D ~ G; < aluzinnu denom.? 

lezu I "persistent" MB of injury; < lezu II 

lezu II "to continue, be persistent" jB G (u/u); 
> lezu I; — » lazdzu 

liapum, lapu mng. unkn. G; D 

lidru — ► tidlu 

lidtu — ► lltu II 

li'atu "saliva"? Bogh. lex. 

libanu — ► labidnum 

libaru(m), lipdru, lupdru, lipir (a fruit (tree)) 
OA, O/jB, Elam, Bogh. [GIS.MI.PAR/PAR4] 

libaru-susi 'let them catch sixty' (a plant) jB 
lex.; — ► bdru I 

libbanu "inside" Mari, M/jB [SA-n«] adv. 
"within", of region, halo, lung, also ana /.; + 
pron. suff. libbdnussu "within it"; < libbu + 
-arm 

libbatu(m) pi. tant. "rage, fury", esp. /. malu "to 
be filled with anger, angry" against s.o. 
(= gen.), libbdtini Id imalla "let him not be 
angry with us"; < labdbu 

libbdtu — ► narbdtu 2 



libbilibbi — ► libbu B 3; llpu 2 

libbu(m) "inner body; heart" [sA] A. 1. "inner 
body, internal organs" of human, animal 
"womb", sa l.-sa "foetus"; sit libbi "offspring" 
of father 2. "heart" of human; of animal, in 
extispicy, as meat portion; (parts — ► duru I 3, 
papdnu 2, resu) 3. /. Ini "iris"? 4. as seat of 
emotions, thought, memory "mind, mood, 
spirit"; joyful, angry, sorrowful; of loyalty — ► 
gamdru II Gt, D; peaceful, fearful; ina I. basu 
"to be in" s.o.'s "thoughts", ina I. sakdnu "to 
take to heart" 5. as seat of will, summa I. "if it is 
wish of s.o., kl I. "according to wish" of s.o., 
asar 1. "where" s.o. "wishes"; mutu libbisa "a 
husband of her choosing"; Id I. ili(mma) 
"against god's will; alas", OB ul libbi "I don't 
want to"; NB ina hud libbisu "of his own free 
will" 6. OA pi. "attitude" towards s.o. 
7. "courage", /. naddnum, I. sakdnu "to 
encourage", /. nasdhu(m) "discourage" 

B. transf. 1. "content" of letter, statement 
2. "interior" of city, palace, sea etc., "pith" of 
reed 3. "heart" (= various parts) of date palm, 
NB also lib(bi) libbi 4. (an ornament) of metal, 
stone 5. NA akal I. (a pastry)? 6. OB "weft" 

C. in prep, expressions 1. ina I. (after sa 
without ina) [sA.BA for ina libbi(sa/su)]; sa 
libbi(salsu) "in(side), within" of space, time; 
"from among"; "from out of; OA "incumbent 
on"; NA, NB "by means of, "in exchange for"; 
NB oath "by" DN; NA "at the time of s.o. 
2. loc.-adv. (usu. libbu) "from out of, 
belonging to" group, larger quantity; NB "in the 
same way as, just like" 3. ana I. "into, 
towards"; "as addition to"; "against, in 
opposition to"; "on account of, because of; NB 
"(in exchange) for" 4. ultulistulissu I. "from 
(out of)"; of time "since" 5. adi I. "until"; "as 
far as" D. adv. etc. 1. ina I. "in there, therein" 
2. "from out of it/them" 3. NB ina libbi Id 
"because of the fact that" 4. ana l.(-ma) "to the 
interior"; > libbanu 

libbu -► libbu C 2 

libbuhu — ► ellabbuhhu 

libbursu (part of a house) Nuzi 

libittu(m), Am. also labittu; j/NB st. constr. also 

libnat "mudbrick" [SIG4]; coll. "mudbrick(s)"; 

also of metal, dung, "block" of pressed figs; 

"brickwork" (often libnatu), "mudbrick 

building"; < labdnu 
libitu — ► liwitum 
liblibbi — ► libbu B 3; llpu 2 
libnat(u) — ► libittu 



libnu 



182 



lipistu(m) 



libnu, lipnu in libin appi "stroking of the nose" 

M/jB, gesture of submission; < labdnu 
libnu — » also labnu II 
libsu(m) "raiment" OB(poet.); < labdsu 
libu, llleblpu adj. mng. unkn. Bogh., jB of hide 
li'bu(m), lllebu, la'bu(m), labu (a serious disease 

with associated fever) O/jB [DIH]; also /. (sibit) 

sadi; as demon; ext. (a spot affected by /. 

disease); < la'dbu 
lidanu "chick, young bird" M/NB of ducks etc.; 

MA, jB "child (of a slave girl)"; < lidu 
licldtu — » littu I 
liddananu (a plant) jB lex. 
liddatu — » littu I 
liddu — » lidu 
lidis "day after tomorrow" NA in ina I., illldis; — » 

allltis; ullltis 
lldu(m), liddu "child, offspring" O/jB of humans; 

< walddum; > liddnu 
ligimu(m), nigimmu, nagimu "kernel, sprout" 

O/jB of palm tree, barley; transf. of humans, 

animals; jB illigimiya "in my youth"; < Sum. 
liginnu(m) f. "(type of) tablet" Bab., NA 

[(IM.)GfD.DA] Mari in administrative context; 

j/NB, NA "school exercise tablet", /. qabu "to 

recite text"; < Sum. 
ligittu "crooked furrow" jB lex.; < Sum. 
lignu (or liknu) (a wooden container)? NA 
lihburu (a garden herb) NB 
lihmu "muddy water" Bogh. lex.; — » luhdmum 
lihsu "whisper(ing)" jB, NA as prayer, malicious 

rumour; < lahdsu 
Likkase (a month) OB(Alal.) 
liknu — » lignu 

liktirik (a garment) OB(Susa) 
lila "in the evening" M/jB; < Ilium 
llldtu — » lllidtum 
lildu — » lisdum 

lilen in in lilen "in the evening" Mari; < Ilium 
liliatum, llldtu(m) pi. tant. "evening" OAkk, Bab. 

[KIN.SIG]; also "evening (meal)"; llliattam, 

lllatan "in the evening"; warah LlldtimlLillidtim 

(1st month) Mari; < Ilium 
lilibu (part of horse-trappings) jB lex., of leather 
liligu 1. also lalikku "colocynth" jB 

[UKUS.LI.LI.Gl] 2. (a bird) jB [LI.LI.GI.MUSEN]; 

<Sum. 
lilissu(m); pi. m. & f. "kettledrum" Bab., NA 

[LILIZ; also LI.LI.iz] of bronze, esp. rit.; < Sum. 
lilium, lilu; f. lilitu(m), and ardat lili (storm 

demons) O/jB [lilu = LIL.LA.EN.NA/NU; LU.LIL. 

LA; lilltu = MUNUS.LILXA; KI.SIKIL.LfL.LA; 

ardat lili = KI.SIKIL.LIL.lA; KI.SIKIL.UD.DA. 



KAR.RA]; singly, pi. (lilu), in pair {lilu lilltu), 
and as triad; OB ina sit lilim "at the rising of the 
/."; < Sum.; — » kiskilili; wardatum 

lillanitu (a plant) jB lex.; < lilliannum 

lilldnu — » lilliannum 

lillatu — » lillu I 

lilliannum, lilldnu; pi. f. "stalk with ripe ears" 
O/jB [SE.LILLAN]; > lillanitu 

Lillidtum — » lllidtum 

lillidu(m); f. lillittu(m) "offspring" 1. of humans, 
coll. "children, offspring"; of animals 2. as age 
category, of sheep "(recently sexually) mature" 
[SILA4.GUB; f. KIR] 1 .GUB], of pigs; < walddum 

lillu(m)I; f. lillatu "idiot" OAkk, OA, O/jB 
[(LU/MUNUS.)LIL] also as PN; Nuzi, of horse; 

> lillatu 

Lillu(m) II Bab. 1. (a demon) 2. (a god) 

lillutu "idiocy" M/jB in /. mluku "to reduce to 

idiocy, incapacitate"; < lillu I 
lilum (desig. of a sheep)? Mari 
lilu — » lilium 

lilum "evening, night" OB; > Ilia, lilen, lllidtum 
11m; nom. llmu, NA also li'mu; also Pre-Sarg.; pi. 

llml "thousand" [LIM] OA 10 lime; OB, Alal. 

occas. abbr. to //; NA adu (1) li'misu "1,000 

times", also jB ana lima; NA rab 1 llm "captain 

of 1,000" 
lima — » lumd 
limittum; pi. limddtum ~ "thing(s) notified, 

promised item(s)" OB in pi. of gifts; < lamddu 
limltu — » liwltum 
llmu(m) I, limmu "eponym (of year)" Ass.; also 

"eponymate", ina sane limmisu "in his second 

eponymate"; OA bit I. "office of the eponym 

official" 
llmu II "environs"? NB of town; < lawum II 
llmu III, li'mu "family, tribe" jB lex. 
llmu — » also llm 
li'mu — » llm; llmu III 

limutu ~ "encirclement"? jB lex.; < lawum II 
lipdnu — » labidnum 
lipdru — » libdru 
llpi llpi — » llpu 2 
lipiltu — » lipistu 
lipir — » libdru 

lipiskigu (an internal disease) Ug.; < Sum. 
lipissatu "female genitalia" jB 
lipistu(m), lipiltu O/jB, NA [(UZU.)NU] l.om. 

"male genitalia" 2. "sperm" of human; jB lex. 

transf. "offspring" 3. (a sperm-like secretion) in 

body of human, sheep 4. (a part of the exta) 

5. (a plant) 



lipittu(m) 



183 



litutu 



lipittu(m) 1. ~ "work-levy" OA 2. (a disease)? 

M/jB; < lapdtu G 4.6 
lipium, lipu(m), llpum, lepu "(animal) fat; 

tallow" Bab., NA [(UZU.)i.UDU] in sacrificial 

animal; as ingredient, commodity; material of 

figurine; /. magarri "axle-grease"; /. ameluti 

"human fat"; of plants; — » lupu 
lip llpi — » llpu 2 
lipnu — » libnu 
lippu "wrapping" M/NA, jB, of cloth; med. 

"tampon; wad" of wool; < lapdpu 
liptanu "warty" MB, name of horse; < liptu 
liptu(m); pi. f. [(NfG.)TAG] 1. "undertaking, job", 

"offering", in PNs "creation" of DN 2. in /. 

qdtill "handiwork", (ritual) "undertaking" 

3. "attack" of illness; /. ilim, I. Erra "plague" 

4. lipit napistim "throat-grasping", i.e. treaty (— » 
lapdtu G 3) 5. "mole, wart" on human, animal, 
entrails; < lapdtu; > liptanu 

liptu — » also laptu II 

lipu — » lipium 

lipu(m), lepu "descendant, scion" [NUNUZ] 
1. MB /. rebu "great-great-grandson"; jB la lip 
sarri "not of royal descent"; pi. "descendants" 
2.llp{i) llpi, lib(bi)libbi [SA.BAL.BAL] "great- 
grandson", "descendant" of king, scribal family; 
of Samas, as son of Sin; < elepu 

llpu — » also libit; lipium 

liqtu(m) "gathered material; selection" Bab., 
M/NA desig. of quality of gold, textiles, OB 
oil; "gleanings" of grain, usu. pi. f.; liqit supri 
"nail parings"; "(textual) excerpts", pi. m. & f.; 
MA rab liqtdni (an official); OB as PN 
"Foundling"; Nuzi for — » liqutu; < laqdtu 

liqu(m) I, Idqu in /. pi, also aliq pi, eldq pi 
"palate" O/jB 

liqu II "steering paddle"? NB; < Aram. 

liqutu(m) "adopted child" O/jB; < lequ II 

lirisa (a prof.) OB(Elam) 

liru — » leru 

lisakku — » lisakku 

lismu(m) "running, race" O/jB, NA esp. in cult; 
sa I. "runner"; < lasdmu; — » lisnu 

lisnu mng. uncert. NA = lismu ? 

lissusu (a plant) MA; seed of /. 

lisakku (or lisakku) mng. unkn. jB in mdmlt I. 
"oath by /." 

lisanu(m) f. "tongue, language" [(UZU.)EME] 
1. "tongue" of human, animal (pi. m.); as 
instrument of prayer, malice; /. sakdnu "to 
engage in discussion" 2. "language"; jB, NA 
bel I. "one who knows a (foreign) language" 
3. "speech, statement"; sa I. "informer, 



informant"; Nuzi "judicial deposition"; jB 

"synonym list" 4. transf. "tongue (of flame)"; 

"blade" of implement 5. M/jB, NA /. kalbi 

"hound's-tongue, Cynoglossum" [u.EME.UR. 

GI7], NB mul /. k. (a star) 
lisdum, lildu "cream" O/jB 
listdhu — » siltdhu 
lisu, NA lesu "dough" M/NB, NA [NIG. 

SILAh(=§ID).gA] of emmer; ina I. kuppuru "to 

cleanse with dough"; figurines of d.; Am., 

Bogh. "(fruit) paste"; < lasu I 
li'su "desecration" NA; < la'dsu 
litanu "victorious" MB in PN; < lltu I 
litbusu "clothed; clothing"? jB lex.; < labdsu Gt 
liti, litum (desig. of kind of silver) OA 
litiktu(m) "test" OA, O/jB; esp. (a measuring 

vessel); < latdku 
litis mng. unkn. NA 

litku "test, means of testing" jB; < latdku 
littu(m) I, liddatu; pi. liddtu "descendant, 

progeny" OAkk, M/jB, NA of god; king etc.; 

< walddum 

littu(m)II; pi. littetu(m) "stool" Bab., M/NA 
[GIS.S0.A] 

littu(m) III ~ "old age" Bab.; > littatu 

littu — » also lltu I.II 

littu (a net) jB lex.; < Sum. 

littutu "(extreme) old age" j/NB, NA /. aldku, 
kasddu, sebu "to live to, reach, be satisfied with 
extreme old age"; < littu III 

litum — » liti 

litu(m) I, littu, Bogh. also letu; M/jB pi. lltdtu 
"power, victory" [NfG.E] 1. "sphere of 
authority", OA commercial, OB administrative 
"province"; Mari "(army) corps" (or letu ?) 

2. "power, strength" from deity, esp. in PNs 

3. "victory", /. sakdnu "to establish victory" 
over (= eli); lltdt sarrutlya "my royal victories"; 
ina I. "victoriously, in triumph"; < le'u; > lltdnu 

litu(m) II, littu; pi. lidtu, latu "cow" [AB; GU4.AB; 

NB also Ab.GAL; pi. (GU4.)AB.yi.A, AB.GU4. 

yi.A etc.]; pi. also "cattle" (coll.); < IV um I 
lltu — » also letu 
littu mng. unci. jB 
littu -» also lltu I-III 
lltu(m) I, littu "hostage" O/jB, NA; liter. 

'confined', Bogh. pi. litutu; as subst., pi. lltu; 

< latu; > litutu 

lltu II, littu, letu; pi. littetu (a garment or cloth) 
M/NA, M/NB as bed covering; white 

lltu III, littu "sketch, drawing" NA 

litutu "role as hostage" M/jB(Ass.) ana I. sabdtu 
"to take as hostage"; < lltu I 



Il'um I 



184 



luksu 



Il'um I, lu(m) "bull" O/jB offered, slain, eaten; 
also as wooden figure; heavenly "bull"; lex. 
also = lion; > litu II 

Il'um II (a word for food) OB 

liwd — ► luma 

Iiwitum, M/NB limitu, M/NA libltu 1. OA 
"packaging, wrapping" 2. "circumference, rim" 
of eye, armour, chariot 3. "limits, extent, area" 
of field, building 4. jB ina I. umimma "within 
the compass of one day" 5. "enclosure" round 
field, garden; igdr I. "enclosure wall" 
6. "environs" of town, palace, canal; M/jB 
kings, lands in "surrounding area" 7. NA 
"entourage" of king; < lawum II 

Iu, in prec. lu-, li-, Ass. also la- "let it be; or" [HE] 
A. ptcl. expressing wish 1. + pret. = prec. (only 
OA before I pers. pi., — ► i) "let me, you, him" 
etc. do s.th.; with interrog. force "should I, 
he ...?" etc., concessive "even if...", potential 
"should he ..., then ..." 2. occas. + perf. 3. + 2 
pers. pres., lu tahassas "you should think" 4. + 
stat. and forms of izuzzum, edu II etc. 5. in 
nominal clauses, atta lu mutima "may you be 
my husband", NA hannute lu ina pdnika "may 
these be before you" 6. M/NA lu la in proh., + 
pres., + stat. 7. in unfulfilled condit. clauses, + 
pret. or stat., lu Ide "had I known" 8. in 
concessive clauses, + pret., perf., stat., lu 
tattadnd "even though you have given" B. ptcl. 
expressing affirmation 1. lu + pret. "verily", 
usu. in roy. inscr. 2. in oaths, asseverations (— ► 
GAG §185), + subjunct. (OAkk, OA); + 
indie; + subst. C. "or", freq. u lu; (u) lu ... (u) 
lii "either ... or" [HE ... HE]; between substs. 
and clauses D. Am. "if; > luman; lume 

lu — ► kardnu 4; le'u; Il'um I 

luddu — ► ladu 

luamum "to harangue" s.o. OA G («) Dtn 
"repeatedly harangue"? 

lu'astu(m) "dirty straw" Bab. lex.; < la' dm 

lu'dtu — ► lu"u I 

lubadu (or lubdtu) (a disease) jB 

lubalakkum ~ "man on duty" OB lex.; < Sum. 

lubdnu — ► lupdnu 

lubartum "garment" OB; < lubdru 

lubaru(m), O/MA luberu(m) "garment" 
[TUG.HI.A] freq. of linen; for god, for kalu 
priest: med., mag. "piece of cloth, rag"; bit I. 
"clothes chest" jB lex.; > lubartum; — ► labdru 

lubasu(m) "clothing" OA, O/jB; < labdsu 

lubdtu — ► lubadu 

lubbatum mng. unkn. OB 

lubbdtu — ► narbdtu 2 



lubbundu "brickwork" NB of lintel; < labdnu 

lubbunu "incense"? NB 

lubbu.su: NA labbusu, pi. labbasute "clothed" 

j/NB, NA of unshorn sheep; "uniformed" of 

soldiers; < labdsu D 
luberu — ► lubdru 
lubkanu (oil used for lubrication)? jB lex.; 

< lubku 

lubku(m) "salve, lubricant" O/jB; napsalti I. 
"softening ointment"; NB pi. f. lubketi; 

< labdku 

lubru I (a kind of date palm) jB 

Iubru II (prof, desig.) Nuzi 

lubsu "clothing" jB; also "covering" of young 
reed; < labdsu 

lubultu — ► lubustu 

luburu mng. unkn. jB lex. in bit I. (a woolsack)? 

lubustu(m), later lubultu, NA lalubussu 
"clothing, garment" [SIK.BA; later TUG.HI.A] 
1. gener. "dress, outfit", "clothing allocation, 
ration" 2. specific "garment"; coll. "clothes", /. 
birmile "multicoloured clothing" 3. j/NB 
"(ceremony of) clothing (the images)", pi. 
lubusdletu 4. transf. sheep's "coat", door's 
"covering", footstool's "cover"; < labdsu; — ► 
lubusu 

lubusu(m) "garment", also "dress, outfit" 
(~ lubustu 1 ); NB = lubustu 3; < labdsu 

luddu mng. unkn. jB; — ► duqdu 

ludu(m) (desig. of afield) O/MB 

ludu — ► also lutu 

luduttu — ► lu'tu 

lugalara(us)su (a royal retainer) jB lex.; < Sum. 

lugsu — ► luksu 

Iugu (a door) jB lex. 

luhamu(m) "mud" OB incant. 

luhhu (part of entrails)? jB 

luhhum — ► also lu'u 

luhhumu "with long-haired coat" jB lex., of ox; 

< lahdmu I 
luhmu — ► luhummu 

Iuhsu(m) (a temple functionary) Mari, jB 

[lu.SIK.bar.Ra]; <Sum. 
luhummu(m), lex. also luhmu "silt, mud" O/jB 
luhumu — ► lummu 
luhusinum (an object) OA 
lu"itu — ► lu"u 1 

lukanu in ina lukdnumma mng. unkn. NB 
lukkuku D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
lukkusu (or lukkusu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 
luksu (or lugsu) - "conifer needles"? jB 

[GIS.EREN.SIG ?] 



luksu 



185 



Iurmum 



luksu (a garment) jB lex.? 

Iuku (a tree) Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 

lukurgallu "chief Iukur-priestess" jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
lulanu "weakling" jB lex.; < lulu II or laldnu ? 
luliddnltu — ► luluddnitu 
lulimitu (a siege-instrument)? jB 
lulimmu — ► lullmu 

lulimtu (ajewel)? jB of elmesu stone, of gold 
lulimu(m), lulimmu "red deer, stag" Bab., NA 

[LU.LIM]; also a constellation [MUL.LU.LIM]; 

transf. of ruler, e.g. /. ersu = "wise prince" 
lulitum, lullitum mng. unkn. OB 
Iulftu "arrowhead" NB of iron, bronze; < Aram. 
luliu — ► lulu II 

lullakku (a beer vat) jB lex.; < Sum. 
lullitum — ► lulitum 
IuIIu(m) 1 "primeval man" O/jB [LU.U18/19.LU] 

created by gods; desig. of Ut-napisti; < Sum. 
lullu II D "to enrich, endow with plenty" M/NB, 

NA, land with luxuries, trees with fruit; < lain I 

denom.; > lullu III 
lullu III "luxurious, beautiful" M/jB; < lullu II 
lullu IV "false"? jB 
Lullubu —* Lallubu 
lullubutu (a plant) jB lex. 
lulluintum, lulluntu (a travel and battle garment) 

OAkk, Mari, jB 
lulmu "earring" jB; < Sum. 
lulu(m) I "plenty, luxury, splendour"? j/NB /. 

maliilmullu, sumallu "to be laden/load, fill with 

abundance, splendour" divine image, temple, 

ship; < laid I 
lulu(m) II, Ass. luliu(m) f. "slag"? Ass., O/jB 

[KU.GAN; KU.Am] of metals; NA of glass; 

< Sum.?; > lulanu 1 
lulu f. mng. unkn. OB 
luludanitu, luliddnitu (a stone) M/jB 
luludanu (a prof, desig.) jB lex. 
lulumtu, luluntu, luluttu (a plant) jB 
lulutu (an animal)? Am. in descr. of vessel 
lulutu — ► also alulutum 

luma, lima, liwd ptcl. mng. unkn. Bogh., jB lex. 
lumahhu 1. (a purification priest) jB [LU.MAH] 

2. also lummdhu - "chief, ruler" jB lex.; < Sum. 
lumakku — ► lummakku 
luman O/jB modal adv. 1. in /. Id "were it not 

for", /. Id kdti ... "but for you ..." 2. + vb. "if 

only ...!" 3. Bogh. I. ... I. ... "were it that ... or 

that ..." in unreal clause; < lu + -man 
lumasu, lumassu "constellation" j/NB [LU. 

MAS(- )]; also mul/mul/ • forming zodiac 



lume mng. unci. Ug.; phps. "would that ..." or 

"if perhaps ..."; — *lu 
lummdhu —* lumahhu 2 
lu(m)makku (a minor priest) O/jB lex. 
lummu(m) I (a small drinking-vessel) O/jB, NA 

[UTUL.TUR]; < Sum. 
lummu II D "to dissolve"? jB alum, wax, honey 
lummu — ► also lammu I 
lummu, luhumu (a spider or snail) jB [MUL.DA. 

MUL] 
lummudu; Ass. lammudu, pi. lammaduti 1. NA 

"taught" of words 2. jB lex. in Id I. "uninitiated" 

of calf (sexually), "untried" of plough; 

< lamddu 

lummunu(m), OA lammunum "very bad" OA, 
O/jB of man "very unfortunate, oppressed"; of 
road, fate; OA of copper, < lemenu 
lummu.su D mng. unkn. jB comm. stat. of eyes 
lummuttum "misfortune" OB; < lemenu 
lumnanu "evilly inclined" jB; < lumnu + -an + -i 
lumnatta "evilly" jB [HUL-at-ta]; < lumnu 
lumnu(m) "evil, misery" [HUL] of evil action, 
thought towards s.o.; bel I. "adversary"; s.o.'s 
"evil plight"; /. amdru "to experience ill 
fortune"; /. libbi(m) [SA.yuL] "sorrow, misery", 
astr. "eclipsed state"; (a name of the planet 
Mars) [MUL.HUL]; < lemenu; > lumnatta; 
lumnanu 
lupanu, lubdnu(m) (a terebinth) OAkk, jB 
lupdru — ► libdru 

lupnu(m) "poverty" O/jB; < lapdnu 
luppu(m); pi. m. & f. 1. O/jB. (a leather bag) 
[KUS.LU.UB] 2.jB lex. (a part of the scales); 
<Sum. 
luppunum "very poor" OB lex.; < lapdnu 
lupputu; also f. lupputtu in subst. use "tainted, 
soiled" jB [SU.lAl], esp. of dirty bandages; 

< lapdtu 

Iupu mng. unkn. j/NB; (a fish), or = lipium ? 

luputtu — ► laputtu 

Iuqu ~ "(state of) hostage"? Am.; < lequ II 

luquma mng. unkn. NB 

luquttum "activity of gleaning"? OB; < laqdtu 

luqutum; pi. luqudtum "goods" OA, usu. in 
transit; < lequ II 

lurimd'u etc. — ► Iurmum 

lurmu(m) "ostrich" Bab., NA [ga/gA.nUh. 
MUSEN; GA.NA.MUSEN] pel I. "ostrich egg"; sa 
pel I. "ostrich-egg vessel" 

Iurmum, MA lurimd'u, lurinnu, lurinu; f. 
lurimtu(m), NB lularindu "pomegranate", as 
fruit; as tree, NB gapnu sa I. "branch of p."; as 
wood for tool; as decorative element, of 



lurpianum 



186 



luzzuzum 



camelian, silver; NB f. as fPN; var. of -♦ 

nurmu 
lurpianum, lurpdnu, lurpddu (a mineral)? O/jB 
lurrakkum; f. lurrakkitum (a culinary 

profession) Mari, OB lex. 
lursu (prof, desig.) OB(Susa) 
luru(m) "man with feminine voice"? O/jB 
lusan, OB lusanu (a musical instrument, or part 

0fit)O/jB 
lussumu "very fleet" NB as PN; < lasdmu 
lusanu — ♦ lusan 
lusmu mng. unkn. MA in bit I. 
lusii "grease" jB lex. 
luttu -* luttu 
lutu "twig" j/NB of apple, poplar etc., in 

ceremonies; < letu II 
lutu(m), lu'tu "debility; (a disease)" O/jB 



lu'tu, luduttu (a wooden implement) jB lex. 

lu'tu-* also lutu 

luttu(m), luttu(m) (a cup or bowl) O/jB, NA; 
<Sum. 

lutu(m) 1. Bab. [GfR.ZU] (a dagger) 2.jB lex., 
also ludu, letu (a sharp part of a reed) 

lu'u(m), lufrtium "throat, oesophagus" O/jB of 
human, bird; blocked 

lu"u I; f. lu'utu, lu"itu "sullied, dirty" j/NB of 
person, hands, in ritual context; of street; f. pi. 
lu 'dtu in subst. use; < lu 'u II 

lu"u(m) II D "to sully, make dirty" Bab., esp. in 

cult Dt pass, of D; > lu"u I; malU II; tal'itu 
lu"umu adj. mng. unkn. jB 

luzzuzum mng. unkn. OB lex., desig. of man; 
< lazdzu 



M 



-ma, also -me, -mu ptcl. and conj. {-me Am.; 
NA, NB rarely after e or im; NA before -ni (-* 
ayyakameni, matimeni); -mu NB, occas. jB, 
esp. after u) 1. to stress single words esp. pred. 
of nominal clause 2. "and" between main 
clauses or infin.s, NA rare (-♦ GAG §§123a, 
126, 158-60) 

ma "what!" ptcl. introducing and continuing dir. 
speech; "indeed", esp. expressing indignation; 
M/NA "this means:"; -♦ magana; muk I 

-ma interrog. ptcl. O/jB (-♦ GAG § 123b) 

ma'ddu -* mddu 

ma' 'altu -* mayyaltu 

ma" dlu — ♦ mayydlu 

ma'dru -* wdrum 

ma'assu — ♦ mddu 

ma"assu -* mayyaltu 

ma'attu -* mddu 

ma' da —* mddu 

madadu(m) I "to measure (out)" G (a/u) [Aga] 
"measure out, pay" grain, other dry and liquid 
commodities; "survey" field; border Gtn iter, of 
G Gt stat. "is balanced, equal" D = G; 
"measure" building, person; NA bird ene 
maddudu (NB ina birit irii muddudu) 'measure 
between the eyes', i.e., "give s.o. strict orders" 
S caus. of G "have measure out, pay" N of 
produce "be measured out"; fields "be 
measured, surveyed"; > middatu; mddidu, 
mddidutu; mindu II; namaddu I, namdattum, 
muddu 1 - 

madadu II NB G (///) ~ "to escape" (from = 
ace.); "avoid" (s.th. = ace); < Aram. 

madagallum (a type of boat) OB; < Sum. 



madakku, maddku "(wooden) mortar" jB lex. 

kak m. "pestle"; (part of a loom); < dakdku I 
madaktu "(military) camp; expeditionary force" 

j/NB, NA m. sakanu, nadti "to make, pitch 

camp"; NB ana m. aldku "to take the field", 

(V0) dlik m. "conscript"; PIN Madaktu (in 

Elam); <ddku 
maddku -* madakku 
madallu(m) (or matallu(m)) 1. O/jB (a precious 

stone) 2. OAkk(Sum.) (a copper object) 
madalu "to preserve in salt" NA G (///), meat; 

> madlu; midlu; muddulu 
madananu —* madnanu 
Madanu(m), Manddnu DN "the Divine Judge" 

Bab. [ d DI.KUD] jB; also = Marduk, Enlil; 

< didnum 

madarum I ~ "chief, noble" Mari; > maddrutum 
madaru(m) II mng. unkn. O/jB om., med. 

G (i/i?) stat. (a condition of eyes) D stat. (a 

condition of exta); > midru W 
madarutum (status of a madarum) Mari; 

< madarum I 
madattu -* maddattu 

madbares "into the steppe" jB; < madbaru 

madbaru(m), mud(a)buru "steppe, desert" Mari, 
M/NB, NA; NA in PN; < W.Sem.? 

maddanum, manddnu (a bread basket) OB, jB 
lex.; < naddnu II 

ma(d)dattu(m), mandattu "payment, obligation" 
Ass., M/NB; OA (an allotment, a quota); Ass., 
Bogh., Ug. "tribute"; MB "delivery quota" of 
textiles; NB (compensatory payment to make 
up for lost work-time); NB(Nippur) "supple- 
mentary payment, commission"; < naddnu II 

maddatu —* middatu 



maddu 



188 



magaru(m) 



maddu — » mddu 

maddu in m. kussi(m) (part of the liver) OB; = 

mandu II 
madgaltu "observation tower, border post" MA, 

Bogh.; bel m. "commander of the border post"; 

< dagdlu 

madgalu "observation"? NA; < dagdlu 
madidu, mandidu "measuring official (for grain 

etc.)" M/NB, NA [HJ.(l.)AG]; NB as family 

name; < madddu I 
*madidutu, mandidutu "office of the measuring 

official" NB [LU.MAN.DI.DI- ]; < madddu I 
madis, M/NB also ma' dis "greatly, very" Bab., 

OA; OB m. umi "for many days"; < mddu 
madiya "pregnant"? NB; < Aram. 
madla'um, madlu(m) "bucket" OAkk, Bab.; 

< dalu II 

madlu "salted" NA; < maddlu 
madid — » madla'um 

madnanu, MB also madananu l.jB lex. 
"strength" 2. MB (type or part of chariot); 

< dandnu II 
madu — » medu 

madu(m), later also ma' du, mandu, NA maddu; 
f. mattu(m), ma'attu, NA also ma'assu "many, 
numerous, significant" [pi.A(.MES); MES]; f. pi. 
abstr. "much, many things"; m. pi. in lex. 
"plural" (sign, forms); ace. as adv. "very"; 

< mddu; > madis, ma' du, mddutu 
mddu — ► ma' du; mandu I 

madu(m), ma'ddu, OAkk, Bab. also middu(m) 
"to be(come) many, numerous" G (i; Hi) [yi.A] 
OAkk, OB in PNs; jB eli ... m. "become more 
than"; NA ina muhhi ... m. "become too many 
for" Gtn iter, of G S "make numerous, 
increase"; "make more numerous"; "do too 
much" N "become very much, become 
increased"; > mddu, madis, ma' du, mddutu; 
mu'uddu; nam'adum, namattu; sum'uttu; 
musmldu 

ma' du — » mddu 

ma'du, mddu "(large) quantity, wealth, 
abundance" j/NB; NB (a)ki made "very much"; 

< mddu + -i 
ma'du — ► also mandu I 
madussu (a plank)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

madutu "numerousness" Am. in ki(ma) maduti 
"very much"; < mddu 

magagu, maqdqu "to spread, stick out, protrude" 
M/NA, M/jB G (a/u) of beggar "hold out" the 
hand; "have cramps, spasms"; stat. "is tense"; 
of animals "cover, mate" Gtn iter, of G "have 
repeated cramps" D = G of limbs "stiffen, 
project", of penis "be erect"; NA "impale"? 



N lex. (nam(a)gugu) "suffer cramp"; 

> mangu II; mungu; mangdgu; namungatu; — ► 
makdku 

magal "very (much), greatly" Bab., M/NA(lit.) 

[UL4.GAL] 
magal la tu "parchment scroll" NB; < Aram. 
magallatu-karra "maker of parchment scrolls" 

NB; < Aram. + OPers. 
magallum (a big boat) Mari; < Sum. 
magana - "now; please" OB; < ma + gana ?; = 

gana 
magannu I (or makannu), magdnu "gift" Nuzi 

etc. also in PN; as Aram. lw. NA ina m., im- 

magdni "gratuitously, in vain", NB ana m. 

"gratis"; < Indo-Iran.; > magannutu I 
magannu II (a location)? MB(Alal.); > magan= 

nutu II 
magannutu I (or makannutu) "gift" MB(Alal.), 

Nuzi; < magannu I 
magannutu II mng. unkn. MB(Alal.); 

< magannu II 
magdnu — » magannu I 
magardnis — ► maqranis 
magarranu (a type of horse) MB 
magarru(m), Nuzi also mugarru "wheel" Bab., 

NA [GIS.UMBIN]; also "waggon, chariot"; 

< qardru ?; — ► mugerru 

maga(r)rum "travel provisions on a ship" OB 
[MA.GAR.RA]; < Sum. 

magaru(m) "to consent, agree" G (OA, OB, 
occas. jB a/u, later ulu, NA pret. immagur) 
[SE(.GA); AS] 1. stat. "is in agreement"; 
"allows, permits"; "is agreeable (to), convenient 
(for), suits (s.o.)"; hemerology, of day, time "is 
favourable" 2. "agree with" (s.o. = ace.) 3. after 
neg. "not consent" (to = ace. or ana), "disagree 
with"; NA and NB in hendiad. "refuse, be 
unwilling to" 4. OB of woman "be submissive, 
compliant, yield to (s.o.)" 5. of deity "hear, 
answer" a prayer, "grant" a request, also in 
PNs, PINs and names of buildings Gtn iter, of 
G Gt recipr. "agree with one another, settle on"; 
stat. "are in (mutual) agreement" [SE.SE.GA] 
D OA "bring to agreement, make agree"; jB 
"reconcile" Dt ? prob. Gtn S 1. OB "cause to 
agree" 2. "make (s.th.) agreeable" St OB "bring 
into harmony, reconcile" people, feelings 
N 1. OB "consent (to s.th.)" 2. "agree" (with 
s.o. = isti, itti PN) 3. "reach, make an 
agreement" 4. "have (o.'s request) granted" 
5. Bogh. "receive, accept gladly" a present Ntn 
iter, of N OA, jB "be repeatedly acceptable"; 

> magru, mdgiru; migru; mitgdru, mitguru, 
mitgurtu; mundagru; tamgertum, tamgurtu 



magattu 



189 



maharu 



magattu; pi. magatdta "scraper (for bricks)" 

NB; < Aram. 
maggalum — » mangdlu 
maggdrum — » maqqdrum 
maggu "tight, taut" MA, reins; < magagu 
magiku "provider" jB lex. 
magillu(m), magllu(m) OAkk, jB 1. (type of 

boat), barge 2. lex. (name of a mythical being) 
maginnu; pi. f. maginndta "(wide-brimmed 

Greek hat)" NB 
magirtum, migirtu "challenge, insult"; < gidru 
magiru(m) "submissive, compliant" Bab., OB 

also in PN [SE.GA]; Id m. "unobliging, 

uncooperative, unwilling"; < magdru 
maglsu (a type of boat) jB lex. 
Magmaru (a month) Ug.; < Ug. 
magrdnis — » maqranis 
magrftu(m) "spite(ful act), malice, abuse" Bab.; 

< geru 

magru 1. MA "willing" 2. M/NB "friendly, 
favourable", in PN [SE.GA]; of water, month; 

< magdru 

magru "insulting" O/jB lex.; < geru 
magsaru(m) Bab. 1. "superior strength" 2. (a 

battleaxe); also (part of the liver)?; < gasdru 
magu(m) mng. unkn., (a metal)? lex., OAkk ? 
magullaya (desig. of a group of villagers) NB; 

< magulu ? 

magulu (a big raft) jB [GIS.MA.GU.LA] to 
transport bull colossi ; < Sum. 

magurgurru "ark" M/jB; < Sum. 

magusu "magus, Magian" NB; < OPers. 

magzazu "shearing blade"? jB lex.; < gazdzu 

mahabbum (or mahappum) (s.th. by a canal)? 
OB 

mahadum — » mahhatum 

mahahu(m) "to soak, steep (in liquid); dissolve 
in liquid" O/jB, M/NA G (a/u) [DIR] of earth, 
clay, excrement; clay figurines in urine; of 
plants; stat. of fog; "cause" eyes "to swell" 
(through rubbing) Gtn iter, of G D = G ? 
N pass, of G; > mihhu I, mihhatu 

mahalu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mahan (a type of wooden chest) Am.; < Eg. 

mahappum — ► mahabbum 

mahari "tomorrow" Am.; < W.Sem. 

maharis — » mahris 

maharis 1. OAkk "in order to receive" 2. jB "in 
order to confront"; < maharu + -is 

maharu — ► mahru I 

maharu(m) "to face, confront; oppose; receive" 
G (a/u, pret. NB also inhur, Ass. also ihhur) 
[IGI] 1. "oppose"; "face" (an enemy = ace.); 



"set o.s. against" wind; "dam up, impound" a 
river; of obstacle "obstruct, stand in s.o.'s way" 

2. "appeal to" (s.o. = ace.) judge, king, deity, 
also in PN 3. "receive, accept" goods, money, 
interest, ransom, tribute, present, also in PN; 
ana slmi, ana kaspi m. "buy", esp. naddnu u m. 
"do business"; "receive" defamation, slander, 
calumny; "answer" 7 a prayer, "receive" s.o.; 
"meet with" misfortune 4. "take upon o.s." bad 
omen, trouble etc. 5. "correspond, equal" in 
size, rank; also in PN; "please"; OB stat. inam 
m. "pleases the eye", NA ina pan PN mahir; 
"become attractive, pleasing" (for = ace.) 6.jB 
"compare with, equal"? Gtn iter, of G 
Gt recipr. of G — ► N, "attack each other"; astr., 
celestial bodies "enter conjunction" or "enter 
opposition"; O/jB of length, breadth etc. 
"become equal to each other", OB math. 
[IB.SA]; of horns of the moon "become 
proportionate, symmetric"; om., of signs 
"harmonize, agree"; "become square" D 1. as 
G 2 "appeal to" 2. "send, travel upstream" 

3. M/jB "drive against the wind" 4. "place, lay 
down opposite" 5. OA, jB "present, offer" 

6. OB(Susa) "make demands on, require"? 

7. "mix" ingredient into liquid glass Dtn iter, of 
D 5 "present again and again"; astr. "rise again 
and again"? S caus. of G [GABA.Rl] 1. "cause 
s.o. to meet (with)" trouble 2. "face" wind 
3. "receive" goods, money etc., "present" 
offerings [GABA.Rl] 4.jB "recite, recount" 
5. jB, NA "make equal" 6. NA "make 
proportionate (to)" good deed Stn OA "let 
receive again and again" St l.jB "oppose, 
confront" (s.th. or s.o. = ace.) 2. "compare o.s. 
to, put o.s. on the same level with" 3. jB "equate 
with, put in the same category with" 4. "make, 
be equal (with one another)" height, depth 
5. math, "square" a number or length [NIGIN; 
IB.sA; MB UR.KA.E] N 1. pass, of G "be 
opposed"; of goods etc. "be accepted, received"; 
of prayers "be answered"; "be confronted" 
(with = ace.) 2. recipr. "meet one another, 
collide"; of interest "become equal to each 
other"; > mahru I; mehru I, mehru, mehrutu, 
mehertu, mehratum, mehretu; muhru; maharis; 
mahiru, mahiris, mahirtu; mdhiru, mdhirtu, 
mdhirdnu; mahhiru; muhhuru, muhhuris, 
muhhurtu; muhurrd'um; mihhuru; mithdru, 
mithdris, mithartu; mithurtu; namharu, 
namhartu, namharu; sumhurtu; tamharu, 
tamhdris, tamhartu, tamhiru 



maharu "tomorrow" MB(Ta'annak); < W.Sem. 



mahasu(m) 



190 



mal)isu(m) 



mahasu(m) "to beat; weave" G (a/a; NA perf. 
-» GAG §96h) [SiG; RA] 1. "beat" human 
being, animal, limb; idiomatic expressions OA 
qdtam m. "refuse to accept", Nuzi put PN m. 
"vouch for, guarantee"; "put in (fetters); 
wound, smite"; pan, pandt PN m. "defeat 
utterly"; of deity, demon "strike, inflict" with a 
disease 2. "drive in" object; "play, beat" musical 
instrument, toy; OA "smash, divide" silver, 
"cut" prices; "ram" a boat; "beat down" crops; 
"cut" reeds 3. "weave" textile 4. with 2 ace. 
mayydri m., ser'a(m) m. "plough" a field; 
"apply" colour, stamp to s.th. 5. qaqqad, res 
eqli m. "plough a (fallow) field"; "sprinkle" 
with liquid; qaqqada(m) m. "undertake work, 
process"; Nuzi of land "border on, abut"; OA 
"bring down" price Gtn iter, of G Gt (pret. 
imtahas, MB onwards imt/dahhes) "beat each 
other, fight" D [SiG.SlG] "beat, belabour; 
wound"; of animal tail "twitch"; Am. "cover" 
with gold; NA "slaughter"; "mark out" border 
with posts; of pain "hurt, stab" S "cause to 
beat"; NA "sow discord" St 1. lex. of part of 
the liver "become detached"? 2. pass, of S "let 
o.s. be beaten" N [RA] "be beaten (up); 
wounded; smashed; slaughtered"; of vegetation 
"be beaten down"; of peg "be driven in"; NB = 
Gt "fight"; > mahsu; mehsu, mihistu; mahisdtu; 
mdhisu, mdhisdnu, mdhistu, mahis-pututu; 
muhhusu; mithusu, mithusutu; mundahsu, 
mundahsutu; musamhisu, musamhisutu; 
namhasu, namhastu; tamhusu, tamhlsu 

mdhdt — » mahl 

mahatum — » mahhatum 

mahatum (a relative, phps.) "aunt" OA; 
<mahd'um 

maha'um (a relative, phps.) "uncle" OA; 

> mahatum 

mahazis "into the city" jB; < mdhdzu 

mahazu(m) (or mdhazu), occas. mahzu 'place 

of taking' [KI.SU.PES5] 1. "shrine, cultic 

centre"; "(market) town"; OAkk also a PIN; 

Nuzi "quay" 2. jB ~ "spring, basin"; < ahdzu; 

> mahazis 

mahdalu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < haddlu I 

mahdu/u mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mahhadum — * mahhatum 

mahhaltu(m) "sieve" O/jB [GI.MA.AN.SIM. 

NIG.AR.RA]; < nahdlu I 
mahhalu (a basket or box)? O/jB, MA; 

< nahdlu I ? 
mahhatum (or ma(h)hadltum) (an object of 

reed) OAkk 
inahhiru "willingly receiving"? jB; < mahdru 



mahhltu — » mahhutu 

mahhu "exalted" jB; < Sum. 

mahhu(m), muhhu(m) "ecstatic, prophet" OAkk, 

Bab., NA [LU.GUB.BA]; also OB (a bird); 

<mahu 
mahhuris — » muhhuris 
ma(h)hurtum — * muhhurtu 
mahhuru(m) OA for -* muhhuru; Mahhur-ill 

(4th month); < mahdru 
mahhutis "like a female ecstatic" jB; < mahhutu 
mahhutis in m. aldku "to become frenzied, 

ecstatic" jB; < mahhu 
mahhutu(m), muhhutum, mahhltu "female 

ecstatic, prophetess" OAkk, 6/jB [MUNUS. 

GUB.BA]; < mahhu 
mahl, mdhdt, mdrd "one-twelfth of a shekel" 

NB; < Aram. 
mahilumma mng. unkn. Nuzi in m. epesu 
mahiranu, NB also mahirnu "the one who 

received, recipient" MA, NB; < mdhiru + -an 
mahiris "at the market" jB; < mahlru 
mahirnu — * mahiranu 
mahirtu (a bone of the leg) Bogh., jB 
mahirtu(m) "market price, current value, 

exchange rate" Mari; < mahlru 
mahirtu(m), OB also mehirtum 1. OAkk 

"recipient (f.)" 2. O/jB, NA "(boat) moving 

upstream"; ana m. "upstream; wrong way"; 

"passer-by coming in o.'s direction (f.)" 3.jB 

lex. (a kind of door); < mdhiru 
mahiru(m), maklrum; pi. m. & f. [KI.LAM; 

GAN.BA] 1. Bab., NA "exchange rate, market 

price", OB bit m. - "shop"; NB m. nabu "to 

announce the exchange rate (valid for a sale)", 

m. epesu "to complete a transaction", tuppi sa 

m., kunuk m. "exchange-rate document" 2.jB, 

NA "trade" 3. OA, O/MB "market", rabi m. 

"market-overseer", Bab., OA, NA bob m. 

"market gate", also desig. of city quarter; 

< mahdru 
mahiru(m) "opponent, antagonist, enemy; one 

who faces; recipient" [GABA.RI]; < mahdru; 

> mahirtu, mahiranu 
mahisanu "the one who struck" MA; < mdhisu 
mahisatu pi. tant. (a wooden calculator, phps.) 

"abacus" j/NB; < mahdsu 
mahis-pututu "guaranty" NB; < mahdsu; -» 

putu 1 
mahisu(m); f. mdhistu, mdhistu 1. Bab., NA 

"beater, striker" [lu.GIS.PAN.tag.GA] (a 

person who brands and castrates 7 animals for 

slaughtering); Nuzi, NB mdhis puti "guarantor, 

bondsman", mahis-pututu "warranty"; Mari 



mahitu 



191 



makilu(m) 



mdhis qaqqadim "accuser" 2. Bab. "weaver" 
3. jB "hunter", NA/NB "archer"; < mahdsu 

mahitu "whip" OB, M/NA 

mahlasu(m), mahlisu (a bronze scraper)? Mari, 
MA; < haldsu 

mahnaqu (a sling, noose)? lex.; < handqu 

mahra, mahvi "in front"; "before"; "earlier" Bab.; 

< mahru II 

mahrasu(m) ~ "(battering) ram" O/jB; (a 
wooden piece of equipment) NA; < hardsu 

mahrasu, lex. once marhasu (a post for 
fastening things to) jB; < hardsu II 

mahratu(m) pi. tant. "front part, forepart; first 
instalment; bow (of boat)" O/jB; < mahru II 

mahri — » mahra 

mahris, jB maharis "in front of OAkk, jB; 

< mahru II 

mahrltu, mahrlum — » mahru I 

mahru(m) I l.jB "(s.th.) that can be faced, 
withstood" 2. "received"; < mahdru 

mahru(m) II "front" [IGI] 1. subst., of place: 
"front, presence"; of time: "past (time)" 2. in 
prep, expressions (-* GAG §115j): (ina) 
mahar "before (s.o.), in the presence of (s.o.)"; 
ana mahar "before (s.o.), into the presence of 
(s.o.)"; adi m. "up to, in the direction of jB, 
NA(roy. inscr.); istu m. "from (s.o.)"; 
> mahra, mahrdtu, mahris, mahru I 

mahru(m) I, mahrlum; f. mahrltu(m); MB also 
mahar u, j/NB also muhru [IGI] 1. "first; 
former, earlier, previous, older" 2. "next, 
future" 3. Mari in adv. use mahru/emma 
"promptly"; < mahru II + -1 

inahrum II (a type of spade) OB; < heru II 

mahsu — » mehsu 

inahsutu (a wooden object) NA lex.; < hesu ? 

mahsu(m) "beaten, smitten" O/MA, O/jB of 
people "beaten"; of nails, posts "driven in"; of 
metal "hammered"?; "woven"; of a boat 
"rammed"; < mahdsu 

mahsalum, mahsulu (a pestle)? OA, MB; 

< hasalu 

mahtutum mng. unkn. OB; < hatu III ? 
mahu(ni) "to rave" O/jB G (Hi, orig. ulu ?) Gtn 

iter, of G N "become frenzied"; > mahhu, 

mahhutis, mahhutu, mahhutis 
mahum "to set out, depart"? OB G (pret. imuh) 
mahziramu pi. "requirements" Am.; < W.Sem. 
ma'irltu — » marltu 
ma'isu (a kind of sheep)? MA 
ma'itu; pi. ma'ltdtu "garden"? MB(Alal.), NB 
maka — » ammaka 



makaddu, makkadu, maqaddu, manqudu l.jB 

lex. (a wooden stick or spatula)? 2. MB(Alal.) 

(a copper object); < kadddu 
makahu (or maqahu) "enclosure"? Nuzi 
makaku "to extend, spread (out)" j/NB G (alu) 

irtu m. "expand (the chest)", qdtu m. "stretch 

out o.'s hand; raise o.'s hand against (= ana)"l 

D = G ?; — * magdgu 
makallu, mangallu (topog. term) Nuzi 
makallu "anchorage, berth" j/NB; also ~ 

"irrigation dyke"?; < kalu V 
makaltu(m), NA mdkassu; pi. mdkaldtu(m), OB 

also mdkaltdtum "wooden dish" O/jB, M/NA 

[(GIS/DUG.)DILIM.GAL]; < akdlu 
makalu — » mangdlu 
makalum (a knife) Mari; < akdlu 
makalu(m), makalu "meal, food" Bab., NA; 

< akdlu 
makanaktu — » maknaktu 
makannu — ♦ magannu I 
makannutu — * magannutu I 

makanu(m) ~ "emplacement"? O/jB; < kanu ? 

makarru (a type of boat) NB; < Sum. 

makaru(m) I, mekeru, megeru "to irrigate, 
water" Bab., NA, with 2 ace. G (OB alu, later 
Hi) fields; heart with wine D = G Dt pass, 
"become flooded" S "let (water) irrigate (the 
fields), provide irrigation" N pass, of G "be 
irrigated"; > makrum I; mikru I; mekiru; 
namkaru; tamklru 

makaru(m) II "to do business, use for 
commerce"? OA, Ug., j/NB G jB; OA "plan 
ahead, make dispositions freely, have s.th. 
entirely at o.'s disposal" D NB "buy (with 
silver)"? St = G ?; > makkdrum, mdkiru; 
makkuru, namkiiru; mustamkiru; tamkdru, 
tamkdrutu, tamkdrdnu, tamkdrasse 

mdkassu — » mdkaltu 

makasu(m) "to levy customs or rental dues" 
O/jB, M/NA, Ug. G (Hi, OB mostly ulu) 
N pass, of G; > maksum; miksu, mikiltu'-; 
mdkisu 

makasu, makassu "slaughtering block" jB; 

< kdsu 

makasu mng. unkn. jB lex. Gt 

makdtu — » makutu 

makdadu (a scraper)? jB lex.; < kadddu 

makdaru mng. unkn. MA; < kaddru II ? 

makdu (a wooden bucket)? jB lex. 

makiltu — » makistu 

makilu(m) (or maqilu(m)) (a type of weapon) 

OAkk, jB 
maklrum — ♦ mahlru 



makisu(m) 



192 



malafou(m) I 



mdkiru — » makkarum 

makisu(m) "tax-collector" O/jB, M/NA 1. OB 

"collector (of tenancy dues)" [EN7.KU6/GIR] 

2. "collector of taxes, customs dues" [LU.NIG. 

KUD.DA]; < makdsu 
makistu, makiltu (a type of conifer) jB lex. 
makittu — » makkltu 
makiu — » mekum 
rnakka — ► ammaka 
makkadu — » makaddu 
makkaltu — » makkastu 
makkannu (a container) jB lex. 
makkannu, manga(n)num (a cripple) O/jB lex. 
makkanu "(originating) from Makkan, in 

Makkan style" jB lex. 
makkaranis "as with a donkey-goad" jB; 

< makkaru + -an + -is 

makkaru "donkey-goad" jB lex.; > makkaranis 
makkarum, mdkiru(m) "merchant, dealer" OA, 

jB; < makdru II 
"makkastu, makkaltu "wood-cutting" MB; 

< nakasu 

makkasu 1. M/jB (a knife) 2. MA, M/NB, Am. 
(a bowl) 3. NB "cut (dates of good quality)"; 

< nakasu 

makkasu (a prof, or occupation) jB lex. 
makkitu(m), makittu "(processional) boat" Bab. 

[GIS.MA.GID.DA]; OB sa m., pi. sut m. 

"bargee"; < Sum. 
makku, meqiu (a pole)? jB lex.; -» makutu II ? 
makkuru(m), ma(k)kurru jB also f. "property, 

possessions )" [NIG.GA]; < makdru II 
makkiiru — ► also makuru 
makkutu (a type of boat) jB lex.; < Sum. 
makkutu — » also makutu II 
maklalu, muklalu, (or maluqlalu) (a type of 

garment) M/NA, Bogh. 
maklutu "anchorage, berth" jB; < kalu V 
maknaktu, makanaktu "seal" NB; < kandku 
maknakum, makndkum "sealed container, 

room" OA; < kandku 
makraku "bandage" lex.; < kardku 
makrasu, (sa) makratti (a type of table) Nuzi 
makris (a part of a chariot) OA 
niakrum I "irrigated" OB; < makdru I 
makru II "advice"? jB lex. 
makru III "red spot" jB lex. 
rnakru(m) "red" OA, Mari, jB; name for planet 

Mars; Mari of copper 
maksum "taxed" OB, of donkey; < makdsu 
maksu(m) "(medical) bandage; fetter, shackles" 

O/jB; < kasu III 



maksutu 1. j/NB "binding; bandage" 2. NB (a 
religious ceremony) 3. NA (a wooden stand)?; 

< kasu III 

maksaru(m); pi. m. & f. 1. OB (a mathematical 
procedure) 2. jB "snaffle" for horse 3. NB 
"bundle" of straw etc.; < kasdru 

maku I, mdku(m); NA pi. makiute ~ "destitute, 
poor"? Bab., NA; NA also "missing"; 

> makutu; — ► aku I; maku II. in 

maku(m) II, mdkum "want, lack, need" O/jB; 

< maku III infin.; — ► ammaki 

maku(m) III "to be absent, missing" OB, jB, NA 

G; S "cause to go missing"; > maku I ? , II 
maku 111 IV (or maqum) "to spy" Mari G; 

> mdkum 

maku — ► also meku V 

maku — ► maku I.II 

-maku suff. indicating unreality or potentiality 
Am., Bogh., occas. jB; < Hurr.? 

makum (or maqum) ~ "reconnoitrer, scout" 
Mari; < makum IV 

makuhu(m) (a type of textile) OA, Nuzi, Ug. 

makurru — » makkuru; makuru 

makuru(m), makurru, makkuru, maqurru f. 
"(processional) boat" O/jB [GIS.MA.GURs] 
"boat"; mag. "(model of a) boat"; "gibbous 
moon"; (a constellation); OB math, (biconvex 
figure); < Sum. 

makutu I (a type of bread)? OB 

makutu(m) II, makkutu; pi. makdtu "staff, pole, 
post" Bab. (pole for a well, shaduf 7 ); NB 
[DIM.ME ?] "pillar, punt pole"; (a bread or 
cake); jB (a bone); -> makku 

makutu "destitution"? NA/jB; < maku I 

mala I, mali, mal, mallalu, NB malu- "as much 
as" 1. prep, before pron. suff. and subst. "as 
much as, equivalent to"; before infin. "as much 
as necessary to"; ana mala, ammala "in 
accordance with" 2. malali sa OB "everything 
that"; NB "just as much as", "such as (s.th.) is" 
3. rel. pron. "as much as; everything that" and 
sim. (-» GAG §§48j, 168f-h), mimma mala 
"everything that"; NB mamma mala "everyone 
who"; < malu III st. constr.; -> ammal; ammar 

mala II, mali, MA malla "once; one" 1. Ass. 
"once" 2. OB, MA, Nuzi, jB before units of 
measure "one"; > malama; malani; malmala,' 
malmalis 

mala — ► malu I 4 

malddu — ► walddum 

malahu(m) I, malahhu "sailor; shipwright" 
[(LU.)MA.LA{j4/5] jB lisdn m. "sailors' jargon"; 
NB as family name; ze m. "excrement m." (a 
plant); < Sum.; > maldhutu 



malahum II 



193 



mallakum 



malahum II (a container)? OA 

malahu III "god" jB lex.; < W.Sem. 

malahu IV "to tear out" M/jB, NA G (a/u) 

D "reduce (s.th.) to fibres, shred"; astr. 

"flicker" N "be torn out"; > malhu 1 ; milhu, 

milihtu; muluhh.ii; — » mald'u 
malahutu "sailor's trade" NB [LU.MA.LAH4- ]; 

< malahu I 
mala'is "in abundance, fully" OB; < malu III 
malakis "in order to advise" jB; < maldku II 
malaku(m) 1 1. O/jB (a cut of meat) 2. jB lex. (a 

bush)?; < leku ? 
malaku(m) II "to discuss; advise" G (;'/;') 

[GALGA] "advise (s.o., s.th.)" with 2 ace; Am. 

"look after, mind" with ana Gtn iter, of G 

Gt "discuss (with others), confer (about s.th.); 

consider, ponder" D Mari "advise, exhort" 

N "be advised; consider; discuss (with 

others)"; > milku, miliktum, malkumll; 

malakis; mallakum; mdliku, mdliktu; mitluku, 

mitluktu; mumtalkum, mundalkutu; tamldku; 

tamtalku 
malaku III "to rule (over s.o.)" Ug.; < W.Sem.; 

> namlaktum; — > malku I 
malaku(in) I "walk, way; course" OAkk, Bab., 

NA "access road, walkway; march, route; stage 

(of march); river-bed"; NB mdlak Sin "lunar 

orbit"; < alaku 
malakum II "messenger" OB; < W.Sem. 
malallu — > ma'lalum 
malallu(m), mallu (a type of freight boat) O/jB 

[(GIS.)MA.LAL]; < Sum. 
malallu — ► also manalalu 
malaltu(m), OB also malahum (a post or beam) 

O/jB [DIM.TUR.TUR]; < aldlu U 
malalu — > ma'lalum 
malalu(m) I "to eat o.'s fill; pillage, loot; 

consurne" O/jB G (a/u) St NB "carry off from 

everywhere"?; > millatum 
malalu II (a part of the body ) jB 
ma'lalum, mdlalu(m), malallu, ma(l)lalu ~ 

"wooden mortar"? O/jB; < aldlu II ? 
malani ~ "on an equal basis" OB(lit.); < malu III 
malama "once again" MA; < mala II 
malamalis — > malmalis 
malani "once" NA; < mala II 
mal'anum "entirely, totally" OA; < malu HI 
nialasu, maldsu "to pluck (out), tear out" jB 

G (a/u, Hi) D; > mullusum 
maldsu — > maldsu 
malatu mng. unkn. O/MB, jB lex. G; Gt of 

entrails; > miltu 



malatu "the entire offerings (for a period)"? NB; 

— > malitu 
ma'latu, malldtu, mal'dtu "root of the tongue" 

jB; <aldtu (ma'latu, malldtu), la'dtu (mal'dtu) 
malatu — > malutu; mullutu 
mala'u "to tear out"? jB G; = malahu IV ? 
mald'um — > also malu IV 
malbasu — > nalbasu 

maldadu ~ "curtain"? jB, in boat; NA; < sadddu 
maldahu — > masdahu 
maldara, maldaris — > masdara 
maldaru — > masdaru 
maldu — > masdu I; waldum 
malemmu — ^ melemmu 
mal'etum "possibility, option"? OA; < le'u 
malgu, malgdtum "from Malgum" O/jB, of 

vessel, song, musical instrument; < PIN 
malgutu (topog. term) NA 
malhu (desig. of a stringed instrument) jB lex.; 

< malahu IV ? 

mali — > mala I.II < ~ 

malia — > malu I 

malihum — > malku I 

maliktu(m) "adviser, counsellor (f.)" O/jB; 

< mdliku 
maliku — > malku I 

maliku(m) "adviser, counsellor" [(LU.)GALGA; 
LU.AD.GI4.GI4]; Mari also of worshipped ances- 
tors; < maldku II; > mdliktu 

malikutu(m), malkutu "rulership, rule" Bab.; 

< malku I 

malilis "like a pipe 7 " jB; < malilu 

malilu (a wind instrument, phps.) "pipe" jB 

[GI.GID (-> also ebbiibu)]; > malilis 
mdlittu — ► walittum 
malitu; pi. malatu. 1. jB (a lament) 2. j/NB (a 

ritual vessel); < malu I f.; — > malatu 
malium — > malu I 

Malkanum (2nd ? month) Mari; < malku I 
malkatu(m) "ruler (f.), queen" OAkk, M/jB; 
< malku I 

malkittu — > maskittu 
malku(m) I, maliku(m) "prince, king" not OA ?; 

also a demon, spirit ?, OB also malihum; 

> malkatu, Malkanum, malikutw, — > malaku III 
malkum II "advice" OA m. sabdtum "to take a 

decision"; < maldku II 
malkutu — > malikutu 
malla — > mala I.II 
mallahtu, mullahtu (a type of saline grass) jB 

lex. 
mallakum "adviser" early OB in PN; 

< maldku II 



mallatu 



194 



mallalu -* ma' latum 

mallatu "bowl, dish" jB 

mallatu -* ma'ldtu 

mallittu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mallu —* mala I 

mallu —* malallu 

mallutu "balancing payment, final instalment"? 
MA; < malu IV D 

malmala "singly, once"? jB lex.; < mala II 

malmalis, mammalls, malamalis "corre- 
spondingly, equally" Bab.; m. zazu "to share 
equally"?; < malmala 

malmallu — ♦ mulmullu 

malmalu (a type of beer) jB lex. 

marqatu(m) (tool for gathering dates) O/jB; 

< laqdtu 
malqetu — ♦ melqetu 
malsutu —* mass&tu 
maltakal — ♦ mastakal 

maltaktu(m) "test, check" O/jB; bilat maltakti 
"(officially) assayed talent"; OB "sand-clock"; 

< maltakum 

maltakum, mastaku "test, check" OB; <latdku; 

> maltaktu 
maltltu — ♦ mastltu 
maltu(m) (a type of bowl) OAkk, O/jB and in 

Sum. texts 
maltu — ♦ martu; mastd 
maltum — ♦ mayyaltu 
maltutu — ♦ mastutu 
maltaru — ♦ maltaru 
maltltu —* mestltu 
maltu — * mestu 
malu — ► mala I 
malu(m) I, *malium, OA mal'um; f. malltu "full, 

complete, sated" [SA5] 1. of objects and 

measurements 2. of gramm. forms 3. of time 

4. malia, mala me "dropsical" [A.GAL.LA.TI.LA] 

5. OB maliam "totally, entirely"; < malu IV 
malu II, often pi. "matted, dirty (body) hair" 

M/NB;<//.<"/3II 

malu(m) III "abundance, fullness" Bab. [SA5] 
male irti "success"; NB m. sabdtu "to reach 
(healthy) fullness"; < malu IV infin. 

malu(m) IV, OAkk, O/MA mald'um "to 
be(come) full; fill up (with = ace.)" G (a/a) 
[SA5] of canal, land "fill up with" water, earth 
etc., also people; also of containers, human and 
animal organs, the human body; stat. "is full of 
radiance, fertility etc. Gtn iter, of G D [SA5] 
"fill (up)" (with = ace); "inlay"; qdtum-, ana 
qdt PN m. "hand over, entrust"; "put s.o. (or 
s.th.) under s.o."; of time "fulfil, reach 



fullness"; of measurement "do in full"; "pay in 
full"; mulld naddnu "pay the full amount"; 
"nock" a bow; OB(Susa) "enlarge, add" Dtn 
iter, of D Dt pass, of D S "cause to become 
full" (of = ace.) and = D St "deliver in full; 
complement; provide (with = ace.)" SD poet, 
for D N NB pass, for Dt; > malu I.III, mala I, 
maldm, mald'is, mal'dnum; malltu, maldtu; 
mllu, mllutum; milltu; mulu; muld'u; mullu I, 
mallutu; nemltf; tamllu, tamlltu 

mal'u — ♦ maid I 

maluktu — ♦ amaluktu 

malutu(m), maluttu, maldtu "ring, clasp, 
fastening (device); stocks, pillory" O/jB lex.; 

< Idtu 

mamilutum mng. unkn. OB(Susa) 
maminu(m) "why?; what?!" Am., Bogh; 

< W.Sem. ma + mlnu I ? 
mamis "like water" NB; < mdmu 
mamitu(m); pi. mdmdtu "oath; curse" [NAM. 

ERIM/RIM; SAG.BA] leg. "(asseverative) oath" 
of vassals and subjects; "(promissory) oath"; 
om., mag., med. "(broken) oath"; "curse" 
following the breaking of an oath; as a demon; 
qdt m. (a disease); < wamd'um; — ♦ tamltu 

mamlu, lex. once meamlu adj. ~ "impetuous, 
fierce"? j/NB; < wamdlum ? 

mamlutu ~ "impetuosity" MB; < mamlu 

mamma —* mamman 

mamma — ► mammannu- 

mammalis —* malmalis 

mamman, mamma(m), OB occas. manman, NB 
also mammu, mammdma, Nuzi mammamma 
"somebody, who(so)ever", with neg. "no- 
body"; OAkk -♦ mammdna, NA — ♦ memeni; 

< man-man/ma; -* mammannu-; mandma 
mammana, occas. mammdnan "who(so)ever" 

OAkk and occas. later for mamman; OAkk 

with neg. "nobody" 
mamma(n)nu-, mamma-, NA mummu(n)nu- 

with poss. suff. "whosoever, anyone of s.o. 

NA, NB; -♦ mamman 
Mammitu(m) (name of a goddess); OAkk, Bab. 

warah M. (a winter month); < mammu; -* 

mumltu 
mammu(m), mammu, mdmu, meammu "tiara" 

O/jB; — ♦ mednum 
mammu — ♦ also mamman 
mammu(m), mummu "frost, ice" O/jB; also (a 

copper mineral); < Sum.; > Mammltu 
mammu — ♦ also mammu 
mamsdru — ♦ namsdru 
mamu, mdwu pi. "water" OB, M/jB(poet.); 

> mdmis; —* mil I 



195 



manu(m) IV 



mamu — ♦ mammu 

man —* mannu I 

-man suff. indicating unreality after stressed 
word O/jB, esp. in condit. clauses (-♦ GAG 
§§152d, 170h); OA -♦ -min; -* laman; luman; 
summaman; uldman; ulldman 

Mana (a month) OB(N.Mes.) 

ma'na"hey!"OB(lit.) 

manahtu "resting-place" NA; < ndhu 

manahtu(m); MA pi. also mdnehdtu "weariness, 
fatigue; toil, work" Ass., O/jB 1. gener., m. 
amdru "to suffer hardship" 2. "(expenditure of) 
labour and materials; equipment for work"; m. 
sakdnu "to invest labour"; m. apdlu, also 
naddnu, mullu "to pay expenses, compensate 
for expended labour"; m. lequ "to recover costs 
of labour" 3. pi. "proceeds (of labour); 
earnings" 4. "cultivated field, orchard" 
5. MB(Alal.) "vassal service"; < andhu I 

inanahu ~ manahtu Susa, j/NB; Susa "earn- 
ings"; j/NB "hard labour"; < andhu I 

manakuttu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

manal(al)u, malalld "official in charge of 
weighing" jB lex.; < Sum. 

manama, Ass. manndma, manamma "some- 
body; who(so)ever"; m. Id "no-one"; m. (sa) 
"whoever"; — ♦ mamman 

manan mng. unkn. OB in ana m., phps "why?" 
or "although" 

manantu (a type of storage building) jB lex. 

mananu pi. tant. "nerves"? jB 

manat(um) 1. OB(Susa) (a mathematical vari- 
-able) 2. NB "accounting"; < manu IV 

mand'um — ♦ manu II.IV; menu 

manda — ♦ minde; Ummdn-manda 

manddnu — ♦ Maddnu; madddnum 

mandattu —* maddattu 

mandetu "(result of) reconnoitring, report, 
information" NB; m. sapdru "to report"; 

< Aram. 
mandidu —* mddidu 
mandidiitu —* mddidutu 

mandittu (a wooden object) jB; < naddnu II ? 
manditu 1. j/NB "surprise (attack)"? 2. NB 
"(metal) attachment" for furniture etc.; 

< nadu III 
mandu — ♦ mddu 

mandu I, ma' du, mddu (a pole)? jB lex.; -♦ 

muttu 
mandu II "emplacement" OB, Bogh.; in mandl 

kusst (a part of the liver); < nadu III; -♦ 

maddu; nldu 
mdnehdtu —* manahtu 



mangagu "fibres of the date palm" j/NB; 

< magdgu 
mangallu — ♦ makallu 

mangalu, makalu, OB maggalum mng. unkn. 

Bab., assoc. with door; < nagdlu ? 
manga(n)ndm -* makkannu 
mangaru(m) I (a large basket) OB [GI.GUR. 

IN.NU.DA] 
mangaru II, also mangdsu (< *nagdsu ?) ~ 

"advice"? JB lex.; < nagdru II ? 
mangu I, mannagu (a type of bean)? j/NB [TE] 
mangu II (a skin disease) jB; < magdgu 
manhalu "entrance, entering" NB; < Aram. 
mani "how much, many?" Am.; < W.Sem. 
manidtum —* minltu 
maninnu (a type of necklace) Qatna, Alal., Am.; 

< Sanskr.? 

manitu m. & f. "(gentle) wind, breeze" jB 

manman —* mamman 

mannagu —* mangu I 

manndma —* mandma 

mannasam adv. mng. unkn. OA 

manniki "(so) be if Mari; < Hurr. 

mannu(m) I, OAkk, NA also man, NA also 

ma"u "who?"; in PN; with pron. suff.; indir. 

questions; m. sa "who(so)ever; everyone 

who", "each, every (single) person"; m. 

sandmma "anyone else"; — ♦ attamqnnu; 

attimannu; mamman 
mannu II "what?" Am.; < W.Sem. 
mannumme, mannumma "who(so)ever" MB 

(Alal.), Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug.; with neg. 

"nobody"; Ug. "everybody"; — ♦ mlnumme 
manqudu -* makaddu 
mansu —* massd; massu I 3 
mansartu — ♦ massartu 
mantaru "fibre, bast" NB; < Aram. 
manu(m) I "counted" Bab.; Id m. "countless"; 

< manu IV 

manu(m) II, OAkk, OA mand'um "mina (c. 480 
grams)" [MA.NA; MB, NA also abbr. MA] of 
metal; wool; dates etc.; NA m. sa PINIsarri 
"(standard) mina of PIN/the king"; "a mina- 
weight"; jB man selahru "small mina (= '/3 
shekel)"; NB astr. m. = four hours; < manu IV 

manu III, manu (a kind of wood) jB lex., syn. 
of eru II; <Sum.? 

manu(m) IV, OAkk, OA mand'um "to count, 
calculate; recite" G (u/u, later often ;'//) [SID] 
1. "count, enumerate, list"; "calculate; wait (a 
number of days); charge; debit" 2. "count as 
(= ana or -is), count among (= itti)"; "change 
into" 3. inalana qdte m., or loc.-adv. qdtu- + 
pron. suff. m. "deliver, surrender s.o. (to)" 



196 



maqtu(m) 



4. "recite" hymn, incantation Gtn iter, of G D = 
G Dt pass, of D S "cause to count; cause to 
deliver" N pass, "be counted, calculated; 
delivered"; > manu I.II, mdnu, mandtum, 
manutu; minu II, mindnu'-, minitu, minutu I; 
muniitu 

manu — » also menu; munu I 

manu in ana la mdni "countless" NA/jB of 
booty; prisoners; < manu IV 

manu — » also manu III 

manu "to supply (with food)" j/NB, NA G; 
> mu'untu, ma' 'uttu 

inanunum mng. unkn. OB; < Sum.? 

manutu "count(ing), standard" NB [SlD] in (ina) 
m. sa PIN; < manu IV; — » minutu I 

manzaltu — » mazzaztu 

manzassu, manzastum — » mazzaztu 

Manzat — » Manziat 

manzattuhlu, mazzattuhlu "policeman" Nuzi; 

< Hurr.; > manzattuhlutu 
manzattuhlutu "the office of policeman" Nuzi; 

< manzattuhlu 

manza'tum (a wooden implement) Early Man 

manzazanu — » mazzazdnum 

manzazdnutum — » mazzazdnutum 

manzaz pdnu(t)tu — » mazziz pdnuttu 

manzaztum — » mazzaztu 

manzazu — » mazzizu; nanzdzu 

manzdzu — » mazzdzu 

manzes, manziase jB(NA) 1. (a stone) 2. (a 

metal container)?; < Urar.? 
Manziat, Manzat, also Manzit "rainbow" OAkk, 

Bab., NA [ d TlR.AN.NA] also DN; occas. in PN; 

astr. (a stellar nebula)? 
manzu, ma(z)zu (a type of drum) jB 

[MEZE(ABxME.EN); ME.ZE]; < Sum. 

mapru (a (silver) vessel) Am. 

maqaddu — » makaddu 

maqahu — » makahu 

inaqaltanu (a priest)? NA; < W.Sem.? 

maqalutu — » maqlutu 

maqdqu — » magdgu 

maqarratu "bale (of straw)" NA, NB; 

< qardru ? 

maqartu (desig. of vessel) NA, NB; phps. 
"cooling" vessel; < Aram. 

maqartu — » also waqrum 

maqdru — > waqdrum 

maqatu(m) "to fall" [SUB] G (u/u; perf. NA 
ittuqut) 1. liter, "fall, drop"; of soldier in battle 
"die"; "fall down (before s.o.); plunge; 
collapse"; "pounce on, rush at"; "fall into s.o.'s 
hands" 2. transf. "fall into (the heart); catch (the 



eye)"; j/NB, NA inapt m. "fall from the mouth 
= be declared solemnly" 3. of event "befall", 
with ana or dat. "happen to s.o."; of illness, 
misfortune "attack, strike s.o."; of inheritance 
"fall to s.o."; "invade, raid" a country 4. of 
person, information "come, appear, arrive"; of 
thought "occur to, come to mind" 5. "run away, 
desert, defect" (to = ana pan) 6. of tax, etc. "be 
abandoned", of glow "fade; of flesh, charms 
"waste away" Gtn iter, of G D "declare as 
falling due"; ~ "cause to waste away" S "cause 
to fall, cause s.o.'s downfall, ruin s.th. or s.o., 
wreck"; "cause to fall to s.o."; "cause to be 
dropped"; OA "assign, forward"; > maqtu, 
maqittu, maqtam, maqtis, maqtutum; mdqittu; 
miqtu, miqittu; muquttu; muqqutum; 
musamqittu, sumquttu 

maqatu, maqdtutu; pi. maqdtdti (a garment) NA 

maqilu — * makilu 

maqittu "dilapidation, disrepair" jB(roy. inscr.); 

< maqtu 

maqittu "missile" jB lex.; < maqatu 

maqlalu — * maklalu 

maqlalu 'small thing', syn. for "vulva" jB lex.; 

< qaldlu I 

maqlu l.jB, NA "burn(ing), combustion", esp. 

in ritual 2. jB lex. "roasting oven"; < qalu II 
maqlutu(m), NA also maqalutu "burn(ing), 

conflagration" O/jB, NA [GIBIL]; "burnt 

offering"; < qalu II 
maqqabu, maqqibu "hammer" Am., Ug.; 

< W.Sem. 

maqqadu, muqqadu, muqadu "(right of) 

pasture" Ug.; < Ug.; -» ndqidu 
maqqaha du. "tongs" Ug.; < Ug. 
maqqarum, maggdrum "chisel" OB; < naqdru ? 
maqqatum pi. (a plant) OB 
maqqibu — * maqqabu 
maqqitu(m) "libation; vessel for libation" Bab. 

[BAL- ]; < naqu 
maqqii(m), Bogh. meqqu; NB pi. maqqanu 

"libation (vessel)" Bab., M/NA; < naqu 
maqranis, mag(a)rdnis "on threshing floors" jB; 

< maqrdnu 

maqranu(m) "threshing floor" OB; (a month) 
Mari, OB(Esn., Chagar Bazar); < qardnu; 
> maqranis 

maqrattu(m) "threshing floor" OB(Susa), Nuzi; 

< qardnu 

maqtam "suddenly" Mari; < maqtu 
maqtarum "censer" OB; < qatdru II 
maqtis "suddenly"? jB; < maqtu i 

maqtu(m) "fallen" Bab., NA [SUB]; of person, 
animal "fallen, defected, deserted"; of fruit, 



maqtutum 



197 



marhitu(m) 



architecture "dropped, collapsed"; "sudden"; 

< maqatu; > maqtam, maqtis, maqittu, 

maqtutum 
maqtutum "collapsed state" Mari; < maqtu 
maqum — » makum IV 
inaqum — ♦ mdkum 
inaqu mng. unkn. NA G (u) 
maqurru — * makuru 
mar — ♦ ammar 
mara — ♦ mdhi 
marahu(m) "to allow to become spoiled"? OB, 

jB lex. G grain D lex. N of grain "be spoiled"; 

> marhum; merhu II; murhu'- 
mara'is — ♦ maru II G 

maraku(m) "length; full extent" O/jB; < ardku 

maraqqum — ♦ marrdqum 

maraqu(m) "to rub s.th. smooth; grind s.th. 
(down)" Bab., NA G (a/u) 1. "rub s.th. 
smooth; scrape off; "polish" beam; "whet, 
sharpen" tooth; transf. "wipe out" city 
2. "grind"; "pulverize" drug; cuneiform tablet 
D = G "grind"; NB "clear o.s." of claims Dtt 
NA "be pulverized, ground down" N pass, of 
G "be scraped, rubbed away"; > marqu; mirqu, 
miriqtu I; murqu I ? , II; murruqu, murruqunu, 
mumarriqdnu; tamrlqdtu 

mararu(m) I "to be(come) bitter" G {Hi) [SES] 
of substances, food etc.; transf. of person "be 
bitter"; of punishment, weapon "be heavy, 
bitter, prevail" Gtn iter, of G [SES.MES] 
D "make bitter"; stat. "is embittered" NB; 
"scrutinize closely" Dt pass, of D S "make 
bitter" weapons in battle; > marru I, martu, 
marratu; murru, murrdnu^; murdru, murdritu; 
marraru; marruru; murrurtu; tamrirum, 
tamrirtu 

mararu(m) II "to break up (by digging)" O/jB 
G {a/u) also transf. "overturn" N pass, of G 

mararu III ~ "to go away, depart" Am., Ug. 
G {u/u) S "chase away"; < Ug. 

marasu "to mix; mash" jB, NA G 1. {a/u) "mix" 

2. (;// < Aram.) "crush" D in comm.; 

> marsu I; mersu 

marasu(m) "to be(come) ill; be(come) arduous, 
difficult" G {a/a, NB u/u; stat. marus, Ass. 
maris) [GIG] 1. stat. of person, animal "is/was 
ill", "suffers" (from = ace), (in = ace.); 
"become ill" 2. "worry; care for", stat. "is 
distressed, grieved, worried" often with libbu as 
subj.; "worry" (about = ana or dat.) 

3. "displease" (s.o. = eli) 4. "be(come) diffi- 
cult, oppressive, unpleasant", stat. of work etc. 
"is oppressive"; "become annoying" Gtn iter. 



of G "fall ill repeatedly"; with libbu "worry 
incessantly" D "offend, hurt; worry s.o."; OB 
as S "do in an offensive manner, make (s.th.) 
hurtful" S caus. of G "cause to suffer; make ill"; 
"infect" a place; "expose to an eclipse (of the 
moon)"; "hurt, offend"; "do in an offensive 
manner"; "torment; affect s.o. badly, give s.o. a 
hard time"; stat. jB of terrain "is very difficult"; 
"cause to displease" (s.o. = eli) St 1 "be hurt, 
troubled" St 2 "exert o.s., take trouble" SD Am. 
with libbum "distress o.s."; > marsu, marsis, 
marustu, marsutu; marrdsu; mursu; namrasu, 
namrasis; sumrusu 

marasu — ♦ marsu 2 

marasu — ► wardsum 

mdrat banutu -* maru 3 

maratu "in Marad style"? Mari; < PIN 

mar ' atum — ► martu 

maratu "to scratch; scrape off M/NA, M/jB 
G {a/u); also ~ "overuse, make excessive use 
(of)" D = G N "be scratched"; > mertu 

mard'um -* maru II 

mar bani, mar banutu — ♦ maru 3 

marbiqatum (a piece of jewellery)? Mari; 

< W.Sem. 

marda(n)nu (a porridge or pudding)? jB lex. 
mardatu(m), M/NA mardutu "rug, tapestry" 

Ass., O/MB; > mardatuhulu 
mardatuh(u)lu ~ "rug weaver"? MB(AlaL), 

Nuzi; < mardatu + Hurr. -uh(u)lu 
marditu M/NA, M/NB(Ass.) 1. "bed" of river 

2. "stage" of march, bit m. "road-house"; 

< redu I; — ► merditu 
mardu "successor" jB; < redu I 
mardutu — ► mardatu 

marganum, margalunnu, also margulu (a 
resinous bush; also its resin) O/jB; — ♦ arganum 

margirdnu — ♦ mergindnu 

margu(m) 1. OB (an animal, phps.) "bear"; 
> margutu^ 2. OB (a topog. desig.); -* sagu III 

margulu, margunnu — ► marganum 

margusu(m) (a resinous bush) O/jB also as a 
drug 

margutu (an animal)? jB lex.; < margu 1 ? 

marha(l)lu(m) (a variety of carnelian)? O/jB, 
Qatna, Am. 

marhanu (a tree)? jB lex. 

marhasu, NB also warhasu 1. M/NB, NA 
"rinse, lavage" [ra]; med., mag. 2. j/NB 
"drain(pipe)" of chariots, terraces; < rahdsu I 

marhasu — ► also mahrasu; marhusu 

marhitu(m) "mate, wife" O/jB; < rehu 



marhum 



198 



martutu 



marhum mng. unkn. OB describing a feature of 

the liver; < mar aim 
marhusu(m), marhasu(m) 'of Marhasi' 

1. OAkk(Sum.), O/jB (a stone) "marcasite" 

2. Mari (a wood) 3. Ug. "marcasite (bowl)" for 
oil; < PIN 

mariakltum mng. unkn. OB 

marinum, marinnu (a leather article) O/jB; 

< Sum.? 

marismara, marismalu (a plant) jB 
maritu(m), jB also ma'iritu "(s.th.) from Mari" 

Mari; jB lex.; — » meritu 
mari(y)annu, maryannu (a caste of warriors) 

MB( Alal.), Bogh., Ug.; < Sanskr. 
markabtu "chariot" Ug.; < W.Sem.; — » narkabtu 
markastu "compress, poultice"? jB med.; 

< rakasu 

markasu "bond, tie; rope" Bab. [DUR] 

1. "(ship's) painter", NB pi. maskasdtu 

2. "closure" of door 3. "bond" of brickwork 
4. transf. of goddess, palace; jB PIN markas 
same u erseti "PIN, the bond of heaven and 
earth"; < rakasu 

markutum (a wooden object) Mari 
marmahhu(m), arma(h)hu (a fruit tree) O/jB 
marmahhutu "office of the pasisu priest" jB 
marma(r)ru "strong" jB lex. 
marmenu (a drink) NA 
marnu'atum (a farinaceous food) OA 
marqantu (a weapon) jB 
marqltu(m) I "refuge" O/jB; < raqu 
marqltu II "vegetation" jB lex.; < wardqum 
marqu "ground, pulverized" Nuzi, jB/NA, salt, 

glass; < mardqu 
marraqum, maraqqum (a prof.) OB lex. 
marram "very bitter" jB; < mararu I 
marrasu "sickly" jB; < mardsu 
marratu(m) "bitter thing" 1. lex. and in Sum. 

texts (desig. of a date palm) 2. j/NB, NA "the 

sea" (incl. southern marshes), NB (the 

Mediterranean) 3. "rainbow" [IM.SES-fum] 

4. lex. (a chain)? 5. (a bird); < marru I 
marru(m) I "bitter" [SES] of food and drink; of 

the mouth; transf. of wind, weapons; pi. 

marrutu (a type of onion); < mararu I 
marru(m) II "shovel, spade" Bab. [(GIS/ 

URUDU.)MAR] also as symbol of Marduk and 

Nabu; < Sum. 
marruru(m) 1. OA "bitter flour" 2. MA "closely 

scrutinized"; < mararu I D 
marrutu — » marru I 
marsattu(m): MA pi. marsandtu "a (soaking) 

vat" OAkk, MA, NB ? ; < rasdnu 



marsu I "mixed" jB lex.; < mardsu 

marsum II (part of the equipment of a chariot)? 

OA; — » marsu 1 
marsadu (a copper object or mineral) jB lex.; 

< rasddu 

marsa'u "awl"? Am.', jB lex. 

marsis "bitterly, sadly; laboriously" j/NB [GIG- 

is]; < marsu 
marsu(m); f. -» marustu, Bab. later also 

marultu, OA maristum "sick; troublesome" 

[GIG; TU.RA] of lament "bitter"; "difficult, 

severe"; of terrain "difficult"; < mardsu; 

> marsis, marsutu 
marsutu(m) in marsussu 1. OB "in his trouble" 

2. jB "in his illness"; < marsu 
mdr-sarrutu —» mdru 1 
marse'urru — » se'urru 
marsidatum pi. (a stone) Mari; < rasddu 
mar sipri, mar siprutu — » mdru 4 
marsltu(m) "property, possessions, livestock" 

O/jB, Nuzi, Ug.; < rasu I 
marsu(m) 1. "leather strap" Ass., Mari, M/jB, of 

bag, sandal, harness (— » marsum II); Mari pi. 

f., attached to net 2. lex. (a bed), also marasu 

(— » mums) 3. Bogh. (a garment) 
marsu — » also warsum 
martakal —» mastakal 
martatum "Martu woman"? OAkk 
martianni "men, warriors" Nuzi; < Sanskr.? 
martu(m), Bogh. mertu "gall bladder; bile" [ZI; 

also ES ?] also transf., e.g. NB to drink m. 

before s.o. = to despise s.o.; aban m. "gall 

stone"; < marru I 
martu, mertu, maltu, NB mastu (a tree) Bab. 

[GIS.MA.NU.TUR.TUR]; a pole, part of a cart; 

< retu II ? 

martu(m), OAkk, OA(lit.) mar'atum, pi. 
marudtum; OA mer'aletum, pi. meru(w)dtum, 
merdtum; jB also mertu, NB also mastu 
"daughter; girl" [DUMU.MUNUS]; NA m. rabitu 
"eldest daughter"; m. sarri "princess"; transf. to 
express a relationship, e.g. in PN "daughter" 
(of a deity); jB m. ildni (a priestess); m. banutu 
— » mdru 3; lex. m. Istar (an animal); m. same 
(sulphur); jB m. re'i "locust"; m. eqli (a plant); 
mdrat palhi (plant name); m.lmarti uppi (part 
of a palm tree); NA m. lipe, ndre (figurine)?; 
NB m. it sandti "n years old"; m. sanat "one 
year old"; < mdru; > martutu 

marturru "small vehicle" jB; < Sum. 

martutu "(adoptive) daughterhood" Nuzi 
[DUMU.MUNUS- ]; < martu 



maru(m) I 



199 



maru(m) I, Ass. mar'u(m) "fattened, fat" 
[NIGA(=SE)]; "slow", jB gramm. of Sum. 
verbal forms (opp. — » hamtu); < maru II 

marii(m) II, OAkk, Ass. mard'um "to fatten; do 
slowly" G (Hi) animals, organs; OAkk mard'is 
"in order to fatten" Gtn iter, of G "delay 
repeatedly" S "supply with fodder, fatten" 
St "give in abundance" N NA unci.; > maru I; 
miru II; mdru, mdrutum; musamru; imru I; 
namrd'um, uamridtum, namrltu 1 ; samru 

marum III "to examine"? Mari G 

maru(m), OAkk, Ass. mar'u(m), OA mostly 
mer'um, jB also mem, Nuzi also nam "son, 
descendant; boy" [DUMU; later often A, in col. 
PES.GAL] 1. m. sehrulrabu "younger/elder 
son"; Nuzi "adopted son"; mar mdri(m) 
"grandson"; mar ahi(m), ahdti(m) "nephew"; 
mar sarri(m) "prince", NA "crown prince", 
mdr-sarrutu "status of crown prince" 2. of 
social or geographical origin: "member of, 
belonging to", in mar dli(m) "citizen", mar PIN; 
mar biti(m) "member of the house(hold), house 
slave", NB "household administrator"; OB mar 
bit tuppim "government scribe"; mar ekallim; 
mar mdti(m) "native (of a region)" 3. of 
membership of class or prof.: mar awllim "free 
man", OB mar muskenim; mar bdrim "diviner" 
etc.; M/NA [A/DUMU.SIG/SIG5] phps. mar 
damqi "nobleman", usu. as charioteer ; NB mar 
bant "free man", mar banutu "status of a free 

j man", with MUNUS = mdrat banutu ? 4. "who 
has to do with" (s.th.) and sim. in OB m. 
abullim 'porter' (i.e. court official)?; NB m. 
amel sisi "(horse) groom", m. zeri "field 
labourer"; mar sipri(m) [LU.A.KIN; LU.KIN. 
GI4.A] "delegate, envoy", mar siprutu "role as 
envoy; exchange of envoys" 5. "boy, young 
friend, darling", Ug. addressing subordinates 
6. as desig. of age or size, e.g. m. satti 
"yearling, one-year-old"; of animals "kid, lamb, 
chick" etc. l.m. libitti (plant name); > martu, 
martutu; mdrutu 

mdru — » also dm I 

maru(m) "animal fattener" O/jB, Nuzi 
[(LU.)NIGA(=SE)]; bit mart "fattening shed"; 
< maru II; > mdrutum 

maru "to buy"? NB G (///'); < Aram.? 

mdru — » also wdrum 

maru — » maru I; mdru 

maruktu — » amaluktu 

marustu, marustu(m), j/NB also marultu "evil, 
distress" [NIG.GIG] m. amaru "to experience 
trouble"; ina marustim "reluctantly"; < marsu 

marustu — » marustu; warsum 



marutu(m), OA mer'uttum, MA mar'uttu, 
mdruttu "status of son" [DUMU- ] ina m. 
nasdhu "to disinherit"; "status of adopted son 
(or daughter)", ana m. lequlsakdnu "to adopt", 
ana m. naddnu "to put up for adoption"; 

< mdru 

marutum "fattening (technique)" OB; < mdru 

maryannu — » mariyannu 

marza'u, marzihu, marzu (a priest)? Am., Ug.; 
— » marsa' u 

masabbu(m), masappu(m) (a basket) Bab., Ug., 
NA [(GI.)MA.SA.AB]; also (a cultic object) 

masablu'urraku "street-sweeper's basket" jB 
lex.; < Sum. 

masahum OA D "to treat with contempt"; stat. 
of metal "is of inferior quality"; > massuhum 

masaku(m), masdku "to be(come) bad, worsen" 
Ass., O/jB G; D "make s.th. bad" S "consider 
as bad" N "be made bad", "turn out bad"; "be 
blamed"; > masku; masiktu; muskum'-; 
mussuku; musukku 

masappu — » masabbu 

mdsartu — » mdsartu 

masarum (or maslzdrum) ~ "to obstruct, 
impede"? OA G (a/u); stat. "is not available"? 
N ? pass, of G; > masirum'-; musdrum'- 

masdru — » also masdru 

masatu "washbasin" jB lex.; < mesu II 

masd'u — » mesu II 

masdara, maldara, maslldaris, mesdaris "con- 
tinuously, always" Am., jB; < masdaru 

masdaru, maldaru 1. MA "duration; perman- 
ence" 2. jB lex. (a knife)?; < saddru 

masennu — » masennu 

mashartum (a vessel for oil) OA, OB; 

< saharu; — » mashatum 

masharu(m) (a vessel)? OAkk(Sum.), jB lex., 

NB; < saharu 
masharutum mng. unci. Mari; < saharu 
mashastum unci. OB; < sahdsu ? 
mashatum (a beaker) OB, scribal error for — » 

mashartum ? 
masiktu(m), Bogh. etc. masiktu "badness, bad 

feelings, reputation" O/jB, MA; MB(Alal.) bel 

masikti "criminal"; < masku 
masirum — » masirum 
maslru ~ "clay, mud" (as wall plaster)? jB, NA; 

< seru ? 
masiu — » mesu I 
maskannu — » musukkannu 
maskartum — » maskartum 
maskiltu — » baskiltu 



masku(m) 



200 



masu(m) 



masku(m), masku "bad, evil" O/jB; OB as PN 

"Ugly"; < masdku; > masiktu 
maslahtu(m), masrahtu (a libation vessel) Bab. 

[DUG.A.SU]; < salahu I 
maslahu(m), masrahu (a libation tube) O/jB; 

med. "urethra"; < salahu I 
maslaqtu (a cooking pot) jB lex.; < saldqu I 
masla'tu "infection, epidemic" M/jB; <sald'u I 
masla'u "pitcher, jug" jB lex.; < sald'u I 
masmakannu — » musukkannu 
masmas (a plant) jB 
masnaqtu "inspection" j/NB; < sandqu I 
masradum (a pack-saddle) OA; < sarddu 
masrahtu — » maslahtu 
masrahu — » maslahu 
massaku(m) 1. OB ~ "tow-rope" for boat 2. NA 

mng. unkn., textile item in pairs; < nasdku 
massaku — » also mastaku 
massaru "saw" jB; bel m. (epith. of Ninsar); 

< nasdru 

massatum "princess, queen" OA; < massu 

massis (horse trappings)? MB; < Kass. 

massitu — » mastitu 

massu (a conscript labourer) Alal., Am. 

massum — » also massum 

massu(m), OA massu 'um, jB also massu, 

malensu; f. massutum "leader, expert" Bab. 

(lit.), O/MA [MAS.SU]; < Sum.; > massatum; 

massutu II 
massu — » also massu I 3 
massuhum ~ "inferior quality" OA of metal; 

< masdhu D 
massusu mng. unkn. NB 
massutu "washing" MA; < mesu II D 
massutum — » also massu 

massutu, malsiitu 1. MB "call"? 2. j/NB "read- 
ing out, lecture"; < sasu 

massu' um —tmassu 

masu — » mesu I 

masu — » mesu 

mas'um — » mesu I 

ma'su mng. unkn. jB 

masuktu "mortar" jB; < sdku 

masussu (topog. term)? MB 

maswatu (a type of tree) Ug.; < Ug.? 

masadu (a melting pot) Ug., jB; < sddu U 

masallu; pi. f. "sleeping place, shelter" for 
shepherds etc. M/jB; NA, of tomb; < saldlu; — » 
musallu 

masarritum (a vessel) Mari; < masarru 

masarru(m) (a vessel) O/jB, NA; < sardru I 

masaru(m), also phps. maz/sdru Bab. G (alu) ~ 
"to stride about"? D (<misru denom.?) 
"enclose, mark boundaries (of)"; "limit" time 
N (phps. different word ?) ~ "become com- 
pact"?; > masirum'-; musdrum'-; namsdru 



masarum 
masd'um ■ 



> also masarum 
• masA 



masen — » masi 

mashatu(m) (a kind of flour) Bab., M/NA 
[zl.MAD/MA.AD.GA]; < sahdtu I 

masi, also (+ subjunct. -n(ip.) masin, masen 
"(but) since, in view of NA in issu m. "since", 
"as if'?; Id m. "correspondingly, accordingly" 
(— » also masu G 6.7); < masu 

masihu "middle"? NB; < Aram.? 

masilu (a musician, phps.) "cymbalist" Ug.; 
<W.Sem. 

masirum (or mas/zirum) in annakam m. (a 
variety of tin) OA; < masarum or masdru ? 

masiru (a shipping due) NB; < Aram.? 

masitu "(that which is) sufficient" jB; < masu 

maslalum (or maslalum) mng. unkn. OB in PN; 

< saldlu 

masrahtu (an emblem) jB lex.; < masrahu 

masrahu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "socle for (divine) 
symbols" 2. "socle" of the gall bladder, phps. 
"bile-duct"? [SUR]; < sardhu U 

massartu(m), Am. also mansartu "observation, 
guard" [EN.NUN/NU.UN] OA rabi massar(d)tim 
"captain of the guards"; sa m., bel m. "guard, 
watchman", NB bit m, "guardroom"; m. 
nasdru(m) "to stand guard", also astr. 
"observe"; "watch" of the night, st. abs. 
massarat "at first watch"; "cultic watch"; m. 
hasim 'guard of the lungs' (= "bronchia"?); 
"depot, warehouse"; "safe custody; proper 
care"; < nasdru; > massarutu 

massaru(m), NA massuru "guard, watchman" 
[(LU.)EN.NUN; (LU.)EN.NU(.UN)] in comb., e.g. 
Am. m. sarri "king's guard"; m. abullim 
"gatekeeper"; m. qisdtim/qisti "forest guard"; m. 
eqlim "field guard"; of deities and divine images 
m. sulmi(m) u baldti(m) "guardian of health and 
life"; m. tidi 'guardian of clay' (= a worm); 

< nasdru 

massarutu(m) "safekeeping" O/jB; < massartu 
massum, mass/zzum ? OB 1. (a garment) 

2. (rash, eczema)? 
massuru — » massaru 

masu(m), OAkk, Ass. masd'um "to correspond, 
comply with (s.th.); be sufficient, suffice" 
G (('/(') 1. after mala, NA (am)mar (of field 
etc.) "be as much as it amounts to, is worth"; 
"be worth as much as s.o. else"; mala, ammar 
libbi- m. "achieve wishes"; after infin. "be able 



masu(m) 



201 



masgabaru 



to" 2. with ana ordat. "reach" o.'s goal; stat. "is 
sufficient" 3. with ace. "reach" a number or a 
time 4. OA "take responsibility for" 5. with 
klma "become equal to" 6. kl masi "how much 
(does it correspond to)?", math, also after prep. 
(— » masi) 7. absol. masi "it is enough!", also in 
PN; OA before laqd'um and sabdtum "be 
ready, in a position to take" D "make available, 
provide" (— » wussum), OB qdtam m. "make 
o.s. available, get involved" Dt OA "be made 
available" S caus. of G "cause to/let 
correspond"; "cause to suffice"; jB "prepare 
(properly)"? drug mixture; NA "be able to" Stn 
unci. St 1. "set about doing s.th." 2. stat. "is 
within reach, available"; > masi, masitu; 
misitum; mustamsu 
masu(m) "to churn, make butter"? O/jB G; 

> namdsu; namusu ? 
masu — » also widsum 
masullultu — » sulultu I 

masaddu, meseddu, Nuzi masandu; NA pi. f. 
"(yoke-)shaft" M/NB; jB astr. "shaft (of the 
waggon-star = Ursa Major)"; < sadddu 

masadu(m) "to beat; full (cloth, wool)"? Bab., 
OA [SA] G (//(', OA alu) OA "full"? textiles; jB 
"massage"; of demons etc. "strike" with 
disease; "crush, press in"? foetus, organs 
D "massage"? N pass, of G "be stricken, have a 
stroke"; > masdu II; misdu, misittu 

masahu(m) I "to measure" land, buildings 
M/NB G (alu) "measure, mete out" 
commodities; also Mari "count" people ? Gtn 
"measure out to each" D = G N "be measured"; 

> mashu 111; masihu; mishu I, misihtu; 
mdsihum, mdsihdnu; mumassihu; namsdhu; 
tamsihu; — » masd'u 

masahu II ~ "to flash, shine, glow" [SUR] jB 
G (u/u) of star, meteor; > mishu II 

masdku — » masdku . 

masallu(m) (a groove, channel, conduit)? OB, 
jB lex.; < saldlu II ?; — » musldlu 

masallu (a boat) jB lex.; < Sum. 

mas'altu "questioning, interrogation" j/NB; also 
(a type of commentary); < sdlu I 

masalu(m), MB also meselu "to equal" G (O/jB 
u/u, jB also a/a, MB Hi) stat. "is equal" (to = 
ana); "become equal" (to = ana, -is or dat.); 
MB "become equal", i.e. "smooth", of the sea; 
"be(come) halved, bisected" of time, grain; the 
moon D "make equal, proportionate"; with ana 
"equalize in value", "equal s.o."; "make s.th. 
similar, match"; "reproduce, copy" Dt "find o.'s 
match" S "make s.th. equal" St "place on a 
level" (with = ace.) N "attain the equivalent 



condition"?; > maslu; mislu, mislanu, misla; 
musdlu; mussulu, mussultu; tamsilu, tamsiltu; 
missulu'- 

mas'alu (an oracle)? Ug.; < sdlu I 

masandu — » masaddu 

masanum (an object of precious metal) OAkk 
and in Sum. texts; — » massdnu, musdnum ? 

masanum — » mesenu 

masarru "dream" jB lex. 

masartu, NB mdsartu "inspection, (military) 
review" M/NA, NB; NA ekal m. "Review 
Palace, arsenal"; < asdru 

masaru(m) "to drag (across the ground)" OA, 
O/jB G (alu) garments; Nuzi leg. "drag (the 
hem of a garment)" to confirm the validity of an 
agreement; "teasel" fabric; "drive" a vehicle Gtn 
of animal "drag" tail "to and fro"; "drag s.o. to 
death" with animals; OA "delay, draw out" 
action, treatment D, Dtn, Dt — » wasdrum 
S caus. of G; > masru; misertu; masirum; 
masiru; tamsdru; namsartu 

ma'saru "tithe" Ug.; < Ug. 

masasu(m) "to wipe off; clean" O/jB G (alu) 
D "clean"? Dt pass, of D N pass, of G; 
> massu; mdsistu; masistu 1 

masatu "to itch" jB G stat.; > mastu 

mas'atu (a plant with thorns) jB 

masa'u(m) "to take away by force, rob" G (alu, 
jB once Hi) [KAR] from s.o. = ace; "abduct 
s.o."; "loot, pillage, ransack" country, building; 
stat. "is robbed" Gtn iter, of G D — » mussu'u 
S "let s.o. be robbed, cause to be robbed" N "be 
taken away by force"; "be looted, ransacked"; 
"be stolen"; >mas'u; mise'tu; massi'u; 
massutu V 

masd'u — » also masu II 

masdahu, maldahu "procession (street)" j/NB; 

< saddhu 

masdu I, maldu ~ "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
mas' enum — » mesenu 

masdu I, maldu ~ "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
masdu II "dressed"? f. pi., of hair jB lex.; 

< masadu 
masdu (a stone) jB 
maseltu — » meseltu 

masennu, masenu, Nuzi, NA masennu (an 
administrator, a manager) Nuzi, NA, NB 
[(LU.)AGRIG ? (-» abarakku)] 

mas' enum — » mesenu 

mas'ertum mng. unci. OA 

mdserum — » masirum 

masgabaru, masgabu (types of sacrificial goat) 
jB lex.; < Sum. 



masgallu 



202 



masma(s)sutu 



masgallu "billy goat" jB lex., NB; -» dassu 
masgallu "pertaining to a billy goat" Nuzi 
masgasu(m), maskasu{m) (a battle mace)? O/jB; 

< sagdsu 
masgibillu — » masgizillu 
masgikidu — » askikitu 

masgizillu, masgibillu (a sacrificial goat) jB 

[mAS.GI.IZI.LA/lAl]; < Sum. 
masgubbu "sexually mature goat" jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
mashaltappu (a priest performing sacrifices)? 

jB;*< Sum.? 
mashaltu "(type of) sieve" jB; < sahdlu 
mashalu(m) "(type of) sieve" O/jB, M/NA; 

< sahdlu 

mashantu, mashandu (a waistband, sash)? jB; 

< sahdnu 

mashatu "stairs, ladder" M/jB; MB PIN Mashat- 

sarri; < sahdtu I 
mashu I "measured, surveyed" NB; < masdhu I 
mashu(m) II 1. OAkk(Sum.) (a beer mug) 

2. Qatna, Am. (a bead)?; < masdhu I 
mashu III "god" M/jB; < Kass. 
mashudu (a class of people)? jB lex. 
mashulduppu "scapegoat, kid as expiatory 

sacrifice" jB [mAS.HUL.DUB(.BA)]; < Sum.; -► 

hultuppu 
mashurannu (a garment) Ug. 
mashuru, gen. mashiri (a textile) MA; 

< sahdru ? 
masidnu — » massdnu 

masihanu "the one who surveyed" MB; 

< masdhu I 

masihu; pi. also f. (a measure of capacity, varies 

from 30 to 54 qu, - 1 pan) NB; < masdhu I 
masihum "surveyor" OB lex.; < masdhu I 
masiktu — » masiktu 
masirru (a wooden vessel) jB lex. 
masiru (a wheeled vehicle) MA, M/jB; 

< masdru 

masirum, mdserum "a teaseller of cloth" OB 

lex.; < masdru 
masis "in oblivion, forgotten" OB; < masu I 
masis "on both sides" jB; < masu 
masistu modal ptcl. jB; < masdsu ? 
masistu f. "polisher" jB lex.; < masdsu 
masitu, massitu "twin sister" jB; < masu 
masitu — » also masu I 1 
maskabum; pi. f. "camp" Mari; < W.Sem. 
maskadu (an illness of the joints, arthritis 7 ) jB 
maskadu — » also askadu 
maskakatu(m) pi. tant. "harrow" O/jB [GIS. 

GAN.UR]; < sakdku 



maskantu "ingredients, materials" jB; < sakdnu 
maskantu — » also maskattu 
maskanu(m) 'place of putting' 1. "threshing 
floor" [KISLAH; MAS.gAn] OB; pi. also f. 

2. "place, site, settlement"; OB PIN Maskan-RN 
etc.; om. of parts of the liver, of the moon 

3. "fetter, shackles, chain"; OB as mark of a 
slave 4. NB "security, pledge", also bit m.\ m. 
sakdnu "to pawn, pledge"; m. sabdtu "to take as 
pledge" 5. Ass., Urar. ( tl5 g)m. "tent"; < sakdnu; 
— » maskantu; maskattu 

maskanum "deposit" OA; < sakdnu 
maskanutu "state of pledge" NB ana m. sakdnu 

"to pledge"; ana m. sabdtu "to take as pledge"; 

< maskanu 4 
maskartum, maskartum (a piece of jewellery) 

OAkk, OB 
maskartum ~* also masqartum 
maskasu ~* markasu 
maskasu — » masgasu 
maskattu(m), NA maskantu "depot; account" 

except OB; OAkk "depot"; O/MA "account", 

m. sakdnu(m) "to open an account"; M/NB 

"depot; stores", PIN Maskandti; NA maskanti 

M^nfsubstitute lapis lazuli"?; < maskanu 
maskenu — » muskenu 

maskirtum (a drinking vessel) Mari; < sakdru 
maskiru — » maskaru 
maskittu, malkittu "sacrificial table, altar" jB, 

NA; < sakdnu 
masku (m) "skin" [KUS] of human; "hide" of 

animal; "leather"; "peel, skin" of fruit, plant; jB 

m. hurdsi "gold overlay"; > mussuku 
masku — » also masku 
maskunum mng. unkn. OA 
maskuru Ass., NB maskiru "(inflatable) animal 

skin" NA, NB ? [KuS.BAR.RA] for swimmer or 

raft; < sakdru ? 
maslatu "knife (of a basket weaver)"; < saldtu II 
masliu — » maslu 
maslu(m) "half O/jB; jB urn masil "midday" 

[UD.SA9.AM]; O/jB musi masil "midnight"; OB 

of length, width; < masdlu 
masiu(m), meslum*, OAkk, MA masliu(m) 

1. OAkk, MA "(leather) bucket"; OAkk pi. f. 

2. OB "leather wrapper" for textiles 3.JB (a 
wall socle)?; < salu I 

masmasgallum "chief exorcist" OB lex.; < Sum. 
masma(s)su "incantation priest" M/NA, M/NB 

[(LU.)MAS.MAS]; also as epith. of deity; -» 

wdsipum 
masma(s)sutu "conjuration; function, work of 

an incantation priest" jB, NA [MAS.MAS- ] m. 



203 



masu(m) 



epesu "to perform an incantation"; of deity DN 

bel m.-ti; < masmassu 
masna "for the second time" Ug.; < sanu III 
masqalillu, masqaliltu "suspension"? jB; 

< suqallulu ? 

masqaltum OA, OB 1. "weighing out; payment" 
2. "balance, scales" 3. "weight, pendant"; 

< saqdlu 

masqalu "weight" Am.; < W.Sem.; -» saqdlu 
masqartum (or maskartum) (an agricultural 

implement) Mari, OB(Esn.) 
lnasqitu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "watering place", 

"irrigation outlet"; "drink, (medicinal) potion" 

2. (leather enema bag); < masqu 
masqium — » masqu 
masqu — » warqum 2 
masqu (m), OAkk masqium "watering place" 

OAkk, O/jB; "sprinkling vessel, watering can"; 

< saqu III 

masqutu j/NB 1. (a watering vessel) 2. "potion"; 

< masqu 

lnasrahu pi. tant. ~ "good health"? OB; 

< sardhu I 

masraktu "votive offering" NA(Urar.); 

< sardku 

masritu, mesritu "riches, wealth" Bogh., jB; 

< masru 

masru "teased" of textile, "roughened" of skin, 

door MA, M/jB; < masdru 
masru(m), mesru "riches, wealth" [NlG.TUKU]; 

also pi.; Bab. in PN; med. transf. "excrement"?; 

jB bel m. "rich man"; is m. "date palm"; astr. 

kakkab m. "Sirius"; < saru II 
massakku — » mussakku 
massaktu (a kind of income payment) NB 
massanu, NA masidnu "tongs" M/NA; NB 

wooden; < nasu II ?; — » masdnum 
massartu(m) "deduction, withdrawal; foodstuffs 

set aside" Bab.; NB (a remuneration for temple 

officials); astr. "diminution" of lunar visibility; 

< nasdru I 

massaru (a container)? jB lex.; < nasdru I 

massatum (a metal weapon)? OAkk 

massitu(m) 'carrying (to)', "delivery" OA, M/jB 
[Hi] MB "delivery" of commodities; "ingre- 
dients)" of drugs, in glass recipe; < nasu II; — » 
massu I 

massitu — » also masitu 

massi'u(m) "rapacious, predatory" O/jB; 

< masd'u 

massiyannu (a sash)? Ug.; < Hitt.; — » 

assiyannu ? 
massu "polished, shining" M/jB, Am.; < masdsu 



massu(m) I 1. OB (a carrying basket or board) 

[GI.GUR.DA (-» gigurdu)] 2.jB (a suction 

tube) 3. also massu, mansu (a symbol or 

signal) [MAS.SU]; < nasu II 
massu II "forgetful" jB; < masu II 
massu — » also massu; masu 
massutu I mng. unci. MA, MB; < masd'u ? 
ma(s)sutu(m) II 1. OB(Susa) (a royal donation 

document) 2. jB "sovereign dignity"?; < massu 
mastakal, OB ammastakal, jB also mallrtakal 

(an alkaline plant) O/jB, NA [(U.)IN.NU.US; 

U.IN6.US/US] 
mastaktu (or mastaqtu) (a wooden object) OB 

lex.; — » maltaktu 
mastaku(m), massaku, mestaku "chamber; cell" 

Bab.(lit.) [AMA], of humans, deities 
mastaku — » also maltakum 
mastaqtu ~ "constriction" jB med.; < satdqu 
mastaqtu — » also mastaktu 
mastitu(m), MA, M/jB also maltitu, NA massitu 

1. O/jB, MA "(allowance of) drink" 2. NA 
"drinking vessel"; < satu II 

mastu(m) (an itching skin condition) O/jB; 

< masdtu 

mastu(m), jB also maltu "drinking vessel; drink" 

O/jB; < satu II 
mastu — » also martu 
mdstu — » mdrtu; masu 
mastutu(m), M/jB maltutu 1. OB "weaving", in 

bit m. "weaving shed" 2. O/jB "textile"; 

< satu III 

mastaru, maltaru 1. M/NB, NA "inscription" 

2. MB pi. f., jB "medical prescription"; 

< satdru II 
mastu — » mestu 

masu(m) I; f. masitu(m) 1. Bab. "forgotten", f. 
also subst. "forgotten thing(s)"; (a part of the 
gall bladder) 2.jB ^masu (a plant name); 

< masu II 

masu(m) II, Ass. masd'u(m), NB occas. wasu 
"to forget" G (Hi) "forget" s.th., also in PN; 
"forget, leave (s.th.) behind"; "forget about"; 
OA, OB in hendiad. "forget o.s., (do s.th.) 
unintentionally" Gtn iter, of G D OA, OB 
"allow to sink into oblivion"; jB -» wussum 
S "cause, allow to forget" N "be forgotten, 
neglected"; > masu I, masis; massu II; misu I; 
misutu 1 -; tamsitum; — » misitum 

masu — » also masu; mesu II G 

masu(m), ma(s)su; f. mdstu "twin (brother/ 
sister)" [MAS.TAB.BA] OAkk, Bab. of human, 
OAkk as PN; of deity; image; astr. (the 
constellation Gemini) [MUL.MAS.TAB.BA], 



masku(m) 



200 



masu(m) 



masku(m), masku "bad, evil" O/jB; OB as PN 

"Ugly"; < masdku; > masiktu 
maslahtu(m), masrahtu (a libation vessel) Bab. 

[DUG.A.SU]; <saldhu I 
maslahu(m), masrahu (a libation tube) O/jB; 

med. "urethra"; < saldhu I 
maslaqtu (a cooking pot) jB lex.; < saldqu I 
masla'tu "infection, epidemic" M/jB; < sald'u I 
masla'u "pitcher, jug" jB lex.; < sald'u I 
masmakannu — » musukkannu 
masmas (a plant) jB 
masnaqtu "inspection" j/NB; < sandqu I 
masradum (a pack-saddle) OA; <sarddu 
masrahtu — » maslahtu 
masrahu — » maslahu 
massaku(m) 1. OB ~ "tow-rope" for boat 2. NA 

mng. unkn., textile item in pairs; < nasdku 
massaku — » also mastaku 
massaru "saw" jB; bel m. (epith. of Ninsar); 

< nasdru 

massatum "princess, queen" OA; < massu 

massis (horse trappings)? MB; < Kass. 

massltu — » mastltu 

massu (a conscript labourer) Alal., Am. 

massum — » also massum 

massu(m), OA massu' urn, jB also massu, 

ma/ensu; f. massutum "leader, expert" Bab. 

(lit.), O/MA [MAS.SU]; <Sum.; > massatum; 

massutu II 
massu — » also massu I 3 
massuhum ~ "inferior quality" OA of metal; 

< masdhu D 
massusu mng. unkn. NB 
massutu "washing" MA; < mesu II D 
massutum — » also massA 

massutu, malsutu l.MB "call"? 2. j/NB "read- 
ing out, lecture"; < sasu 

massu' um -*massu 

masu — » mesu I 

masu — » mesu 

mas'um — » mesu I 

ma'su mng. unkn. jB 

masuktu "mortar" jB; < sdku 

masussu (topog. term)? MB 

maswatu (a type of tree) Ug.; < Ug.? 

masadu (a melting pot) Ug., jB; < sddu II 

masallu; pi. f. "sleeping place, shelter" for 
shepherds etc. M/jB; NA, of tomb; < saldlu; -» 
musallu 

masarritum (a vessel) Mari; < masarru 

masarru(m) (a vessel) O/jB, NA; < sardru I 

masaru(m), also phps. mazlsdru Bab. G (alu) ~ 
"to stride about"? D (<misru denom.?) 
"enclose, mark boundaries (of)"; "limit" time 
N (phps. different word ?) ~ "become com- 
pact"?; > masirum?; musdrum'-; namsdru 



masdrum — » also masdrum 



masa um — » masu 



masen — » masi 

mashatu(m) (a kind of flour) Bab., M/NA 
[ZLMAD/MA.AD.GA]; < sahdtu I 

masi, also (+ subjunct. -n(i)l) masin, masen 
"(but) since, in view of NA in issu m. "since", 
"as if'?; kl m. "correspondingly, accordingly" 
(— ► also masti. G 6.7); < masu 

masihu "middle"? NB; < Aram.? 

masilu (a musician, phps.) "cymbalist" Ug.; 
<W.Sem. 

masirum (or maslzirum) in annakam m. (a 
variety of tin) OA; < masdrum or masdru ? 

masiru (a shipping due) NB; < Aram.? 

masitu "(that which is) sufficient" jB; < masu 

maslalum (or maslalum) mng. unkn. OB in PN; 

< saldlu 

masrahtu (an emblem) jB lex.; < masrahu 

masrahu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "socle for (divine) 
symbols" 2. "socle" of the gall bladder, phps. 
"bile-duct"? [SUR]; < sardhu II 

massartu(m), Am. also mansartu "observation, 
guard" [EN.NUN/NU.UN] OA rabi massar(d)tim 
"captain of the guards"; sa m., bel m. "guard, 
watchman", NB bit m. "guardroom"; m. 
nasdru(m) "to stand guard", also astr. 
"observe"; "watch" of the night, st. abs. 
massarat "at first watch"; "cultic watch"; m. 
hasim 'guard of the lungs' (= "bronchia"?); 
"depot, warehouse"; "safe custody; proper 
care"; < nasdru; > massarutu 

massaru(m), NA massuru "guard, watchman" 
[(LU.)EN.NUN; (LU.)EN.NU(.UN)] in comb., e.g. 
Am. m. sarri "king's guard"; m. abullim 
"gatekeeper"; m. qisdtimlqisti "forest guard"; m. 
eqlim "field guard"; of deities and divine images 
m. sulmi(m) u baldti(m) "guardian of health and 
life"; m. tidi 'guardian of clay' (= a worm); 

< nasdru 

massarutu(m) "safekeeping" O/jB; < massartu 

massum, masslzzum ? OB 1. (a garment) 
2. (rash, eczema)? 

massuru — » massaru 

masu(m), OAkk, Ass. masd'um "to correspond, 
comply with (s.th.); be sufficient, suffice" 
G (Hi) 1. after mala, NA (am)mar (of field 
etc.) "be as much as it amounts to, is worth"; 
"be worth as much as s.o. else"; mala, ammar 
libbi- m. "achieve wishes"; after infin. "be able 



masu(m) 



201 



masgaba ru 



to" 2. with ana or dat. "reach" o.'s goal; stat. "is 
sufficient" 3. with ace. "reach" a number or a 
time 4. OA "take responsibility for" 5. with 
kima "become equal to" 6. kl masi "how much 
(does it correspond to)?", math, also after prep. 
(-» masi) 7. absol. masi "it is enough!", also in 
PN; OA before laqd'um and sabdtum "be 
ready, in a position to take" D "make available, 
provide" (-» wussum), OB qdtam m. "make 
o.s. available, get involved" Dt OA "be made 
available" S caus. of G "cause to/let 
correspond"; "cause to suffice"; jB "prepare 
(properly)"? drug mixture; NA "be able to" Stn 
unci. St 1. "set about doing s.th." 2. stat. "is 
within reach, available"; > masi, masitu; 
misitum; mustamsu 
masu(m) "to churn, make butter"? O/jB G; 

> namdsu; namusu ? 
masu — » also widsum 
masullultu — » sulultu I 

masaddu, meseddu, Nuzi masandu; NA pi. f. 
"(yoke-)shaft" M/NB; jB astr. "shaft (of the 
waggon-star = Ursa Major)"; < sadddu 

masadu(m) "to beat; full (cloth, wool)"? Bab., 
OA [SA] G (Hi, OA alu) OA "full"? textiles; jB 
"massage"; of demons etc. "strike" with 
disease; "crush, press in"? foetus, organs 
D "massage"? N pass, of G "be stricken, have a 
stroke"; > masdu II; misdu, misittu 

masahu(m) I "to measure" land, buildings 
M/NB G (alu) "measure, mete out" 
commodities; also Mari "count" people ? Gtn 
"measure out to each" D = G N "be measured"; 

> mashu I.II; masihu; mishu I, misihtu; 
mdsihum, mdsihdnu; mumassihu; namsdhu; 
tamsihu; — » masd'u 

masahu II ~ "to flash, shine, glow" [SUR] jB 
G (u/u) of star, meteor, > mishu II 

masdku — » masdku 

masallu(m) (a groove, channel, conduit)? OB, 
jB lex.; < saldlu II ?; -» musldlu 

masallu (a boat) jB lex.; < Sum. 

mas'altu "questioning, interrogation" j/NB; also 
(a type of commentary); < sdlu I 

masalu(m), MB also meselu "to equal" G (O/jB 
u/u, jB also a/a, MB Hi) stat. "is equal" (to = 
ana); "become equal" (to = ana, -is or dat.); 
MB "become equal", i.e. "smooth", of the sea; 
"be(come) halved, bisected" of time, grain; the 
moon D "make equal, proportionate"; with ana 
"equalize in value", "equal s.o."; "make s.th. 
similar, match"; "reproduce, copy" Dt "find o.'s 
match" S "make s.th. equal" St "place on a 
level" (with = ace.) N "attain the equivalent 



condition"?; > maslu; mislu, misldnu, misla; 
musdlu; mussulu, mussultu; tamsilu, tamsiltu; 
missulu^ 

mas' alu (an oracle)? Ug.; < sdlu I 

masandu — » masaddu 

masanum (an object of precious metal) OAkk 
and in Sum. texts; — » massdnu, musdnum ? 

mas'anum — » mesenu 

masarru "dream" jB lex. 

masartu, NB mdsartu "inspection, (military) 
review" M/NA, NB; NA ekal m. "Review 
Palace, arsenal"; < asdru 

masaru(m) "to drag (across the ground)" OA, 
O/jB G (alu) garments; Nuzi leg. "drag (the 
hem of a garment)" to confirm the validity of an 
agreement; "teasel" fabric; "drive" a vehicle Gtn 
of animal "drag" tail "to and fro"; "drag s.o. to 
death" with animals; OA "delay, draw out" 
action, treatment D, Dtn, Dt — » wasdrum 
S caus. of G; > masru; misertu; masirum; 
masiru; tamsdru; namsartu 

ma'saru "tithe" Ug.; < Ug. 

masasu(m) "to wipe off; clean" O/jB G (alu) 
D "clean"? Dt pass, of D N pass, of G; 
> massu; mdsistu; masistu 1 

masatu "to itch" jB G stat.; > mastu 

mas'atu (a plant with thorns) jB 

masa'u(m) "to take away by force, rob" G (alu, 
jB once Hi) [KAR] from s.o. = ace; "abduct 
s.o."; "loot, pillage, ransack" country, building; 
stat. "is robbed" Gtn iter, of G D — » mussu'u 
S "let s.o. be robbed, cause to be robbed" N "be 
taken away by force"; "be looted, ransacked"; 
"be stolen"; >mas"u; mise'tu; massi'u; 
massutu V 

masd'u — » also masu II 

masdahu, maldahu "procession (street)" j/NB; 

< saddhu 

masdu I, maldu - "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
mas' enum — » mesenu 

masdu I, maldu ~ "edge"? of bed, river j/NB 
masdu II "dressed"? f. pi., of hair jB lex.; 

< maMdu 
masdu (a stone) jB 
maseltu — ► meseltu 

masennu, masenu, Nuzi, NA masennu (an 
administrator, a manager) Nuzi, NA, NB 
[(LU.)AGRIG ? (-» abarakku)] 

mas' enum — » mesenu 

mas'ertum mng. unci. OA 

mdserum — » masirum 

masgabaru, masgabu (types of sacrificial goat) 
jB lex.; < Sum. 



masgallu 



202 



masma(s)sutu 



masgallu "billy goat" jB lex., NB; -► dassu 
masgallu "pertaining to a billy goat" Nuzi 
masgasu(m), maskasu(m) (a battle mace)? O/jB; 

< sagdsu 
masgibillu — ► masgizilld 
masgikidu — > askikitu 

masgizillu, masgibillu (a sacrificial goat) jB 

[MAS.GI.IZI.LA/LAL]; < Sum. 
masgubbu "sexually mature goat" jB lex.; 

<Sum. 
mashaltappu (a priest performing sacrifices)? 

jB; < Sum.? 
mashaltu" "(type of) sieve" jB; < sahdlu 
mashalu(m) "(type of) sieve" O/jB, M/NA; 

< sahdlu 

mashantu, mashandu (a waistband, sash)? jB; 

< sahdnu 

mashatu "stairs, ladder" M/jB; MB PIN Mashat- 

sarri; < sahdtu I 
mashu I "measured, surveyed" NB; < masdhu I 
mashu(m) II 1. OAkk(Sum.) (a beer mug) 

2. Qatna, Am. (a bead)?; < masdhu I 
inashu III "god" M/jB; < Kass. 
mashudu (a class of people)? jB lex. 
mashulduppu "scapegoat, kid as expiatory 

sacrifice" jB [MAS.HUL.DUB(.BA)]; < Sum.; -► 

hultuppu 
mashurannu (a garment) Ug. 
mashuru, gen. mashiri (a textile) MA; 

< sahdru ? 
masianu — ► massdnu 

masihanu "the one who surveyed" MB; 

< masdhu I 

masihu; pi. also f. (a measure of capacity, varies 

from 30 to 54 qu, ~ 1 pan) NB; < masdhu I 
masihum "surveyor" OB lex.; < masdhu I 
masiktu — > masiktu 
masirru (a wooden vessel) jB lex. 
masiru (a wheeled vehicle) MA, M/jB; 

< masdru 

masirum, mdserum "a teaseller of cloth" OB 

lex.; < masdru 
masis "in oblivion, forgotten" OB; < masu I 
masis "on both sides" jB; < masu 
masistu modal ptcl. jB; < masdsu ? 
masistu f. "polisher" jB lex.; < masdsu 
masitu, massitu "twin sister" jB; < masu 
masitu — ► also masu I 1 
maskabum; pi. f. "camp" Mari; < W.Sem. 
maskadu (an illness of the joints, arthritis 7 ) jB 
maskadu — > also askadu 
maskakatu(m) pi. tant. "harrow" O/jB [GIS. 

GAN.UR]; < sakdku 



maskantu "ingredients, materials" jB; < sakdnu 
maskantu — ► also maskattu 
maskanu(m) 'place of putting' 1. "threshing 
floor" [KISLAH; MAS.GAN] OB; pi. also f. 

2. "place, site, settlement"; OB PIN Maskan-RN 
etc.; om. of parts of the liver, of the moon 

3. "fetter, shackles, chain"; OB as mark of a 
slave 4. NB "security, pledge", also bit m.\ m. 
sakdnu "to pawn, pledge"; m. sabdtu "to take as 
pledge" 5. Ass., Urar. ('"gW "tent"; < sakdnu; 
— > maskantu; maskattu 

maskanum "deposit" OA; < sakdnu 
maskanutu "state of pledge" NB ana m. sakdnu 

"to pledge"; ana m. sabdtu "to take as pledge"; 

< maskanu 4 
maskartum, maskartum (a piece of jewellery) 

OAkk, OB 
maskartum — > also masqartum 
maskasu — > markasu 
maskasu — ► masgasu 
maskattu(m), NA maskantu "depot; account" 

except OB; OAkk "depot"; O/MA "account", 

m. sakdnu(m) "to open an account"; M/NB 

"depot; stores", PIN Maskandti; NA maskanti 

uqni "substitute lapis lazuli"?; < maskanu 
maskenu — > muskenu 

maskirtum (a drinking vessel) Mari; < sakdru 
maskiru — » maskaru 
maskittu, malkittu "sacrificial table, altar" jB, 

NA; < sakdnu 
masku(m) "skin" [KUS] of human; "hide" of 

animal; "leather"; "peel, skin" of fruit, plant; jB 

m. hurdsi "gold overlay"; > mussuku 
masku — > also masku 
maskunum mng. unkn. OA 
maskuru Ass., NB maskiru "(inflatable) animal 

skin" NA, NB ? [KUS.BAR.RA] for swimmer or 

raft; < sakdru ? 
maslatu "knife (of a basket weaver)"; < saldtu II 
masliu — ► maslu 
maslu(m) "half O/jB; jB um masil "midday" 

[UD.SA9.AM]; O/jB musi masil "midnight"; OB 

of length, width; < masdlu 
maslu(m), meslum 1 , OAkk, MA masliu(m) 

1. OAkk, MA "(leather) bucket"; OAkk pi. f. 

2. OB "leather wrapper" for textiles 3.JB (a 
wall socle)?; < salu I 

masmasgallum "chief exorcist" OB lex.; < Sum. 
masma(s)su "incantation priest" M/NA, M/NB 

[(LU.)MAS.MAS]; also as epith. of deity; -► 

wdsipum 
masma(s)sutu "conjuration; function, work of 

an incantation priest" jB, NA [MAS.MAS- ] m. 



203 



masu(m) 



epesu "to perform an incantation"; of deity DN 

be I m.-ti; < masmassu 
masna "for the second time" Ug.; < sanu III 
masqalillu, masqaliltu "suspension"? jB; 

< suqallulu ? 

masqaltum OA, OB 1. "weighing out; payment" 
2. "balance, scales" 3. "weight, pendant"; 

< saqdlu 

masqalu "weight" Am.; < W.Sem.; — > saqdlu 
masqartum (or maskartum) (an agricultural 

implement) Mari, OB(Esn.) 
masqitu(m) O/jB, NA 1. "watering place", 

"irrigation outlet"; "drink, (medicinal) potion" 

2. (leather enema bag); < masqu 
masqium — ► masqu 
masqu — > warqum 2 
masqu(m), OAkk masqium "watering place" 

OAkk, O/jB; "sprinkling vessel, watering can"; 

< saqu III 

masqutu j/NB 1. (a watering vessel) 2. "potion"; 

< masqu 

niasrahu pi. tant. ~ "good health"? OB; 

< sardhu I 

masraktu "votive offering" NA(Urar.); 

< sardku 

masritu, mesritu "riches, wealth" Bogh., jB; 

< masru 

masru "teased" of textile, "roughened" of skin, 

door MA, M/jB; < masdru 
masru(m), mesru "riches, wealth" [NIG.TUKU]; 

also pi.; Bab. in PN; med. transf. "excrement"?; 

jB bel m. "rich man"; is m. "date palm"; astr. 

kakkab m. "Sirius"; < saru II 
massakku — > mussakku 
massaktu (a kind of income payment) NB 
massanu, NA masianu "tongs" M/NA; NB 

wooden; < nasu II ?; — > masdnum 
massartu(m) "deduction, withdrawal; foodstuffs 

set aside" Bab.; NB (a remuneration for temple 

officials); astr. "diminution" of lunar visibility; 

< nasdru I 

massaru (a container)? jB lex.; < nasdru I 

massatum (a metal weapon)? OAkk 

massitu(m) 'carrying (to)', "delivery" OA, M/jB 
[Hi] MB "delivery" of commodities; "ingre- 
dients)" of drugs, in glass recipe; < nasu II; — > 
massu I 

massitu — > also masitu 

massi'u(m) "rapacious, predatory" O/jB; 

< masd'u 

massiyannu (a sash)? Ug.; < Hitt.; — > 

assiyannu ? 
massu "polished, shining" M/jB, Am.; < masdsu 



massu(m) I 1. OB (a carrying basket or board) 
[GI.GUR.DA (-► gigurdu)] 2.jB (a suction 
tube) 3. also massu, mansu (a symbol or 
signal) [MAS.SU]; < nasu II 

massu II "forgetful" jB; < masu II 

massu — ► also massu; masu 

massutu I mng. unci. MA, MB; < masd'u ? 

ma(s)sutu(m) II 1. OB(Susa) (a royal donation 
document) 2. jB "sovereign dignity"?; < massu 

mastakal, OB ammastakal, jB also mallrtakal 
(an alkaline plant) O/jB, NA [(U.)IN.NU.US; 
U.IN6.US/US] 

mastaktu (or mastaqtu) (a wooden object) OB 

lex.; — > maltaktu 
mastaku(m), massaku, mestaku "chamber, cell" 

Bab.(lit.) [ama], of humans, deities 
mastaku — > also maltakum 
mastaqtu ~ "constriction" jB med.; < satdqu 
mastaqtu — > also mastaktu 
mastitu(m), MA, M/jB also maltitu, NA massitu 

1. O/jB, MA "(allowance of) drink" 2. NA 
"drinking vessel"; < satu II 

mastu(m) (an itching skin condition) O/jB; 

< masdtu 

mastu(m), jB also maltu "drinking vessel; drink" 

O/jB; < satu II 
mastu — ► also martu 
mdstu — > martu; masu 
mastutu(m), M/jB maltutu 1. OB "weaving", in 

bit m. "weaving shed" 2. O/jB "textile"; 

< satu III 

mastaru, maltaru 1. M/NB, NA "inscription" 

2. MB pi. f., jB "medical prescription"; 

< satdru II 
mastu — > mestu 

masu(m) I; f. masitu(m) 1. Bab. "forgotten", f. 
also subst. "forgotten thing(s)"; (a part of the 
gall bladder) 2.jB "masu (a plant name); 

< masu II 

masu(m) II, Ass. masd'u(m), NB occas. wasu 
"to forget" G (Hi) "forget" s.th., also in PN; 
"forget, leave (s.th.) behind"; "forget about"; 
OA, OB in hendiad. "forget o.s., (do s.th.) 
unintentionally" Gtn iter, of G D OA, OB 
"allow to sink into oblivion"; jB — > wussum 
S "cause, allow to forget" N "be forgotten, 
neglected"; > masu I, masis; massu II; misu I; 
misutu*; tamsitum; — ► misitum 

masu — ► also masu; mesu II G 

masu(m), ma(s)su; f. mdstu "twin (brother/ 
sister)" [MAS.TAB.BA] OAkk, Bab. of human, 
OAkk as PN; of deity; image; astr. (the 
constellation Gemini) [MUL.MAS.TAB.BA], 



niatahu 



204 



matu(m) I 



d/mul m (name of n star in the constellation 
Hercules ?); of objects; ^mdstu (a plant name) 
[prob. t'l.MAS.TAB.BA]; < Sum.; >mdsis, 
maSltu 
rndSu -> miidsu 

/iw.f'i/ — > "destitute, robbed" jB; <masd'u 
ma.iutu — > massutu II 
mat — ► mati 
nwt — » me' atu 

matahu "to lift" M/NA G (alu) "pick up, lift" 
objects for transport; "collect" person, thing; 
"lift, raise" eyes; resa m. "lift s.o.'s head" for 
an office; "lift, help s.o. up"; of the new moon 
"ascend" D = G ? N "be lifted"; of moon, stars 
"ascend higher" 
matallu — ► madallu 

mataqu(m) "to be(come) sweet" O/jB, NA 
G (/'//') D "make sweet, sweeten"; > matqu, 
mutqu I, mutqu, mutqltu, mutdqu, mutdqutu 
matdr — ► watdr 
mataru — » watrum 
mataru(m) G stat. only "is spotted, speckled" 

O/jB 
mataru — » also watdrum 
mate — ► maw 
matema — ► matlma 

mati, nwfe, also ratt, immatile (= ina m.), 
ammati "when?"; adf/'J m., OA, MA(Ug.) 
qadu mate, NA ad; immat(e) "until when?", 
also in PN; as conj. "when" (-+ GAG §174e); 
> matlma, mati me; mat mat ma, matimeni 
mat(i)giqu — » kurigiqu 

matlma, matema, matime, immatilema "ever; 
always" [UD.KUR.SE] 1. in questions "at any 
time, ever"; in pos. sentences "sometime"; with 
neg. "never" 2. "always" in the past 3. "for 
ever" in the future; ana m. "for ever"; < mati; 
— » mutima 
matimatima — ► matmatma 
matime — ► matlma 
matime, immatime "whenever" MB(Alal.), Am., 

Nuzi, Bogh.; < maft + -me II 
matimeni "ever" NA, with neg. "never"; 

< matlma 
matitan "all countries" j/NB(lit.) l.jB loc.-adv. 
"in all lands" 2. gen. subst. "of all lands"; 
<maHi I (-+ GAG §61q) 
matlihsum, matlishum (a strap, belt) OA 
matmatma, matimatima, matummatumma "ever 

and ever" OB, Mari 
matnu(m) "sinew, tendon; string (of a bow)" 

O/jB, NA; also used as a drug ? 
matqanu "stand, tripod" Nuzi, j/NB; < taqdnu 



matqu(m); f. matuqtu "sweet" [KU7.KU7] of 
food etc.; of skin diseases; NB in fPN Matuqtu; 

< matdqu 

matqu (an iron object) NB 

matraktu(m) (a stone hammer)? Bab. lex.; 

< tardku 
matru — ► watrum 
mattu — ► mddu 
mattum — ► muttu 

matu(m) I f. "land, country" [mostly KUR (pi. 
KUR.KUR); OAkk, OB KALAM; OAkk, 
NB(roy. inscr.) also MA.DA] 1. sg. "(own) 
home country, territory"; in names of countries, 
DNs, PNs; "flat country" in contrast to 
mountain; "land" in contrast to sea; "(foreign) 
country, territory"; "inhabitants of a country"; 
"area of surface of entrails, e.g. mat ubdni(m) 
"area of 'finger'", mat (ubdn) hast "a. of lung", 
mat tdkaltim "a. of stomach" 2. pi. f. "the 
countries" of a region; "all countries"; > matitan 

matu(m) II m. ~ "sacred precinct"? O/jB 

matu(m), OAkk, Ass. mudtu(m) "to die" 
G [mostly US (NB often wr. GAM)] stat. of 
humans and animals "are/were dead"; "fall" in 
battle; "be put to death, killed, executed"; of 
body tissue "become gangrenous"; of tree "die"; 
NA stat. "is exhausted, spent"?; OA of 
document "become invalid" Gtn pi. subj. "die 
one after another, consecutively" S "put (s.o.) 
to death, kill; kill (involuntarily)"; "destroy" 
plants, harvest; > mltu, mltdnu, mltutu, mltutis, 
mitutdn; mayyitdnu; musmltu; mutu, mutdnu; 
muttatu II; mudtis; ittll-imut 

mdtu — ► me' atu 

matummatumma — ► matmatma 

matuqtu — ► matqu 

maturru(m) "(little) boat" O/jB [GIS.MA.TUR]; 

< Sum. 

matusu (desig. of Marduk's boat) j/NB 

[GIS.MA.(U 5 .)TUS.A]; < Sum. 
matd'u — » matu II 
matis adv. "little" jB lex.; < matu I 
matium — » matu I 
matru 1. Am., jB (a handle)? 2. NB "welt, 

weal"?; < teru 
mattaltu "mirror image, reflection; counterpart" 

jB; < natdlu 
mattalu "reeds used for kindling" jB lex.; 

< natdlu ? 
mart/ — ► matu II 

matu(m) I, OA matium "small, little; 
insignificant, low-value" [lal]; plam m. 
sakdnum "to speak humbly" (to s.o. = ana); 

< matu II 



matu(m) II 



205 



mazzaztu(m) 



matu(m) II, OAkk, Ass. matd'u(m) "to 
be(come) little" G (/'//') [LAL] of water level 
"become low"; of yield, possessions etc. 
"become less, lessen, diminish"; "grow scarce, 
be in short supply"; esp. as opp. to 
(w)atdru(m); stat. "is lacking, wanting"; pi X 
mati "X is humiliated"; math, "become less" 
(than = ana), mati "minus" in X LAL Y (rdg.?); 
"need, be in need" (of = ace); "be defective"; 
of sight "fail, deteriorate"; of humans "waste 
away, be emaciated" D "reduce, curtail" [LAL], 
stat. "is restricted in o.'s ability" (to do s.th.); pi 
X muttu "humiliate X" Dt "be reduced; 
impeded" S "lessen; neglect, disregard (s.o. or 
s.th.)", "treat badly, insult" St "suffer reduction, 
meet with loss"; stat. OB "is despised"; 
> matu I, matis; mitu, mitltu; mutu, muddu?; 
muttu; imtu, intatta; samtu; tamtltu 

ma'u(m) 1. OB (a bird) 2. jB lex. (a part of the 
tongue) 

ma"u — > mannu I 

ma'u(rn) ~ "to push (s.th.) away"? G ? OB bolt; 
NA unci. D 1. ~ "throw, hurl down"? 
2. "praise"? 

ma'u I ~ "ruler"? jB 

ma'u II "excrement" jB lex. 

ma'u — > mu I 

ma'u(m) "to vomit (bile)" O/jB G (aid) Gtn 
iter, of G 

ma'u — ► also mud'um 

ma'unnu "dwelling, habitation" Am.; < W.Sem. 

ma"uttu; pi. ma"utdti "subsistence 7 (field)" 

NA; tab m. (official in charge of m.); < mdnu; 

= NB mii'untu ? 
nidwu — ► mdmu 
mayyakum "place of copulation"? OB(Gilg.); 

< niaku ? 
mayyaltu(m), mdltum, ma" altu, NA ma" assu 

"bed; stable" O/jB, NA l."bed" [(GIS.)KI.NA] 

2. "litter, sedan (chair)"? [GIS.MAR.SUM] 

3. NA ma" assu "stable"; < ndlu 
mayyalu(m), ma" alu "bed, resting place" Bab., 

M/TMA [(GIS.)KI.NA] euph. for "grave"; m. 

mus(lt)i "bed for the night"; bit m. "bedroom"; 

OB om. (part of the gall bladder); m. Istar (a 

type of grass); < ndlu 
ma(y)yaru(m) "breaking up (of the soil)"? Bab. 

[APIN.SU.KIN] m. mahdsu "to plough (a field)"; 

"field ploughed with a m"; j/NB "plough" 

(employed for this); < neru ? 
mayyitanu "moribund"? jB; < mdtu 
mdzahu — > mezehu 



mazaqu"tosuck"jB, NA G (alu) D "suck out" 
Dtt pass, of D S "let suck"; > mizqu; muzlqdtu; 
— ► namzdqu 

mazaru (a garment) Ug.; < mazdru ? 

mazaru (to treat wool in a certain way) O/jB G; 

> mazru, mizru, mazaru? 
mazdru — > also masdrum; masdru 
maza'u I (a leather bag)? NA 

maza'u(m) II, mazu "to press, squeeze" Ass., jB 
G (OA /'//', jB alu) "press out" beer; "crush" 
drugs in oil D MA "rape" a woman N pass, of 
G "be pressed out"; > mazu I; miz'u, mezu; 
munzu'um; namzltu 

mazianu (a racecourse for horses)? MA 

mazirum — ► masirum 

mazitum — ► mazu I 

maziu (a metal vessel) NA; — ► manzu 

mazium — > also mazu I 

mazkutu "clearance of an obligation" NB; 
< zaku II 

mazlagum "trident, fork" OA 

mazpdn — ► mazzizu 

mazru ~ "felted"? jB lex.; < mazdru 

mazru tu, ma(z)zarutu, mazruttu 1. Bab. 
"basket" (of a gardener etc.) 2. NA "(area or 
state of) cultivation", esp. ina m. ; < zaru II 

mazu(m) I, OA mazium "pressed" OAkk, OA, 
jB [KAS.SUR.RA] as subst. OAkk, jB; OA f. 
mazitum "excessively pressed, cheap beer"; 
(desig. of bread); < maza'u II 

mazum II mng. unkn. OB(lit.) G (ulu) Dt jB ? 

mazu — > also manzu; maza'u II 

mazu(m) G unattested Dt Bab. "to refuse" to do 
s.th. 

mazum "fuller's stick" jB lex.; < zaru 

mazzaltu "clearing (out)" NB; < nazdlu 

mazzaltu — > also mazzaztu 

mazzalu(m) (a pouring vessel) for water, oil 
O/jB; < nazdlu 

mazzarutu — > mazrutu 

mazzassu, mazzastu — > mazzaztu 

mazzattuhlu — ► manzattuhlu 

mazzazanum, manzazdnu(m), mazzuzdnum, 
OB(Alal.) also mazzazzdnum, Susa munza= 
zdnum "security, pledge" O/jB; < mazzdzu; 

> mazzazdnutum 

mazzazanutum, manzazdnutum "(state of being 
a) pledge" OB of slave; < mazzazanum 

mazzaz pdnu(t)tu — ► mazziz pdnuttu 

mazzaztu(m), mazzastu(m), manzaz/stum; 
M/NB manzaltu, pi. freq. manzaldtu; MA 
mazzaltu, NA manlzzassu "position; post"; 
OAkk(Sum.) "office"; NB "term of office, 
shift" [KI.DAG?];. bel m. "office-holder"; jB 



mazzazu(m) 



206 



mekeku 



astr. "position" of divine constellations; 
"position" at court, in the cult etc.; of cultic 
object; MB pi. mazzaldt taqmbti "battle 
stations"; < mazzazu 

mazzazu — ► mazzizu; nanzdzu 

mazzazu(m), manzdzu(m) "position" [mostly 
KI.GUB; also NA] "abode, location" of living 
being; "position; post"; med. "faeces" or 
"flatulence"?; astr. "position" of star, planet, 
constellation, "phase" of the moon; om. (an 
ominous constellation); ext. (mark on the lobus 
sinister); "socle, stand" of stele, statue etc.; jB 
"running board" of chariot; math. 
[KI.GUB(.US)] unci.; "pledge, security" mostly 
mazzazdnum; < izuzzum 

mazzazzdnum — ► mazzazdnum 

mazziz panu(t)tu, manlzzaz pdnu(t)tu (— ► GAG 
§59a) "position as a courtier" M/NA, M/NB 

mazzizu, mazzazu, manzazu "standing" (earlier 
— ► muzzazu), in comb. M/NA, M/NB m. pdni, 
NB realized as mazpdn (a courtier) [LtJ.GUB. 
BA.IGI]; NA manzaz ekalle (a courtier); 

< izuzzum G ptcp.; — ► mazziz pdnuttu; nanzdzu 
mazzum — ► massum 

mazzu — ► manzu 

mazzuzdnum — ► mazzazdnum 

-me — ► -ma; -mi 

me — ► me'atu 

-me I after voc. and pron. "hey!" jB 

-me II forms indir. interrog. pron.s, ptcl.s etc. in 
Am., Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. etc.; — ► anummame; 
ayyisamme; ayyumme; kime; mannumme; 
matime; minumme 

-me — ► also -mi 

meamlu — » mamlu 

meammu — » mammu 

meanum, menu, minnu "tiara" O/jB; < Sum.; 
—unammu 

me'atu(m), mat, also me, O/MA metu(m); pi. 
me'dtufm), mdtu(m), Mari metum "(one) 
hundred" [ME] as numeral; followed by object 
counted or unit of measure; NB rab me 
"centurion"; OA loc.-adv. (ana) metum n "n per 
cent"; — ► metd 

meburku(m) "halfa grass" OAkk, jB; folk etym. 

< mu I + burku 

mededu "thorn" jB lex.; < ededu 

medehtum ~ "spotted condition"? of gall bladder 
OB; < edehu 

medelu "bolt, bar" M/NB [GIS.SU.DES]; < edelu 

mediru — » midru III 

medu, NA madu - "to become visible" M/NB, 
NA G stat. "is known" (-> edit II G) D "look 
after; observe"; "take friendly notice" (of s.o.); 



"look up to"; NB "watch" N NB "become 

clear" 
medutu (desig. of animal hides) Nuzi 
megeru — ► makdru I 
megiru — ► mekiru 

megutu(m) "negligence" O/jB; < egu in 
mehdndtu — ► mehu I 
mehertu, mihirtu 1. M/jB "produce, income, 

production" 2. M/jB "complaint against" 3. jB 

ina meherti- "upstream of 4. MA "(woman) 

of equal rank"; < mahdru 
mehhu — ► mihhu I. II 
mehirtu — » mdhirtu 
mehratum OA 1. "copy" of tablet, oath 

2. "equivalent" usu. in silver, < mahdru 
mehretu(m), NA, occas. NB mehratu "opposite 

side; front" Bab., NA [IGI- ; GAB] 1. after prep. 

ina m. "opposite"; ana m. "towards the 

opposite side, against"; also adi m., istu m. 

2. without prep, "opposite" 3. as prep. 
"toward(s)"; "in the presence of 4. "facade, 
frontage (of a building)"?; < mahdru 

mehritu — ► mehru 

mehru(m) I, mihru(m); pi. m. & f. [GABA.Rl] 
1. "copy, duplicate" of tablet 2. "answer" 

3. musical "refrain, response" [GIS.GI4.GAL] 

4. "equivalent", math. "equal number"; 
"(person) of equal status"; of omen 
"counterbalance" 5. NA "colleague", esp. qanni 
m. "among colleagues" 6. for — ► mehretu 
7. "weir, barrage" 8. "presentation" (type of 
offering) 9. "adversity, unfavourable incident"; 

< mahdru; > mehru, mehrutu 
mehru II (a conifer) jB, NA 

mehru(m) "(of) equal (rank)" OB, f. mehritu as 

fPN; < mehru I + -i 
mehrutu, mehruttu "equal rank" Am., Bogh.; 

< mehru I 

mehsu(m), mahsu (a metal cup with a lid)? 
O/jB; < hesu 

mehsu(m), mihsu(m) "blow; textile" [SIG] 
1. "blow, strike"; "attack" of demon 2. Nuzi 
"welt, weal" 3. "thrust, impact" of tool, weapon 

4. "prick, sting, bite" of animal, plant 

5. "doorpost"? 6. (type of engraved gem)? 
7. "(woven) fabric, textile" [TUG.SIG]; 

< mahdsu 

mehu(m) I; occas. Aram. pi. mehdndtu "storm" 
Bab. sa m. said of Adad; tib(ut) m. "onset of a 
storm"; transf. of battle etc. 

mehum II "evening (offering)" OAkk, 
OB(Elam); — ► tamhu 

mekeku (a wooden scraper) jB lex.; < ekeku 



mekelu 



207 



merestu II 



mekelu mng. unkn. jB, NA ? , NB ? G; D 

mekeru — ► makdru I 

mekiru, megiru "irrigator" jB lex.; < makdru I 

mekku, mikku (type of glass) Ug., NA 

mekku(m), mikku(m) O/jB 1. (a reed sieve) 
2. "drumstick" or "stick (for a hoop)" 3. (part 
of animal's harness) lex. 4. (type of tool) lex. 

meku(m) I (or meku(m)l) ~ "instruction"? 
OAkk.jB 

meku II, miku (a bitter plant) jB 

meku III (a type of song) jB lex. 

meku IV (a siege instrument) Bab. lex. 

meku(m) V, maku "to neglect" O/jB, Mari, Am. 
G (('//) "neglect" s.th.; "be negligent" (towards 
= ana) Dt = G ? St 1. ~ "pacify"? a country 
2. of part of the lung, mng. unkn.; > mekum; 
mikitu I; temkum 

mekum, mdkiu "inactive, idle man" OB, NA; 

< meku V 

meku — > also meku I 

mekutu(m) "want, lack, shortage" jB; < eku II 

melammu — ► melemmu 

melammu (a shining garment) jB; < melemmu 

inelelu "play" jB; < melulu 

melemmu(m), also malemmu, M/NB melammu, 
mostly pi. "fearsome radiance, aura" Bab.(lit.) 
[ME.lAm] of deity, demon; m. nasu(m) "to 
wearm."; of king m. sarrutim "royal radiance"; 
of temple; of planet Saturn; of person "glow of 
health, healthy glow"; < Sum.; > melammu 

melesu(m) ~ "excitement, exhilaration"? O/jB; 

< elesu 

melestu, melistu, meseltu (part of the tongue)? jB 

lex.; < lasu II 
inelitu, melittu "step, stairway" Mari, jB; < elu HI 
melqetu(m), Ass. malqetu (a tax or perquisite)? 

O/jB, MA [SU.TI.A]; < lequ II 
meltltu — » mestitu 
meltu — » mestu 
melu(m) "height, altitude" Bab. [SUKUD] 

1. "(measured) height" of door etc. 2. "ascent, 

way up"; "step" of staircase, ladder 3. "high 

place, hill"; < elu HI 
melu "poultice (hung round neck)" jB, NA; 

< e'elu ? 

meluhhu "of Meluhha (type)"jB lex.; < PIN 
melulayu "playful" jB lex.; < melulu + -ay (— ► 

GAG §56p) 
melultu(m) "game, play" O/jB, Nuzi; of cultic 

games, sport; transf. of battle; < melulu 
melulu(m) "to play" (with = ace.) O/jB, NA 

(pret. immelil, Ass. immalil, pi. immel(i)lu; 

imper. melil; ptcp. mummellum) irreg. vb.; 

> melelu, melultu, melulu, melulayu, mummellu 



melulu "player, actor" jB; < melulu 

memeni, also mimilenu, menimeni "somebody, 

who(so)ever" NA for — ► mamman; with neg. 

"nobody"; more rarely for mimma "something, 

any(tfiing)"; with neg. "nothing" 
memltu, memetujB lex. 1. (term for a girl) 2. (a 

plant) 
mendiu (a musical instrument) jB lex.; < Sum.? 
menestu "weakness, famine" jB; < menesu 
menesu ~ "weakness" NA; < enesu; > menestu, 

menesutu 
menesutu "(condition of) weakness" M/jB; 

< menesu 
menimeni — » memeni 
mensu — > massu 

menu(m), manu(m), OAkk mand'um "to love" 
OAkk, O/jB G (;'/(') OAkk in PN D lex. 
"flatter"?; > menum'-; minutum II; mumannum 

menum "love"? OAkk subst. in PN; < menu ? 

menu — ► meanum 

menunianum (a type of textile) OA 

meqiqdnu — » miqqdnu 

meqitu "eye paint" Am., Bogh.; < equ 

meqiu — » makku 

meqqu —* maqqu 

mequm "cosmetics" OB; < equ 

merdnu — > mirdnu I 

meranu — ► merenu 

merdnu — ► merenu 

merastum — ► merestu I 

merasu — > meresu I 

mer'atum — » mdrtu 

merditu, merdetu, marditu j/NB 1. lex. m. hurri 
mng. unkn. 2. NB (a cultic ceremony or 
procession) 3. lex. (a stepladder) [GIS.MAy]; 

< redu I 

merehtu "aggressiveness, insolence" j/NB; NB 

in PN; < erehu 
mereltu — » merestu II 
merenu(m), merdnu "nakedness" O/jB; of 

country "barrenness"; esp. loc.-adv. with pron. 

suff. merenussu "in naked, wasted state" O/jB; 

< eru III 

merenu, merdnu "naked" jB; < merenu + -I 
meressu "naked" jB; < erissi- and merenu 

(mixed form) 
merestu(m) I, OA merastum "planting, 
cultivation" OA, O/jB [APIN- ] OA "sowing 
time"; OB eqlum m. "arable land, farmland"; 

< meresu I 

merestu II, mereltu "wish, need" M/NB "daily 
needs, requisites, necessaries"; "consignment" 
of silver or commodities; NB in col. ina meresti 
"with intent, deliberately"; < eresu II 



meresu(m) I 



208 



mSs 



ineresu(m) I, Ass. merasu "cultivated land" 
Bab., M/NA "(year of) cultivation" opp. to 
fallow; bit m. "cultivated land"; < eresu I 

meresu II "wisdom" jB; < ersu I 

meresu III "desire" MB; < eresu II 

mer'etum — » mdrtu 

merginanu, me/irgirdnu, jB(Ass.) margirdnu (a 
medicinal plant) M/jB; — » merzinu 

merhum I (an official, phps.) "judge" OAkk, 
OB; OAkk in PN; > merhutum 

merhu(m) II, mirhum "ergot, stye (in the eye)" 
O/jB; < marahu 

merhu III mng. unkn. MB 

merhutum "office of the merhum" Mari; 

< merhum I 

meritu(m), miritufm), mer'ltu "pasture" O/jB; 

< re' u 

ineritu(m), miritu(m) "musical instrument from 
Mari" OAkk, O/jB; OAkk, OB in Sum. texts; 

< PIN; — » mdritu 
mer'ltu — » merltu 
mermeri mng. unkn. Ug. 
merqu — » mirqu 
merrltum mng. unkn. OB 

merru jB 1. lex. "wind" 2. (a type of song); 

<Sum. 
merru (a plant) jB lex.; var. of — » erru ? 
mersu(m), mirsu(m) (a cake) ingredients: dates, 

sesame, oil etc. [NINDA.I.DE.A/Am]; OB fPN 

Merslya "Little cake, 'Sweetie pie'"; < mardsu 
mertu — » martu 
mertu — » martu 
mertu — » martu 

mertu "scrapings"? jB; < mardtu 
meru "hundred" OB(Susa) 
merit — » mdru; miru I 
meru "pregnancy" jB; < aru IV 
mer'um — » mdru 
mer'uttum — » mdrutu 
meruwdtum — » martu 

merzinu (a medicinal plant) jB; — » merginanu 
mesallu(m), jB usu. emesallu (desig. of salt) 

O/jB; < Sum.; — » ummisallu 
mesehtu "allocation (document)" jB lex.; 

< esehu 
meseltu — » melestu 
meserru — » misarrum 

mesertu "confinement, siege" jB; < eseru II 
meseru(m) "confinement; enclosure" O/jB; OB 

"imprisonment"; bit m. (ritual enclosure); 

"(feeling of) isolation"; < eseru II 
mesitu(m) 1. OB(Susa) 'purification', "clearing" 

of claims 2. jB "water for washing"; < mesu II 



"* 



meskannu — ► musukkannu 
meskertum "barrage, dam"? OB; < sekeru I 
messam — » misissam 
messetu "distance" O/jB lex.; < nesH II 
messu (a trap)? jB lex. 
messutu "identification" MB; — » wussum 
|- mesu(m) I, Ass. mas'um, masiu(m), masd 
j a "washed, clean, pure" [LUy] of object, 
-£ substance; OB fPN Mesitum ?; of metal, 
.;-■•! mineral "refined, purified"; OB(Susa) leg. 
' "cleared^; < mesu II 

mesu(m) II, Alal., Ug. also malesu, A£&, 

masd'u(m) "to wash, clean(se), purify" G (('/;).- 

[LUH] "wash"; "wipe away" tears, blood; 

"refine" metal, mineral; OB(Susa) "clear" of 

claim Gtn iter, of G [LUtJ.MES] D "purify, 

cleanse" — » wuss&m Dt pass, of D "wash o.s." 

SD "wipe away" N of crime "be washed 

away"; > mesu I; mesitu; misu I; musdtu; 

masdtu, massutu, massu'um; nemsu, nemsetu; 

tamsutu'- 
mesu(m), mesu (a type of tree) O/jB [GIS.MES 

(— » musukkannu)]; — » mesu; misena 
mesu — » also misu I 
mesu, mdsu pi. tant. "cult, rites" M/NB; — » 

misu I 
mesu, mesu MA, j/NB G of god "to hurl down" 

human; "crush" stone, plant; "destroy" N pass. 

ofG 
misu — » also mesu 
mesukkannu — » musukkannu 
mesukku l.jB, NA (a bird, phps.) "falcon" 

2. MB (pi. f. mesukketi), Am. (bird- shaped 

jewellery) 
mesharutu — » mesherutu 
mesheris "during childhood" O/jB; < seheru 
mesherutu, mesharutu "childhood, youth" j/NB; 

< seheru 
mesiranu (desig. of horse) NA 
mesirtum in sa m. (an occupation) OB lex. 
mesiru "drawing"? NA; < eseru 
mesiuri (a plant) jB lex. 
mesu — » wisum 
mes "where?" jB; — » is; is 
mesaris — » misaris 
mesaru — » misaru 
mesarutu — » misarutu 
mesdaris — » masdara 
mesdugudu — ► mestegudd 
meseddu — » masaddu; mesetu 
mesedi — » mesetu 



meseltu(m) 



209 



mih^}uru(m) 



meseltu(m), mulaseltu, OA masdltum; pi. 

meseletu "whetstone" O/jB [NA4.BAR.DU.E ?]; 

<selu 
meselu — » masdlu; musdlu 
mesenu(m), OAkk mas'anum, OA mas' enum 

"sandal, shoe" OAkk, Bab., OA; <senu; -» 

misena 
mesequ(m) "strickle" O/jB for levelling grain in 

measuring-vessel; OB siq m. kabrimlraqqiml 

biruyim "heavy/light/medium level measure"; 

<sequ 
meseris — » misaris 
meseru — » misaru 
mesestu — » misertu 
mesetu(m), mesitu(m) - "opening, passageway 

in a wall"? OA, OB, Bogh., Ug. 1. OB, Susa 

math. mng. unkn. in surface calculations 2. OA 

(a narrow storeroom) 3. Hitt., Ug. in LU 

mesedi, mesetti (an official, phps. orig. in 

charge of a storeroom ?); rab m. (overseer of 

the/w.) 
mesgum "rabies" Mari; < segu II 
mesha(t)tu — » misihtu 
mesitu — » mesetu 
meskalallii (a table) lex.; < Sum. 
meskalu (a type of door) jB lex. 
meski (a type of door) jB lex. 
meslu — » mislu 
meslum — » maslu 

mesretu pi. tant. "limbs" M/NB [A.UR]; < saru II 
mesritu — » masritu 
mesru — » masru 
mestaku — » mastaku 
mestegudu, mestegurru, mestldugudu (a heavy 

table) jB lex.; < Sum. 
mestitu, melaltitu - "assignment, ration" j/NB; 

< setu II; — » mestu 3 
mestu(m), meltu, mistu, maslltu Bab. 1. "drying 

(process); dried state", sir m. "dried meat"; 

nun(e) m. "dried fish" 2. jB "bedstead"? 3. NB 

= mestitu; < setu II 
mesu — » mesu II 

mesu (a club of mesu wood)? jB 
mesu — » also mesu; misu 
mesu(m), mesu "to disregard, scorn" Bab. 

G (pret. imes, imis, im'es) "neglect" deity, 

human; "fail" in o.'s duty Gtn iter, of G D = G 

N "be neglected"; > temesu 
mesu — » also mesu 
mesurru (a topog. term) NA 
meta "a hundred times" OA; -» me'atu 
metaqtu — » meteqtu 
metaqu — » metequ 



metellu "lordship, power" jB; < etellu; — ► mezezu 
metellutu(m) "rulership, power of a ruler" O/jB; 

< etellu 

metegto;' NA metaqtu "march-past, advance" 

MB, NA; < etequ 
metequ(m), NA metaqu "route, passage" O/jB, 

NA of troops, vehicles; < etequ 
metu — » me'atu; mitu 
metum — » me'atu 
metenu(m) ~ "flour bin" OAkk(Sum.), O/jB; 

< firm 

metlutu "manhood" M/jB; < etlu 

metu (a divine garment in the cult) NB 

metu — » also mittu 

me'um (a bird) OB 

mezehu, meldzahu "sash" j/NB, for divine 
statues, priests; < ezehu 

mezezu ~ "wrath, fury" M/jB; < ezezu; — » metellu 

mezu "beer brewer" Bab. lex.; < mazd'u II 

mezura, misuru (material of armour) Nuzi; — » 
mizru 

-mi, -me suff. in citation of dir. speech (— » GAG 
§123c) 

-mi, -me ptcl. in interrog. clauses 

middu — » mddu 

miammu — » mimmu 

middatu(m), mindatu(m), maddatu "measure" 
of volume, length, area, time Bab., NA qan m. 
"measuring reed"; m. sa ammati sa en (a 
bronze measure of 1 cubit); "dimension, 
measure" of body, limb; < madddu I 

midde — » minde 

middu h/'ru — » minduhru 

midinu — » mindinu 

midirtu; pi. midrdti "garden plot" jB; < midru I 

midlu "process of salting; salt meat" Bab. lex., 
NA; < maddlu 

midru(m) I (a type of land) OA, Ug., jB; 
> midirtu 

midru II (a disease)? jB; < maddru II ? 

midru III, mediru (a type of bread) M/NA 

migirtu — » magirtum 

migru(m) "consent, approval, agreement" OB 
ina m., jB ana m. "voluntarily"; MA Id migir 
"against o.'s will"; j/NB ina migir libbi 
"gladly"; OA pi. f. ina migrdti "on (s.o.'s own) 
accord, initiative"; OB in PN; "who is favoured 
by, favourite of a deity etc. OAkk, OB in PN; 
of king; < magdru 

mihhu(m) I, mehhu(m), mihhatu (a type of beer) 
used for libations O/jB, NA; < mahdhu 

mihhu II, mehhu mng. unkn. jB 

mihhuru(m)"offering" OAkk(Sum.), OB, NB; 

< mahdru D (-» GAG §55o) 



mihjstu 



210 



minitu(m) 



mihiltu — » mihistu 

mihirtu — » mehertu 

mihistu, mihislltu; pi. mihsdtu, NB also mihiletu 
"strike" M/NB 1. "blow; wound"; jB river 
name iA Mihsat-Era; (an abrasion on the gall 
bladder) 2. "(cuneiform) wedge; sign" 
[GU/GU.SUM]; < mahdsu 

mihru — » mehru I 

mihsu — » mehsu 

mikdu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mikiltu "percentage due on produce"? MB; 

< makdsu ? 

mikitu I "neglect, absence"? j/NB; < rneku V 
mikitu(m) II (or miqitu(m)) mng. unkn. OB, 

Am. 
mikku — » mekku 
mikku — » mekku 
miklu mng. unkn. NA 
mikru(m) I "irrigation; irrigated land" O/jB; 

< makdru I 

mikru II (or miqru) "(horse's) girth-strap"? 
Nuzi, jB 

miksu(m); pi. f. & m. "tax (on produce)" Bab., 
M/NA [NIG.KUD.DA] 1. OB "due" payable by 
tenant 2. "duty, tax"; MB bit m. "tax depot"; 
M/NA "customs duty"; m. kdre nebere "quay 
and ferry dues"; NB (shipping dues), ('")ra/> 
m. "tax collector, inspector"; < makdsu 

mikum ~ "seductive (feminine) charm(s)" OB 
of Istar 

mila, mili "times" Am. in 7 u 7 m.; < W.Sem. 

mildu — » wildum 

milhu "extraction, tearing out" NA; < maldhu IV 

nj/7/m — » also m/7'w 

mi7i — » mila 

milihtu "(cattle) theft"? jB; < milhu 

miliktum "advice" OB(lit.); < maldku II 

militu "corpulence" OB; < malu IV 

milku(m); pi. f. "advice, counsel; resolution, 
intelligence" [GALGA] "advice" given by deity, 
in PN; NB ina zeri Id m. "with unconsidered 
hate"; of person, king "reason"; "council", jB 
hit m. "council hall"; "plan, decision"; 

< maldku II 

millatum "looting, pillage" OB om.; < maldlu I 

millu mng. unkn. jB 

miltu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < maldtu 

milu(m), NA mil'u; pi. milu, NA mil' dni Bab., 
NA 1. "high water, flood(ing)" [ILLU; A.ZI.GA; 
A.MAy] mil kissati "maximum level of high 
water"; transf. m. beri "mile-high flood" of 
speech 2. "fullness" m. irti(m) 'fullness of the 



chest' = "success"; OB ina mil libbi 
"lightheartedly"?; < malu IV; > milutum 

mil'u, milhu f. "saltpetre" M/jB, NA 
[(NA4.)AN.NE] 

mil'u — » also milu 

milutum in me miluti "flood waters" OB math.; 

< milu 
mimelinu — » memeni 

mimma, Am., Nuzi, NB also mimmuli and sim. 
"anything, something; everything, all" [NIG. 
NAM] 1. "something"; m. + subst. "any"; m. Id, 
m. ul "nothing; not at all"; adv. m. Id m. 
"somehow" 2. "every(thing), total(ly), all" 
rarely of persons; m. annim "all this"; m. sa "all 
that" 3. as rel. pron. "all that"; m. sumsu 
"anything", m. s. ul(a), Id "nothing at all" 
4. Nuzi, Am., Ug. mimmu/i/a sumlnsu often 
with second pron. suff. "all that belongs to"; 

< min(u) I + -ma; > mimmu; NA — » memeni 
mimmamu/a/i "everything, all" 0/jB(lit.); 

< mimma 
mimmi — » mimma 
mimmu — » mimma; mimmu 

mimmu, Am. also miammu, partly declined 
1. before gen. or pron. suff. "all, anything (of)" 
possessions; "all things", OAkk in PN; OA 
"anything of/from" 2. rarely absol. "all, 
everything"; m. mala "all that" 3. as rel. pron. 
"all that"; "whatever"; < mimma (-» GAG 
§48f) 

-min ptcl. indicating unreality OA, esp. in condit. 
and final clauses; summa-min "if it were 
that..." (-» GAG §§152d, 162a); O/jB -» 
-man 

minam — » minu I 

minanu ~ "reckoned"? jB; < manu IV ? 

mindtu — » minitu 

mindatu — » middatu 

minde, midde, also manda "perhaps" Bab., Am., 
Bogh.; OB etc. in PN; < min ide "what do I 
know?"; Mari etc. — » wuddi 

mindinu(m), midinu(m) and sim. (a wild cat, 
phps.) "tiger" or "cheetah" O/jB [UR. 
SUB5(=NTiMUN)] 

mindu I (a plant) jB lex. 

mindu II "measured amount, ration" NB; bel m. 
"quartermaster"?; < madddu I 

mindu — » also mundu 

minduhru, midduhl'ru "residue, sediment"? 
MAJB? 

minihu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

minitu(m); pi. OB milanidtum, Mari minetum, 
later mindtu "measure, dimension" Bab., NA 
[SID] 1. sg. jB "reckoning"; NB astr. "measur- 



211 



misu(m) I 



able part" 2. pi. "(normal) dimensions"; eli m. 
"beyond measure"; ana m. "in relation to, 
according to"; NB tupsar mindti "architect"?; 
"(period of) time, moment" 3. pi. "limbs, 
physique" [UB.NIGIN/NIGIN.NA]; < manu IV 

minnu — » mednum; minu II 

minsu, minsi "why?" M/NB(lit.); NB in PN; 

< min(u) I + -su(m); — ► missum 
minsu — » minu I; missum 

minu "who?" Am.; < W.Sem. 

minu (a pustule)? jB lex. 

minu(m) I, Bab. mostly minu(m) "what?" [math. 
EN.NAM; M/NB also EN(.NA)] OAkk, OB, 
MA, Nuzi, NB in PN; with ina, OB imminim, 
MB ina m. "with what?", jB immine "how, by 
what means?"; ana m. (MA ana'ini), assum m. 
and sim., OB also minam "why?"; with pron. 
suff.; milium sa "what is it that?"; NA, NB 
before rel. clause m. sa, NB also m. ki "what- 
ever; all that"; > minsu, missum; minumme; 
mimma, mimmu, mimmdmu; minde; munu I; — » 
ammini; mdminu; missam 

minu(m) II, NA also minnu "number" Bab., NA; 
(analinalsa) Id m. "without number, countless"; 
NB "payment (by instalments)"?; < manu IV; 
— » almin 

minu — » minu I 

minumme "all (of), each (of)" MB(Alal.), Am., 
Nuzi, Bogh., Ug. occas. for — » minima; m. sa 
"all that"; Bogh. "whatever; everything that"; 

< minu I + -me II; — » mannumme 
minutu(m)I Bab., M/NA [SITI(.MA)] 

1. "count(ing); number" 2. math, "calculation" 
3. astr. "calculated time", esp. Id m. of 
unexpected appearance 4.jB m. nikkassi 
"settlement (of accounts)" 5. "recitation" of 
incantation 6. "form, physique"; < manu IV; — » 
manutu 
minutum II "desire, love" OB lex.; < menu 
minzer, minzahar (a term for a horse) MB; 

< Kass. 

minzu mng. unkn. MB 

mipdru — » gipdru 

miqittu(m) "(down)fall" [RI.RI.GA; SUB] "col- 
lapse" of building; "strike (of lightning)"; 
"attack (of disease)"; "fallen (soldier), corpse"; 
"deaths of livestock, epidemic (among 
animals)"; "dead animal; carcass"; < miqtu 

miqitu — » mikitu II 

miqqanu, meqiqdnu (an insect, phps.) "moth" 
JB 

miqqu "hole, cavity" jB lex. 

miqru — » mikru II 



miqtu(m); pi. miqtu "fall" [SUB]; "collapse" of 
wall; OB, NA (pi. miqtdni) "driftwood", 
"(plant) detritus" on river; "fall" of meteor, star, 
OB miqit parzillim "fallen piece of (meteoric) 
iron"; "incidence" of fire, Gira, rit. miqit me u 
isdti "onset of water and fire"; OA miqit 
niggallim 'falling of the sickles' i.e. "(start of) 
harvest"; jB "dry rot" on wall; OA "what fell to 
(s.o.)", i.e. money, profit; miqit pt(m) 'what fell 
from the mouth' = "impudence, effrontery", m. 
pi rasu "to become impudent"; m. temi 
"despair; loss of reason"; in desig. of diseases 
"failure"? of part of the liver; m. erri, m. libbi 
(intestinal diseases), m. or miqit same 'fallen 
from the sky', phps. "falling sickness, 
epilepsy"? [AN.TA.SUB.BA; — » antasubbu]; 
name of demon Miqit; < maqdtu 

miranu(m) I, merdnu(m), later also murdnu 
"young dog, puppy" OAkk, Bab. [UR.TUR 
(.RA)]; "cub" of lion or hyaena; Nuzi transf. in 
PN; < muru 

miranu II (a plant) jB lex. 

mirgiranu — » mergindnu 

mirgu (an alliaceous plant, phps.) "leek" j/NB 

mirhum — » merhu II 

miriqtu(m) I; pi. mirqetu "damaged part 

building O/jB; < mardqu 
. miriqtum II (a container) OP ' Uf-K d V? S&vd r«-f 

miritu — » meritu 

mirqu, merqu 1. MB (a type of flour) 2. jB/NA 
(a fine glass); < mardqu 

mirsu — » mersu 

mirtum (an agricultural tool) OB 

mirtum "breeding cow" OB; < miru I 

miru(m) I, meru "breeding bull" O/jB; OB in 
Sum. texts only; of deity; OB(Susa) "breeding 
ram ? "; > mirtum 

miru II "fattening (process)" j/NB; < maru II 

miru III, muru(m) (part of the intestines) O/jB 

miru IV mng. unkn. jB lex. 

mirutu in ana miruti "for viewing, to see" (the 
king) Am.; < W.Sem.? 

misarrum, mileserru(m), also musarrum; pi. m. 
& f. "belt" [KUS.E.IB]; also "(metal) band" 
decorating doors 

misissam, messam "sheep's stomach" Bogh., jB 
lex. 

misissanu (a plant) jB lex.; < misissu 

misissu, misissu, MB missam in m. tdmti 
"meerschaum, sepiolite" M/jB 

missam — » misissu 

missatu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

misu(m) I, mesu "washing; purification; (a type 
of refined metal)" O/jB [LUH] kasap m. 



of 

>:/o r"4 



irnsum II 



212 



mitguru(m) 



"refined silver"; mis qdte "(ritual) hand- 
washing"; mis pi "mouth-washing" [KA.LUg. 
yu/U.DA] of sacrificial animal; of human; of 
divine statue; < mesu II; — ► mesu 

misum II (a kind of fish) OB 

misuru — » mezura 

misaru, misirru — » misru 

misitum "equivalent" OB; < masu 

misratu — ► isratu 

misru(m), misirru, misaru; pi. m. & f. Bab., 
M/NA 1. "border, boundary"; NB bel m. 
"(adjoining) neighbour"; "boundary mark"; 
"band, dividing line" on figurine etc.; jB pi. f. 
"limit" of time (— » masdru D) 2. "territory, 
region"; ana m. mdti turru "to reconquer" 
3. M/NA (an ornament); > masdru ? 

misru — ► musru 

misu — » wisum 

misu tarn ma ~ "as a small company"? Am.; 

< wisum 
misahu — » mishu I. II 
misaris — ► isaris 

misaris, mllesaleris "in justice, justly" M/jB; 

< misaru 
mlsarru — » misaru 

misartu(m) "justice" OAkk, jB; OAkk as PN; 

< misaru ? 

misaru NB for — » isaru I 

misaru(m), also mesa/eru(m), mlsarru(m) 
"justice" [NIG.SI.sA] 1. of deity, esp. Samas; as 
DN 2. m. sakdnu(m) "to establish just order, 
bring about justice"; OB (royal decree 
promulgating justice) 3. OB(Alal.) arah m. (a 
month) 4. OB (a part of the body)?; < eseru; 
— » mlsartu 

misarutu in m. aldku "to obtain justice" jB 
[NIG.SI.SA- ]; < misaru 

misdu(m) 1. OB (part of a doorpost) 2.jB rit. 
"massage"; < masddu 

misertu(m), misirtum, NB melisestu (a small 
net) Bab. lex. ; < masdru ? 

misertu — » also misirtu 

misertu(m), mlsirtu(m) 1. 0/jB lex. "standard 
^(-measure, vessel (holding 1 sila)" 2. OB 
(regular festival contribution of flour); < eseru 

misestu — » misertu 

mise'tu(m) "forcible removal; pillage" Ass., 
M/jB; < masd'u 

misha(t)tu — » misihtu 

mishu I, misahu "measured area" for building 
assignment NB; < masdhu I 

mishu II, misahu "flash, illumination" jB; ~ 
"train" of meteor, star; "glitter" of fabric; 
"glow" of person; < masdhu II 



mishu III mng. unkn. jB rit. 

misihtu, mi/esha(t)tu; pi. mishdtu "measurement; 

dimension" j/NB "size, length" of building; 

"distance"; NB "measured (plot)" of land; 

< masdhu I 
misirtu(m), misertu(m) "produce (of the sea and 

rivers)" O/jB 
misirtum — » also misertu 



misirtu - 
misissu 



• misertu 

♦ misissu 



misittu "(medical) stroke" j/NB "apoplectic 
stroke; coronary"; of parts of the body 
"paralysis (caused by a stroke)"; m. rdbisi 
(stroke caused by the r. demon); < masddu 

misitu "oblivion" jB; < masu II 

misitum "confusion" OB; < eM IV 

misla adv. "in half OA; < mislu 

mislanu pi. tant. 1. "half (shares)" of profit O/jB 
[SU.RI.A; also IGI.2.GAL.LA.A 7 ] 2. (a drainage 
tile) lex.; < mislu 

mislu(m), meslu; pi. m. & f. "half; middle, 
centre" [BAR]; OB loc.-adv. milium "half; NA 
pi. f. ina mesldti sa MN "in mid-MN"; 

< masdlu; > misla, mislanu 
mismunnu "sealed bulla" Nuzi; < Hurr. 
misqu (a drinking vessel)? Ug.; < Ug. 
missam "where to?"? jB lex.; — » ayyisa; mlnu I 
missum, minium "why?" OAkk, OA; OB lex.; 

OAkk in PN; < mlnu I; — ► ammlni; minsu (— ► 

GAG §67g) 
missu — * also mlnu I 
missulatam mng. unkn. Mari 
missulu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < masdlu Gt ? 
mistannu "head money, reward (for capture)" 

MB( Alal.); < Indo-Iran.? 
mistu —* mestu 

misu "army, troops" Am.; < Eg. 
misu I, mesu 1. MB "oblivion" 2. NB (joint of 

meat)?; < masu II 
misu II "night" Am.; — » musu 
misuhhu (a dye)? Nuzi, for textiles; < Hurr. 
misu rum I (an object in a temple)? OA 
misuru m II (an official)? Nuzi 
misutu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < masu II ? 
mitahsutu — » mithusutu 
mitanu "deceased" NB; < mltu + -an + -/ 
miteku (a weapon)? jB lex. 
mitgaru "favourable, propitious" j/NB [SE.GA]; 

< magdru Gt 

mitgurtu(m) "agreement, mutual understanding" 
Bab. [SE.SE.GA; MUNUS.SE] Id m. "discord; 
disobedience"; < magdru Gt 

mitguru(m) 1. OB "(previously) agreed"? 
2. Bogh., jB "harmonious"; < magdru Gt 



miUjaris 



213 



muballi(t)tum 



mitharis "in the same manner" O/jB [TES.Bl] to 
take, distribute, pay "in equal shares"; 
"simultaneously"; "similarly"; "altogether, 
totally"; < mithdru 

mithartu(m) 1. OB math, "(side of a) square" 
[IB.SA; LAGAB 7 ] 2. O/jB "totality", "mankind"; 
mitharta "altogether"; < mithdru 

mitharu(m) "corresponding (to one another); 
like (one another)" [LAGAB]; "symmetric(al), 
proportionate, of the same size" [tes.BI.ME5]; 
of fever "equally high"; "uniform, homo- 
geneous, even"; "of equal rank, equivocal"; 
"square": of features "regular", OAkk also in 
PN; "proportionate to"; M/NA ana mithdr st. 
abs. "equally, one-to-one"; of periods of time 
"(of) equal (length)"; Id m. "diverse, of uneven 
quality" [NU.TES.A]; < mahdru 

mitha(s)sutu — » mithusutu 

mithummu —* muthummu 

mithurtu "convergence, coincidence; harmony" 
j/NB astr. "conjunction, opposition" of celestial 
bodies; "joining of waters"; lisdn m. "harmony 
of languages", DN sdniq(u) m. "who controls 
the m." of languages, of Nabu, Ninurta, Nergal; 
"(harmonious) mankind"?; < mahdru 

mithusu "fight, combat" M/jB, NA; also ref. to 
hunting; < mahdsu Gt 

mithusutu, NA also mitha(s)sutu, mitahsutu 
"battie" jB/NA; with sederu "to line up (troops) 
for combat"; with epesu "to fight, wage war"; 

< mithusu 
mitinnu —* mltu 

Mitirunnu (a month) Nuzi; < Hurr. 

mitluktu "advice, deliberation" j/NB; 

< maldku II 

initluku "circumspect, prudent" j/NB; 

< maldku II 

initru I "strong, powerful" jB, of opponent 

mitru II 1. jB lex. (a reed)? 2. Nuzi (a tree)? 

initru (a garment)? MB; < mudru or Ug.? 

mitu(m), Ass. metu(m), Nuzi once mitinnu 
"dead" [OS, NB often wr. GAM; BA.OS] transf. 
of the (politically) powerless, of city or 
country; "dead person; dead animal"; "appar- 
ition of dead person"; OA "insolvent"; Emar pi. 
(as if subst.) mltu, of ancestors; < mdtu; 
> mltdnu, mltutu, mltutis, mltutdn 

mitutan "the dead (gener.)" NB; <mltu; -» 
kullatdn 

mitutis "like death" jB in iksuddu {=kasdduG) 
mltutis "they became (still) as death"; < mltutu 

mitutu(m) "(state of) death" Bab., NA; "(form 
of) death" in m. qdtesulramannisu "suicide"; 

< mltu; > mltutis 
mitetu — > mitltu 



mitirtu, also mitru, jB also mitratu "watercourse, 
canal; a type of irrigation" M/jB 

mititu(m), mitetufm), Nuzi also mitutu "decrease, 
reduction" Bab., M/NA; "reduced yield, 
shortfall"; "shortage; loss" of troops, animals, 
materials; "under-performance" of work; OB 
"flaking, peeling off of colour, coating; NB 
mitltl "my humble self; < matu II 

mitratu —* mitirtu 

mitru — » mitirtu 

mittu(m), mlletu (a divine weapon) OAkk, O/jB, 
NA [GIS.TUKUL.DINGIR] OAkk, OB in Sum. 
texts; also as cultic object 

mitu(m) 1. O/jB "low level" of water 2. OB 
"loss" during transport; < matu II 

mltu —* also mittu 

mitutu — » mitltu 

miya, mlyati, ema'e "who?" Am.; < W.Sem. 

mizqu (a bowl)? Ug., jB; < mazdqu 

mizru "felt"? jB lex.; < mazdru; -* mezura 

miz'u, mlzu, OB(Alal.) mizzu* (a sweet alco- 
holic drink) jB, NA; < mazd'u II 

-mu — » -ma 

mu — » muk I 

mu I, OAkk, OA md'u pi. tant. "water" 
[A(.MES); also A.HI.A] me kabrutim "mass of 
water"; m. ndri "river water", m. musi "dew"; 
in names of canals; "watering place"; rit. me 
qdti "water for (washing) the hands"; OA sa 
md'lsu (desig. of gold, textiles); of other 
liquids: "(body) fluid(s), secretion", "amniotic 
fluid", me marti "gall"; "sap" of plant; me seri 
"meat broth"; in representations as a decorative 
element; — * mdmu 

mu II pi. tant. 7 "(cultic, cosmic) order, rules" 
Bab.; OB in PN; < Sum.; -> ella-me 

mu III 'm«-word' jB lex.; desig. of ptcp.s; < mu- 

mu IV sg. (an object) OB 

mu'arrirum "auxiliary force" Mari; < na'arruru 

mu'aru"man"jB 

muasu "to check"? NA; < Aram. 

muatis "towards death" OA; < mdtu 

mudtu — » mdtu 

mua'um in Id m. "not to want (to)" OA G after 
infin.; after subst. in ace. rare Gtn iter, of G; — » 
lemu II 

mubabbilum; pi. mubabbilutu "juggler" or 
"acrobat"? OB; < babalu D; > mubabbilutum 

mubabbilutum "role of juggler" Mari; 

< mubabbilum 

muballitanu "that keeps alive; maintainer" MA; 

< baldtu II D 

muballi(t)tum mostly f. 1. OB "cage" for a lion 
2. Mari (part of a canal, phps.) "weir" 3. lex. 



mubannltum 



214 



mugannisum 



"life ? -boat" 4. Am. "smelling bottle" 5. OB as 

fPN; < baldtu II D 
mubannitum "benefactress" OB; < banu II D 
mubannu, mubennu; pi. mubanni, Aram. 

mubanniya 'who beautifies', "preparer of 

offering tables"? j/NB [LU.DIM] i.e. temple 

cook; < banu II D 
mubannutu "office of the mubannu" NB; 

< band II D 

mubarrimu "worker of coloured textiles" NA 

lex.; < bardmu I D 
mubarritum "observation corps"? Mari; 

< baru I D 

mubarru 1. "commentary"? 2. (a temple 7 
official) NB; Bogh. rab m. "overseer of the 
m."; < bam I D; — > mubirru 

mubassiru(m), NA also mupassiru; pi. 
mubassiru "messenger" Mari, NA; < bussuru 

mubattiru (a worm or grub)? jB; < hutturu II 

mubbibum; pi. mubbibu "census official" Mari; 

< ebebu D 

mubbirtu "(female) accuser" NA; < abdrn III 

mabe'isu — ► mubesu 

mitbeimu — ► mubannu 

mubesu, mubessu 1 , mube'isu'- "implement for 

stirring" MA; < besu D 
mube'u (or mupe'u) (an official, phps.) "inves- 
tigator" Nuzi in LU m.; < bu'u II ? 
mubirru/u (a prof.) MB; = mubarru ? 
mubu "thickness" NA; < ebu II 
mudaburu, mudabiri — ► madbaru 
mudadum "beloved" OB as PN only; < W. 

Sem.?; — ► madddu II 
mudakkiu (a (metal) object) NA; < deku II D ? 
mudakku — ► mudekku 
mudallihu (an official)? NB; < dalahu 
mudammiq(a)tu(m) (a wooden implement) 

O/jB, NA; < damdqu D 
mudammiqu (a craftsman)? Mari; < damdqu D 
inudanutu in Id m. "ignorance" NA; < mudu 
mudarriktu "woman thresher" NA; <dardku 

HID 
mudasu(m) "list of names, register" O/jB [MU. 

DA.SA]; < Sum. 
inudatu (payment due from a mudu) Ug.; 

< mudu 
muda'um — ► mudu 
inudayu, mudu (a wooden object) jB lex.; — ► 

amuddya 
mudbaru — ► madbaru 
muddu — ► mudu; mundu 
muddu "deficit, arrears"? Nuzi; — ► mHfiJ 
muddu — ► also njwdK 



muddultu — ► mundultu 

muddulu(m), mundulu "salted 7 (meat)" OAkk 
(Sum.), jB; < maddlu D 

mudekku, mudakku ~ "inciter, agitator"? MB; 

< <fe/ti3 II D 

mudessu "life-giver" OB lex.; < rfeiiJ D 
mudidlu, mudidlu, mudillulu "individual line" jB 
lex. of text 

mudissum "deceptive, oppressive"? OB lex.; 

< ddsu D 

mudru (a mourning garment)? jB lex.; < Sum.; 
= MB mitru ? 

mudu (or muddu), esp. m. sarri (a courtier), 
"acquaintance" of the king Ug.; > mudatu; — ► 
mudu 

mudum (a garment) OAkk(Sum.); < Sum.? 

mudu — ► also muddyu 

mudu(m), OAkk muda'um, OA mudi'um, 
occas. muddu; pi. mudu, NB muddne; f. st. 
constr. mudeat, muddt "knowing, wise" 
[(GAL.)ZU] with dependent gen. "knowing, 
aware of (s.th.)"; "experienced"; mudut qabli, 
tdhdzi "battle-tested, experienced in combat" 
soldiers; m. kaldma etc. "omniscient" in divine 
and royal epith.s; absol. "intelligent, knowing"; 
"competent, well-versed"; "expert"; "acquain- 
tance"?; Id m. "stupid, ignorant"; stat. "is 
learned" OAkk in PN; "is versed" (in = ace); 

< edu II G ptcp.; > miidutu, muddnutu; — ► 
mudu 

mu du -* mu uddu 

mudulu (a pole)? jB lex.; < Sum. 

mudutu(m) "knowledge, awareness (of s.th.)" 

Bab.; < mudu 
mu'erru(m), muwerrum ~ "leader (of an 

assembly)" O/jB [GAL.UKKIN.NA; (LU.)A.GAL] 

(an official); of deities, esp. Papsukal; OB as 

PN; < wdrum D 
mu'errutu "leadership (of an assembly); 

command" M/NB; of kings; of Marduk; 

< mu'erru 

mu'ertum; OB pi. mu'eretum "order, com- 
mission" for goods ? OA, OB; < wdrum 
mugabbu — ► mukabbu 
mugallitu(m) "troublemaker; intimidator" Bab.; 

< galdtu D 

mugammertu 'that gathers'?, i.e. "the sea" jB 

lex.; < gamdru II D 
mugammerum "collector" of soldiers, i.e. 

"conscription officer"? OB; < gamdru II D 
mugannisum ~ "haughty, sneering person" OB 

lex.; < gandsu D 
mugarru — > magarru 



mugdasru 



215 



mukkidu 



mugdasru, mugdesru "powerful" j/NB; 

< gasdru Gt 

mugerru "two-wheeled vehicle, chariot; wheel" 
M/NA [GIS.GIGIR ?]; nangar m. "cartwright"; 

< qardru ?; — > magarru 
muggu — > mungu 

mugguru D "to tear down" NA, building; 

< Aram. 

muggusu(m) D mng. unkn. O/jB 

mugi(l)lu (a container)? MA in m. sa urqe "m. 
of greens" 

mugu, Bab. mostly mungu in rab m. (a high 
official) NA, NB 

mugu — > also mungu 

mugubbu — > immugubbu 

muhabbiltu 'that damages', i.e. (a bad omen)? 
jB"; < habdlu II D 

muhaddum "who gives delight, joy" OB as PN 
only; < hadu III D 

muha"idu "watcher" jB lex.; < hidtu D 

muhalum (a foodstuff)? OA 

muharrisu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < hardsu I or 
lib 

muhattipum mng. unkn. OB; < batdpu D 

muhessu mng. unkn. jB lex.; < hasu IV D 

muhhelsitum "slippery ground" OB; < nehelsu 

muhhu(m) "skull; top" from OAkk on [UGU] 
1. as subst. "skull", med. also "brain"; "surface" 
of organs; "upper part" of object; OB math, 
(upper width or surface-area of a body) 2. after 
prep. (— > GAG §115h): ina muhhi, muh "on, 
in, on top of; "over, above"; of debt, duty 
"incumbent on", OB ina m. PN sasum "to call 
s.o. to account"; talk, laugh, write "about"; live 
"at s.o.'s expense" 3. "with regard to, con- 
cerning; on account of; NB "in accordance 
with"; Am. often muhhi on its own 4. ana m. 
"in addition to", math, "plus", "with respect to", 
"toward(s)"; "until"; "onto" (s.th. or s.o.); 
"per"; "against"; "referring to" 5. M/NA sa 
muhhi X "official in charge of X" 6. as adv. 
M/NB, NA: ina m. "(up)on it"; "over, above 
it"; "in addition"; "about it, on that subject"; ana 
m. "upon it"; "in addition" 

muhhu — > niahhu 

muhhuris, NA mahhuris "as an offering" jB, 
NA(roy. inscr.); < mahdru D 

muhhurtu, OA ma(h)hurtum "opposite, facing 
(side)" OA, M/jB; < mahdru D 

muhhuru "offering" MA, jB; MA Muhhur-ili 
(8th 7 Ass. month); <mahdruD; OA -> 
mahhuru 

muhhusu; f. muhhuslstu "provided with 
fittings"? jB lex.; < mahdsu D 



muhhutum — > mahhutu 

muhru l.jB (an offering) 2. NA "appeal"; (a 

prayer) 3.JB (a cultic building) [KUN.SAG 

(.GA)]; < mahdru 
muhru — > mahru I 

muh tan bu "growing" jB; < handbu Gt 
muhterkun "female (animal)" jB lex.; < Elam. 
muhtillu (a garment) M/NB 
muhurra'um "receipt" of commodities OAkk; 

< mahdru 

mu'irtu ~ "subject, dependant"? Bogh.(Hitt.) 
mu'irtuttu ~ "government, administration" 

Bogh.(Hitt.) 
muk I, muku, also mu NA after 1 sg. to introduce 

dir. speech; — > md; nuk I 
muk II (a plant) jB lex. 
mukabbirum, muktabbirum "boaster, exag- 

gerator" OB lex.; < kabdru D, Dtn 
mukabbu, mugabbu "stitcher, tailor" j/NB 

[LU.TVJG.KAL(.KAL)]; < kubbu II 
mukallimtu "scholarly commentary" j/NB, NA 

[NIG.PA.DA]; NB (an extract from the land 

register)?; < kullumu 
mukallu — > mukkallu 
mukannisum "subjugator, subduer" OB, MA in 

PN; < kandsu I D 
mukanu(m) (part of a loom)? O/jB 
mukanzibtu (a water clock) jB lex.; 

< kazdbu I D 

mukarrisu, NB mukarrisu (a metal vessel for 

liquids) NA, NB; < kardsu D? 
mukarsitu (a metal item, phps.) "cooler" NB; 

< kasu III D ? 

mukassidu "pursuer, persecutor"; < kasddu D 
mukattimtu l.jB rit. (a net)? 2.jB lex. (desig. 

of a door); < katdmu D; — > kdtimtu 
mukiddum mng. unkn. OB lex.; < kddu I or 

II D 
mukillu(m), st. constr. mukil "holder, support, 

grip" Bab. 1. of objects (a vessel stand); m. 

dalti 'holder of a door'; m. sipri (a sleeve)?; m. 

resi(m) (part of the liver) 2. of person, deity, 

demon: m. abbuti "intercessor, advocate"; m. 

appdti, asdti "chariot driver, rein-holder"; m. 

bdbi(m) "gatekeeper"; m. resi(m) "constant 

attendant", m. res damiqtim "good spirit", m. 

res lemutti(m) "evil spirit" [SAG.0UL.yA.ZA]; 

< kullu in 

mukinnu(m) "witness" Bab.; NB m. sarri mng. 

unkn.; < kdnu D 
mukinnutu "testimony, evidence" j/NB, NA; 

< kanu D 

mu(k)kallu, gukallu (a priest or scholar) jB 
mukkidu jB lex., syn. of ukkudu 



mukku 



216 



muna(m)mu 



mukku, muqqu "poor quality, waste wool" O/jB 

lex.; < Sum. 
muklalu — » maklalu 
mukru (or muqru) (a loincloth) lex. 
muktabbirum — » mukabbirum 
lnuktassassu "overpowering" jB; < kasdsu I Rtn 
muku —* muk I 
mulabbitu mng. unkn. jB 
Mulahhisu "Whisperer" as name of god jB/NA; 

< lahdsu D 

mulammidu "master (of an apprentice)" jB lex.; 

< lamddu D 

mulappitu (an implement) NA; < lapdtu D 
mula'u(m) ~ "complementary payment" to fill a 

quota O/M A; < malu IV 
muldamu (or muldamulu) (an invertebrate) 

Bab. lex., syn. oilummu 
muligu —* mulugu 
mulku "kingship"? Am.; < W.Sem. 
mullahtu — » mallahtu 
mullilu(m) "purifier" O/jB, NA 1. (a priest) 2. (a 

cultic' cleaning implement) [SANGA4]; < elelu 

II D 
mullitum "she who raises" OB of Istar in fPN; 

< elu III D 

mullu(m) I "filling (up), replenishment" Bab., 
Nuzi, Bogh. "compensation"; NB m. mullu "to 
make compensation (for)"; Ug. "compensation 
(blood money)"; < malu IV D 

mullu(m) II (an object) OB; < Sum. 

mulluqtum mng. unkn. OB in fPN 

mullusum "with the hair plucked/torn out" 
OAkk in PN; < maldsu 

mullutu (a desig. of a person) jB lex. 

mulmullu, malmallu "arrow" M/NA, M/jB 

mult. . . — » must. . . 

multarrihu —* mustarhu; mustarrihu 

multu —* mustu 

mulu "fullness" O/MB in PN; < malu IV 

inulu(m) O/jB, Bogh., NA [DU6] 1. "height" 
2. "rise, hill(ock)"; Mari, of acropolis 3. "climb, 
ascent"; < elu III 

mulugu, muligu (a type of dowry) M/NB, Nuzi 

inulugutu ~ mulugu Nuzi 

muluhhu 'tearing out' jB om. uncert.; 

< maldhu IV 

muluhum, mulu'um ? (a type of wood)? OA 
mulutu? "rule(rship)" NB; < Sum. mulu + -utu 
mulu'um —* muluhum 
mum (an emblem of Ea) MB 
muma"eru; f. muma" ertu "commander, ruler; 
satrap" j/NB, NA [LU.GAL.UKKIN]; < wdrum 



muma"erutu "office of satrap" [LU.GAL. 

UKKIN- ] NB; < muma"eru 
mumannum "flatterer"? OB lex.; < menu D 
mumarriqanu, mumarraqdnu "guarantor" NB; 

< mardqu D; — » murruqunu 
mumarrltu — » muwarritum 
mumassu — ♦ muwassum 

mumassihu (a measuring instrument)? jB lex.; 

< masdhu I D 
mumassu —* muwassum 

mumbium "boaster, braggart"? OB lex.; 

< ebu II D 
mumerrltu — ♦ muwarritum 
Mumitu jB DN; = Mammltu ? 
mummallittu -* walddum D 
mummdtu —* mummu II 

mummellu "actor 7 , player" jB lex.; <melulu 

mummenu (a trader)? jB lex. 

mummertu, mummirtu "(female) matchmaker; 

procuress" MA; < amdru I D 
mummidu(m) mng. unkn. OB lex. and as PN; 

< emedu D? 

mummilu "stirring, exciting; whirling; obscur- 
ing"? jB of deities; lex. of storm; < wamdlum D 

mummirtu — ♦ mummertu 

mummu I ~ "life-giving force"? M/NB, NA of 
deities, e.g. Ea, Istar, Papsukal, Marduk; DN 
^Mummu, the vizier of Apsu; MB (a symbol of 
Ea); jB "destination, use, purpose"?; (a school), 
(bit) m. ~ "(sculpture) workshop of a temple"; 
jB mar m. "pupil, apprentice scribe"; < Sum. 

mummu(m) II; pi. mummdtu 1 (a scraper)? O/jB 

mummu III "someone, something" Bab. 

mummu IV "noise"? jB 

mummu -* also mammu 

mummu(n)nu — ► mammannu- 

mumt. . . —* also mund. . ., munt. . . 

mumtalkum, mundalku, NA muttalku; f. 
muttaliktu Bab., NA 1. "deliberate, circum- 
spect" 2. "counsellor, sage"; < maldku II Gt 

munabbum, munambu(m) (a lamentation priest) 
O/jB lex.; < nabu II D 

munaggiru(m), munanlmgiru(m) "denouncer, 
informer" O/jB; < nagdru II D 

munaggirutu "activity of a denouncer" jB; 

< munaggiru 

muna'Msu "veterinary surgeon" jB; < nesu D 
mundmdtu -* munattu 
munambu -* munabbum 
munamgiru —* munaggiru 
munammiru -* munawwirum 
muna(m)mu ~ "abundance"? jB 
munangiru —* munaggiru 



munappi[itum 



217 



mupparsu 



munappihtum "bellows"? OB; < munappihu 
munappihu(m) "lighter of fires; rumour- 
monger" O/jB lex.; < napdhu D 
munappilum "digger" OB lex.; < napdlu I D 
inunaqqitu "libation vessel" NA; < naqu D 
munassiku; f. munassiktu "biting (dog)" jB; 

< nasdku D 

munattu; pi. mundmdtu "morning slumber" jB; 

adv. munattis "awake" 
munawwirum, munammiru "brightening, 

cheering (person)" OB in PN only, jB lex.; 

< nawdru D 

mundabru (or mundapru) ~ "powerful" jB lex.; 

< dabdru Gt ? 

mundagru "compliant" jB; < magdru Gt 
mundahsu, mundahhisu, NA muttahsu 

"fighting; fighter" jB, NA; < mahdsu Gt 
inundahsutu "soldiering" M/NB; < mundahsu 
mundalku — ♦ mumtalkum 
mundalkutu "deliberation, circumspection" 

M/NB; < mumtalkum 
mundapru — ♦ mundabru 
inundu(m), muddu(m), mindu (a type of flour) 

OAkk, Bab. [ni'g.ar.ra] 
mundultum, muddultum (a type of bed) Bab. 

lex. 
mundulu —* muddulu 
munedu — ♦ immunedu 
munehhu "who repulses, subduer" Ass., M/jB; 

< ne'u D; — » muneu 

munertum "murderess" OB lex.; < niru D 
mune'u in siparri mune'e mng. unkn. NB; -♦ 

munehhu ? 
mungapru "superior"? jB lex.; < gapdru N 
mungu, NA mu(g)gu (a disease causing) 

"cramp, stiffness" jB; < magdgu 
mungu -* also mugu 

inunhiatum mng. unkn. OB, as field name 
muniqu "lamb" or "kid" NB; < enequ; -* uniqu 
munnabtu(m); f. munnabittu(m); pi. munnabtu, 

MB(Alal.) also munnabdtu, Ug. munnabtutu 

"fugitive, refugee"; Ass., M/NB also as PN; 

< abdtu II N (-♦ GAG §971); > munnabtuttu 
inunnabtuttu "refugee status" Bogh.; 

< munnabtu 

munnagru "hired man" NA; < agdru N 
inunnarbu, munnerbu "fugitive, runaway" jB; 
"fleet( -footed), swift" of deity, demon, king; 

< nerubu 

munnisu "weakening, debilitating" jB; 

< enesu D 

munt. . . -* also mund. . . 
muntdqu —* mutdqu 



-munu "(n-)placed; (n-)year-old" Nuzi; < Hurr. 

suff. 
munu I, manu (a type of bed) jB lex.; 

< Sum.(Emesal) 

munu II (a foot disease) jB 
munu I "what?" NA occas. for -» minu I; in PN 
munu II "larva, caterpillar" jB, NA [ZA.NA] 
munutu(m); pi. munudtu "(ac)count(ing)" Ass., 

OB; OB "check, count(ing)"; OA "quota, 

dividend"; < manu IV 
munutuku "childless, without issue" M/jB [MU. 

NU.TUKU]; < Sum. 
munutukutu "childlessness" M/jB [MU.NU. 

TUKU- ]; < munutuku 
munzazdnum —* mazzazanum 
munzetu —* musdtu 
munziqu —* muziqu 
munzirru — ♦ muzzirru 
munzizu —* muzzazu 
munzu'um "squeezed dry, exhausted"? OB lex.; 

< mazd'u II D 

mupaddu "(sheep) offering for the naming (of 

s.o.)"jB lex.; < Sum. 
mupahhirum "who gathers, collector" OB; in 

PN; <paharu II D 
mupallisum "who diverts, interferes" OB; 

< paldsu D 

mupallisum "breacher" OB lex. in mupallis 

bitdtim "burglar"; < paldsu D 
mupaqqiranu "claimant" NB; < baqdru D 
muparritu (a butcher)? Bogh.; <pardtu D 
mupassiru —* mubassiru 
mupassu, mupessu "washerman, cleaner" NB; 

< pesu II D 

mupassiru(m) OB lex. 1. (profession concerned 
with textiles) 2. in m. sundtim "dream- 
interpreter"; < pasdru D 

mupattilum "(yarn-)twister" OB; <patdlu D 

mupattitu 'opener' (an implement for cult- 
ivation) jB lex.; <petu II D; -♦ mupettum 

mupazzirum "smuggler" OA; <pazdru D 

mupeggu "slanderer"; < pagu II D 

mupessu —* mupassu 

mupettum "person regulating a sluice-gate"? OB 
lex.; "open-mouthed"? OB in PN; < petit II D; 
— » mupattitu 

mupe'u —* mube'u 

muppalsihum (an occupation) OB; < napalsuhu 

muppalsu "looking (benevolently) on (s.o.)" jB; 

< paldsu N 
mupparku —* naparku II 

mupparsu "flying, winged" OB, jB; of bird, 
Anzii; Mupparsu (name of Marduk 's horse); 

< naprusu II 



muppisanu 



218 



murqu II 



muppisanu "who committed" (sorcery) MA; 

< epesu II D 

inuppisu; f. muppistu "who does s.th. to (s.o.), 
harms (s.o.)" jB, NA "bewitcher, sorcerer, 
sorceress"; "slanderer"; NA "dealer, agent"?; 

< epesu II D 

muppis(u)tu "witchcraft, spell" jB; < muppisu 
muqabbu "who laments; wailer" jB lex.; 

< qabu II D 
muqadu — » maqqadu 

muqallilum "who belittles, humiliates" OB, jB; 

< qaldlu I D 

muqallipum "dehusker (of grain)"? OB lex.; 

< qaldpu D 

muqallum "roaster (of grain)" OB lex.; 

< qalu II D 

muqappil ze 'roller-up of dung' = "dung beetle" 

jB lex.; < kapdlu ? + zu I 
muqarribum — » muqerribum 
muqaru(m) mng. unkn. O/jB; also as PN 
muqattertu "censer, thurible" j/NB; 

< qatdru II D 

muqerribum, OA muqarribum "transporter, 

delivery agent" OA, OB; < qerebu D 
muqHp)pu(m) "guarantor" OAkk, jB lex.; 

< qidpu D 
muqlalu — » maklalu 
muqqadu — » maqqadu 

muqqelpitu(m), muqqalpitu(m) (vessel) "going 
downstream" O/jB; OB sa m. (captain of a boat 
moving downstream); ana m. "downstream"; 
"from top to bottom, from top to toe"; 

< neqelpu 

muqqu(m) I ~ "weakened, wearied" O/jB; 

< muqqu II 

muqqu(m) II "to weary, tire; wane" O/jB; OB 
"obliterate, disregard" fault, crime; "be slack", 
"delay" journey, action; of person "age"; MB in 
PN; stat. jB of troops, limbs "are slack"; 
> muqqu I 

muqqu — » also mukku 

muqqutum 1. OB lex. "wasted (through a 
disease)" 2. Mari mng. uncert.; < maqatu D 

muqru — » mukru 

muqtablu "fighter" Bab.; < qitbulu 

muqu — » emuqu; muqqu I 

muquttu(m) ~ "claim falling due" Bab.; 

< maqatu 

murabbianu, murabbdnu 1. MA "foster-father" 
2. NA "educator, tutor"?; < rabu II D; -» 
muribbdnu ? 

murabbitu(m) "foster-mother" O/jB; < rabu 
II D 



mura(d)du, occas. murradu "descent, way 

down" j/NB; < warddum 
murakkisu "binder of sheaves" jB lex.; 

< rakdsu D 

muraku, Nuzi also muruku "length" M/jB, Am., 

NA [GID(.DA)]; < ardku 
murammiktum "washbasin" OB; < ramdku D 
murammiku — » muremmiku 
murammu (a tool) NB used for brick-making; 

< ramu III D ? 
murdnu — » mirdnu I 

murappidum "one who makes difficulties" OA; 

< rapddu II D 

muraqqitu "(woman) maker of perfumes, 
spicer" M/NA, NB; rab muraqqidtu "chief of 
the female perfume makers"; < muraqqiu 

muraqqiu, muraqqu - "maker of perfumes, 
spicer" M/NA [(LU.)i.RA.RA]; < ruqqu 

muraritu "vegetable plot"? MA; < murdru 

muraru(m), murartu (a bitter vegetable, phps.) 
"endive, chicory" O/jB; < mardru I; > muraritu 

murassu I 'who does wrong' j/NB 1. "quar- 
reller, cantankerous person" 2. "wild cat" 
[SA.A.RI] f. murassitu; NB as PN; < rasu III D 

murassu II (a worker) NB 

murattib(t)u "soaking vessel" = "mash tun"? 
MB, jB lex.; < ratdbu D 

murdinnu — » amurdinnu 

murdu — ♦ murudu 

murdudu (a plant) Bogh., jB [ll.MUR.DU.DU; 
Bogh. MUL.DU.DfJ]; < Sum. 

muredu — » murldu 

muremmiku, NB also murammiku ? "bath atten- 
dant"? MB(Hana); < ramdku D 

murhu, murru, murikua (a garment) lex.; 

< marahu ? 

muribbanu (a function or prof.) NA/NB; -» 

murabbianu ? 
muridu, muredu (a function or prof.) Bogh. 

Hitt. 
muridum "person descending"? OB; 

< warddum 
murikua — ♦ murhu 

murinnakum mng. unkn. OB; < Sum. 
murkigu (pulmonary disease) Ug.; < Sum. 
murkunas (a garment)? Nuzi 

murnisqu "select young animal; war horse" 
jB/NA; < mum + nisqu (-» GAG §59a) 

murqannu — » murruqiinu 

murqu I ~ "intellect, reason" jB; Id m. "lack of 
reason; foolishness"; < mardqu ? 

murqu II NB occas. for murruqu 

murqu — » also wurqum 

murradu — » muraddu 



murranu(m) 



219 



muskum 



murranu(m), NB lex. ufrjrdnu, jB lex. also 
burrdnu l.jB, NA (a tree or shrub) 
[GIS.MA.NU.SIG7.SIG7], jB also amurrdnu 
2. OAkk(Sum.) (source of an oil); = 1 ? 3. lex. 
(a stone (object))?; < murru ? 

murraqutu "release, clearing from claims" NB; 

< murruqu 2 

murratum (or hularratum) (a weapon)? OAkk 
murrihu "urgent" jB in um murrihti "hasty, 

urgent storm"; < ardhu I D 
murru Ass., M/NB, Am., Bogh. 1. "bitterness" 

2. "myrrh" [(GIS.)SIM.SES]; <mardru\\ 

> murrdnu 1 
murru — » also murhu 
murru I D "to be silent" jB lex. 
murrum II 'one who uncovers' OA in murri 

qablltim "uncoverer of the jar" (to do 

accounts); < eru III D 
murru — » also aru VI D 
murruqu NB 1. of silver "refined" 2. "released 

from claims" 3- "clear, intelligible"; < mardqu 

D; — » murqu II 
inu(r)ruqunu, murqannu etc. NB for — » 

mumarriqdnu 
murrurtu "slander"? Ug.; < mardru I D 
murrutu (or hurrutu ?) (a plant) NB used to 

make flour during famine 
mursu(m); pi. mursdnu "illness, disease" [GIG] 

of various parts of the body, e.g. murus 

qaqqadi "head disease, headache", m. sinni 

"dental infection"; m. libbi(m) "heartache, 

sorrow, distress"; < mardsu 
murta'Mmu "thunderer" (name of Adad) jB lex. 

(< NA for *murtammimu ?); < ramdmu Gtn ? 
murtamu, jB lex. also mustamu; mostly in pi. 

murtdmu "loving each other, lovers, friends" 

M/jB; < ramu II Gt 
murtappidu(m) "wandering, roving" O/jB; of 

animals, of ghost of a dead person [KIP-du ? 

of weapon; < rapddu II Gtn 
inurtasnu ~ "thunderous, roaring" of Adad jB; 

d Murtasnu (name of Adad); < rasdnu Gt 
murtassu "who wrongs continuously"? jB lex.; 

< rasu III Dtn 
murte'dtu — » re'u Gt 

inurtu, mustu "young female animal" MA, MB; 

< mum 

nulrtu — » wu'urtum 

muru "rainstorm" Ug. lex.; < Sum. 

inuru(m) "young animal; young bull; foal (of 

donkey or horse)" [DUR]; also transf. of king; 

lex. mur me (an insect); > murnisqu, murtu 
mum — » also erium; miru III 
inur'u (an official)? Nuzi, Ug.; < Ug.; > murutu 



mur(u)du(m) "lattice, grating" O/jB in river, 

"(golden) filigree"; < Sum. 
muruku — » muraku 
muruma pi. (a textile) Ug. 
muruqunu etc. -» murruqiinu 
murus "bed" jB lex.; -» marsu 2 
murusu "man" jB lex.; < Sum.? 
murutu "function of muru official" Nuzi; 

< mur'u 

murzanum, muruzdnum, murzinum (a wooden 
object) OAkk(Ur III), OB 

murzumurza (or ha/urzuha/urza^) (a garden 
plant) NB 

musabbiktu "woman basket-weaver" jB lex.; 

< sabdku D 

musahhiptu (a hunting net) jB lex.; < sahdpu D 
musahhirtum mng. unkn. OB fPN ?; 

< sahdru D ? 

musahhiru "buyer, buying agent" NB; rab m. 

"head of the buying agents"; < Aram. 
musahhum "troublemaker"? OB in PN; < sehu 

D 
musakkiltu (or musaqqiltu); pi. musakklqqildtu 

(topog. term) NA, rdg. uncert.; < saklqdlu D or 

akdlu St ? 
musallihtu; pi. musallihdtu (a libation vessel) 

M/NB, N A; <saldhu ID 
musallimu "conciliable, placatable" jB; 

< saldmu II D 

musammehtu "woman mixer" (of dough 7 )? 

NB; in bdb m. (name of a gate 7 ); < samdhu D 
musaqqiltu — » musakkiltu 
musarriru — » sardru D; sarrirum 
musarrum — » misarrum 
musarru — » musaru 
musaru (a disease)? jB lex. 
musaru — » also musaru; musaru 
musdrum — » musdrum 
musassianu "who has proclamation made" MA; 

< sasu D 

musatu, munzetu "(used) washing water" j/NB 

"toilet, lavatory"; bit m. "lavatory"; rdbis m. 

"demon of the lavatory"; < mesu II 
musazkirum — » musazkirum 
musellum "supplicant" OB lex.; < sullu I 
museppum "supplicant" OB lex.; < suppu II; -» 

also suppu I D 
musiktu (or musiktu) (a stone object) Ug. lex. 
musiqqum "who makes narrow, confines" OB 

lex.; < sidqum D 
muskum "s.th. bad, s.th. evil"? OB; < masdku ? 
musku — » also musku 



mussah(hi)ru 



220 



musahripu 



mussah(hi)ru 1. OB(Susa) (a household 
utensil) 2.jB "(benignly) turned to( wards 
s.o.)", of goddess; < sahdru Gtn, N 

mussaltu -* musta'utu 

mussdtu —* esu D 

mussipu ~ "scoop" MA; < esepu D 

mussiru(m) 1. MA (part of a stove) 2. lex. (part 
of a plough, phps.) "seed funnel" 3. Mari, jB 
lex. (a cultic functionary); < eseru II D ? 

mussu — ► mesu II D; wussum 

inussuku "wretched, pitiful"? jB; MA also PN; 

< masdku D 

musukkannu, mes(uk)kannu, occas. 

mas(ma)kannu, (u)sukkannu "Magan-tree", 

phps. "Dalbergia sissoo" Bab., NA [GIS.MES. 

MA.KAN.NA (-♦ mesu)]; < Sum.?; -♦ usukannu 
musukkd'u — ► musukku 
musukku(m), usukku; f. (m)usukkatu "ritually 

unclean; impure person" O/jB [U.ZUG; f. 

MUNUS.U.ZUG]; < Sum. 
musukku, OA musukkd'u pi. tant. 1. OA, OB 

"poor quality (silver)"? 2. OB mng. unkn.; 

< masdku 

musabbi(t)tu 1. jB lex. (part of a loom) 2. NB 

(a bronze implement); < sabdtu D 
musa'Mranu, musdrdnu "frog" Qatna, jB 

[BIL.ZA.ZA]; med. also used as drug; "(figurine 

of a) frog" 
musallu NA for — ► masallu or musldlu ? 
musallu — ► also mussdlu 
musallu "liar, evildoer" jB lex.; < selu I D 
musdne -* musu 
musappertu 'she who shapes', i.e. "woman 

hairdresser"? jB lex.; < sapdru D 
musappiu "dyer" NA; < sapu II D 
musdrdnu —* musa" irdnu 
musarrihtum "wailing woman"? OB; < sardhu 

ID;-* sarrihtum 
musarrirtu(m), musarristu; pi. musarriratu (a 

libation vessel) O/jB, NA, usu. metal; 

< sardru I D 

inusarum (or musdrum) (a metal object) OA; 

< masdrum or masaru ? 
musd'u —* mum 
musehhu — ► musihhu 

musihhu(m), musehhu(m) "clown, jester" O/jB 

lex.; < siahu D 
musiptu; pi. musipeti (a garment) NB; 

< suppu II ? 

musium I (a departure tax) OA; < wasum; -* 

musu 
musium II (an official) OA 
musiu — ♦ also musu 



muslalu(m) "siesta(-time); midday" Bab. 
[AN.BIR9(=NE)]; acc. as adv. "at noon"; 

< saldlu; — ♦ musallu; sumsulu 
musru, misru "Egyptian" jB lex. 
mussabru —* muzzapru 

mussaltu, musseltu jB lex. 1. (a term for the gall 
bladder, phps.) "gallstone" 2. (a mineral); 

< mussdlu 

mussalu, musallu "quarrelsome; troublesome" 
jB; of a stone; < sdlu Gt ?; > mussaltu 

musseltu —* mussaltu 

mussu — ♦ masu D; musu; wussum 

mussusu —* muzzuzu 

musu(m) (a garment) OA ? , M/NB; pan m. (part 
of the garment); < wussum ? 

musu "exudation" jB 1. lex. (a stone) 2. med. 
"discharge" at the foreskin 

musu(m), M/NA musd'u, NB also mussu, Ug. 
musiu 1 ; NB pi. musdne "exit" Bab., M/NA 
[KI.E; ZAG.E; KI.TA.E.A]; "way out"; "going out, 
departure"; "escape route", sa Id muse 
"inescapable"; "outflow, outlet"; NB "exit tax", 
a canal charge; astr. "rising" of star; "yield" 
(< W.Sem.); OB m. sattim "end of the year"; 

< wasum; OA — ► musium I 
musa —* musu 
musabbistu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

musabsu "that calls into existence; creator" jB 

lex.; f. also DN; < basil S 
musabtu (a room in a house, phps.) "toilet" jB; 

< wasdbum 

musabu(m) "dwelling, domicile, abode; seat (of 

honour), throne"; < wasdbum 
musadbibu, musedbibu 1. MB "that causes s.o. 

to litigate" 2.J/NB, NA "that causes s.o. to 

speak (sedition)"; < dabdbu II S 
musadbibutu "instigation" NA; < musadbibu 
musaddinum "tax collector" OB; < naddnu II S 
musaddu "that causes negligence"? jB; 

< nadu III S 

musadgil(ann)u "who transfers ownership (of 

s.th. to s.o.)" NB; < dagdlu S 
musadiru "frightening" jB; < adaru II S 
musaggisum "murderer" OB lex.; < sagdsu D 
musahhinu, musehhinu; NB pi. musahhindnu 

"brazier, stove" j/NB [ZABAR.SEN.DIL. 

KUM.MA]; < sahdnu D; — ► musehhittu 
musahhitum mng. unkn. Mari 
musahizu(m) "who gives instructions; trainer" 

Bab.; < ahdzu S 
musahlilu "that causes to shout with joy" jB; of 

bull;~< aldlu IH S 
musahripu "early ripening (date palm)" jB lex.; 

< hardpu I S 



musakilu(m) 



221 



muselu 



musakilu(m) 'that lets eat, feeds' Bab., M/NA 
1. "supplier of food" to people 2. "feeder, 
fattener" of animals, birds 3. Mari, Bogh.(Hitt.) 
(a kind of knife); < akdlu S 

musakilutum "feeding (of animals)" OB; 

< musdkilu 

musalittu "midwife" jB lex.; < walddum S 
musallilu "plunderer" jB lex.; < saldlu I D 
musallimanu "delivery man"? M/NA, NB; NA 

"healer"?; NB as a prof.; < musallimu 
musallimu(m) O/jB 1. Mari "that delivers safely; 
safe-conduct, escort" 2.jB stat. of deity 
"safeguarding, preserving (s.o.'s) health"; 

< saldmu II D 
musallu —* mussallu 
musalmu -* muselwii 

musalu(m), Am. meselu; jB pi. f. "metal mirror" 
[NIG.SU.ZABAR]; also (a wooden object); 

< masdlu 
musalwu — ► muselwu 

inusainhisu, musanhisu; pi. musamlntyisu, 
musamhisutu "inciter to fight, troublemaker" 
NA, NB; < mahdsu S 

musamhisutu "sedition" NA; < musamffisu 

musamqi(t)tu; pi. musamqitatu OB "(agri- 
cultural) sieve"; jB lex. sa m. (an agricultural 
worker); < maqdtu S 

musamru "that fattens" animals jB lex. of Adad; 

< maru II S 

musamsu "wandering by night, wakeful" jB; 

< sumsu 
musanhisu —* musamhisu 
musanmirtu "lamp" NA; < nawdru S 

musa n nit u, musennitu; pi. musennetu "dam" 

diverting water flow NB; < sanu IV D 
musannu(m) mng. unkn. OB lex., NB; 

< sanu IV D ? 

musanum (a wooden object) OB; — ► masdnum 
inusappiktu (vessel for pouring) oil ? jB lex.; 

< sapdku D 

musappilu(m) "that lowers" OB lex., jB; 

< sapdlu D 

inusapsihu (part of a door) NB; < pasdfru S 
inusapsiqtu "having difficulty" in childbirth 

Bogh., jB; < pasdqu S 
musapzertu 'that hides' jB lex. (term for a door) 

lex.; < pazdru S 
musaqqiltu "scales" NB comm.; < saqdlu D 
musaqqu I "that raises" jB; < saqu II D 
musaqqum II "(man) that waters" animals Mari; 

< saqu III D 

musarbidu 'that makes roam'? jB lex., desig. of 

official ?; < rapddu II S ? 
musardu "leaking" jB, of basket; < redu I S 



musdridum -* musarritum I 

musarisam "per m«5o;-measure" OB; < musaru 

(-GAG§67g) 
musarkisu "(military) procurement officer"? 

NA/NB; < rakdsu S 
musarkisutu "office of musarkisu" NA; 

< musarkisu 

musarqidu "dizzying"? jB; < raqddu S 
musarritum I (or musdridum) (prof, connected 

with trade) OA; < sardtu D ? 
musarritu II "that tears" (garments) OB lex.; 

< sardtu D 
musarru — ► musaru 

musartu mng. unkn. Bogh. in asar m. 

musaru —* isaru II 

musaru, musaru, NA also mussaru; pi. 

mussare, NA also mussardni "(royal) 

inscription" M/NB, NA [mu.SAR]; < Sum. 
musaru(m), mus/sa(r)ru "(flower, vegetable) 

bed" Bab. 1. "garden(-plot)" OB ana m. 

sakdnim and sim. "to divide up in beds" 

2. (surface measure = 12x12 cubits) [SAR] 

3. (cubic measure = 12x12x1 cubits) [sar] 

4. jB (term for) "buttocks"; < eseru or Sum.?; 
> musarisam 

musasnu "regulated, diverted" NA of canal; 

< sanu IV S 

musatpilu "calumniator" jB; < tapdlu S 
musatu(m) "combed-out hair, carded wool" 
O/jB [SIK.SAB]; also "(cloth of) carded wool"?; 

< mustu 

musazkirum, musazkirum "official swearing in 
(a witness), taking an oath (from s.o.)"? Mari; 

< zakdru S 

musazziqu "troublemaker" jB; < nazdqu S 
musazzizum "(person) that makes (s.o.) attend" 

(an accounting procedure)? OA; < izuzzum S 
musebirtu mng. unkn., phps. "ferry" NA; 

< musebiru 

musebiru(m) 1. OB "that brings (s.o.) across" 

the water 2. MB (an aqueduct)?; < eberu I S 
musedbibu —* musadbibu 
musedu ~ "that informs"? jB lex.; of deity; 

< edit II S 

musehhinetu pi. "stoves" NB (pi. of musehhinu 
or musehhittu); < sahdnu D 

musehhinu -* musahhinu; musehhinetu 

muselbu, muselimu —* muselwu 

muselitu -* muselu 6 

muselmu —* muselwu 

museltu —* meseltu 

muselu 'that raises' M/NB 1. (a doorkeeper) 
2. "winnower" 3. (priest performing incantation 
for the dead), "necromancer" 4. (an (agri- 



muselwu 



222 



musqalpitu 



cultural) implement) 5. (part of door closure) 
6. (a cloud formation), also f. muselitu; 

< elu III S 

muselwu, muselmu, musalw/mu, occas. 
muselbu, muselimu "(field) surveyor" Nuzi; 

< lawum II S 

museniqtu(m); pi. museniqdtu, Alal. museniqtdti 
"wet nurse" [um.ME.GA.lA] of woman, 
goddess, also "mother animal suckling"; 

< enequ S 
musenmtu — ► musannitu 

musepisu(m) "overseer, foreman" Bab. 
"organizer of a ritual"; NB "workshop"?; 

< epesu II S 

musepisutu(m) 1. OB "supervision, direction of 
work" 2. jB "organization 7 of a ritual"; 

< musepisu 

museqqilum "(deity) in charge of weighing" (in 
the nether world)? OB(Susa); < saqdlu D 

museribtum 'that brings in' (desig. of a feeder 
canal) OB; < erebu I S 

inuseriduni 'that conveys down' OB; muserittu 
"oesophagus" jB; < warddum S 

muserisu -» "cultivation inspector" MB; 

< eresu I S 
muserittu —* museridum 

uiusertu(m) 1. Mari "overlooking window"; also 
"overlooking" in jB apti m. 2. jB 'she who 
leans in' (name of a demon); < surru 

musesitum 'that brings out' (desig. of a drainage 
channel) OB; < musesu 

musesu, musesi'u 1. NB "drain"; pi. musesdnu 
2. NA (an ornament)? 3. OB "one who leases, 
tenant" 4. OB, Mari, NB (an official); 

< wasum S 

musesertu "palm broom" jB lex.; < eseru S 
museseru jB 1. "that puts in order" 2. "draining 
freely" of water ? 3. mng. unkn. lex.; < eseru S 
musetiqtu 'that lets pass' mng. unkn. NB; 

< etequ S 

musezibtu 1. in sa musezibti "shield-bearer" NA 

2. "life-belt"? NB; < musezibu 
musezibu(m) "saving, rescuing; saviour"; of 

deity in PN [MA, NB (mw-)KAR]; of human; 

< ezebu S 

musgallu, mussugallu 'great serpent', (mythical 
beast) jB [MUS.GAL]; also used as a drug ?; 
<Sum. 

mushalsitu, mushelsitu "slippery place"?; 

< nehelsu S 

mushistum 'that makes hasten'? OB of goddess; 

< hi a sum 



mushussu(m) -» "serpent-dragon" Bab. [MUS. 
yuS] (a mythical monster) jB; (a constellation); 
<Sum. 

musihhu (a water-clock) jB lex.; < siahum I D 

musihtum (a vessel) Mari; < siahum I D 

musiktu — ► musiktu 

musimmu — ► sidmu D 

musis "at night" jB; < musu 

musitis (or musitas), musitan "during the night- 
time" jB; < musitu 

musitu(m); pi. musidtu, musdtu "night(-time)" 
[GE6]; ace. "at night"; rit., invoked as person; 

< musu 

muskallimu "teaching, explaining" jB stat.; 

< kullumu SD 

muskallu (a large fish net) jB lex.; error for 

suskallu ?; < Sum.? 
muskasat "at night towards morning" OB lex.; 

< musu + kasdtu 

muskenu(m), maskenu; Mari f. muskettum ? 
"dependant, bondsman of the palace; poor man" 
OAkk, Bab., NA [MAS.EN.GAG; MAS.GAG.EN] 
OB leg. (a social class) contrasted with awilum 
and wardum; jB, NA "pauper"; < W.Sem.?; 
> muskenutu; — ► sukenu 

muskenutu(m) O/jB, Bogh., NA 1. "depend- 
ence on the palace, status of a muskenum" 
2. "impoverishment, poverty", m. aldku "to sink 
into poverty, become poor"; < muskenu 

muskinnu (a belt)? jB lex. 

musku, musku (a tree and its wood) jB, NA 

musku 'snake-eater' jB lex., desig. of a bird of 
prey; < Sum. 

muslahhutu "art of the snake charmer" jB lex. 

mus(la)lahhatu jB 1. "female snake charmer" 
[MUS.LAJJ4(.LAH4)] 2. lex. (a worm)?; 

< muslalahhu 

mus(la)lahhu "snake charmer" M/jB [(LU.) 

MUS.LAfl4/5; once MUS.LAHg]; < Sum. 
muslalu(m) (archit. construction, phps.) "stair- 

case(-gate)" Ass., OB; < saldlu II ?; — ► 

masallu 
musmahhu (a mythical serpent) jB [MUS.MAH]; 

<Sum. 
musmidu "making numerous" jB lex.; < madu S 
musmitu "murderous, death-bearing" jB as epith. 

of deity; < matu S 
musnigum (or musniqum) mng. unkn. OB om., 

substance filling spleen 
muspalu(m) "depth" of an excavation; 

"depression (in the ground)", "lowland" O/jB 

[TUN/TUL.LAL]; < sapdlu 
muspisu "conjurer"? jB lex. 
musqalpitu mng. unkn. jB; < neqelpu S 



mussakku(m) 



223 



muste(n)nium 



mussakku(m), massakku "incense" O/jB used 
by dream-interpreter, as opiate ? 

mu(s)sallu (a clay tube, pipe)? NB 

mussarrutu "craft of wood inscriber, engraver 7 " 
Bogh. lex.; < Sum. 

mussaru — > musaru 

mussaru(m) (a semiprecious stone, phps.) 
"serpentine" Bab., M/NA [(NA4.)MUS.GIR; MB 
NA4.NfR.MUS.GfR ?]; m. zaqdni (a variety of 
m.); in m. "'eye'(-stone) of m"; < Sum.? 

mussipu (an incantation priest) jB; 

< wasdpum D 

mussu "(female) breast" Qatna, jB, akal m. 

(breast-shaped roll, loaf of bread)? 
mussu — > masu II D; wussum 
mussugallu — > musgallu 
mussuku "leathery" jB; < masku 
mussultu "likeness, replica"; < masdlu D 
mussulu(m) 'made to resemble' OAkk, M/NB, 
NA 1. OAkk as PN 2. "image, likeness" of 
(sick) person, object 3. "mirror"; < masdlu D 
mussuru mng. unkn. Am. 
mussuru — > also wasdrum D; wussurum 
mussu 'tu; pi. mussudtu "ointment" jB; 

< mussu' u 

mussu'u D "to rub" part of body jB, with s,th. = 

ace. Dtn iter, of D; > mussu' tu 
mustabbabbu(m) "blazing"? OA, O/jB of 

Lamastu and other demons; jB lex. 

d Mustabbabbu; < sabdbu I Rt 
mustabiltu(m), multdbiltu jB 1. (desig. of the 

tongue)? 2. summa m. (name of commentary 

series on liver omens) 3. OB (type of due or 

tax); <wabdlu St 
mustablakkitum "sheaf-turner" OB lex.; 

< nabalkutu II Stn 

mustabrltu, muttabritu 'enduring', i.e. "sea- 
worthy ship" jB lex.; < bitru II St 

mustaddinu 'that ponders' jB lex. of deliberate 
person ; < naddnu II St 

mustaggisu — > muttaggisu 

mustahalqu -» "deserter" NB; < haldqu 

mustahhizum "infectious" Mari; < ahdzu Stn 

mustahlilu — > muttahallilu 

mustahmitu — > hamdtu III Stn 

mustahtu, multahtu "escapee, survivor" 
j/NB(Ass.); < sahdtu I Gt 

musta'ltu — ► musta" u 

mustakkitum (a trader)? OA; < sakdtu Dtn 

mustalu(m), mustelum, multdlu "who considers; 
deliberate" Bab.; of deity, in PN; of king; Mari 
f. pi. as subst. "discussions"; jB m. as subst. 
"adviser, councillor"; < sdlu I Gt 



mustalutum, multdlutu "consideration, 

deliberation" O/MB; of deity, king; OB "con- 
ference, council"; < mustdlu 
mustamkiru "trader" jB lex.; < makdru II St 
mustamsu "that makes an effort" jB; < masu St 
mustamu "who considers well, gives careful 

thought" jB; < awum St 
mustamu — > murtdmu 
mustannintu — > mustasnintu 
mustannu "hostile" jB; < sanu IV Gtn 
mustappitu "treacherous" jB; < sapdtu Gtn 
mustaprisu — > muttaprisu 
mustapsu(m) "wrestler" O/jB; < sapdsu Gt 
mustapsiqtu "(woman) having difficulty (in 

childbirth)" MA, jB; < pasdqu 
mustaptinnu, multaptinnu (a potter's tool) jB 

lex.; < Sum.? 
mustaptu "treacherous" jB lex.; < sapdtu Gt 
mustaptutu "treachery" jB; < mustaptu 
mustarhu, multarhu, Bogh. multarrihu 

1. M/NB(Ass. roy. inscr.) "presumptuous, 

arrogant" 2. Bogh., NB of deity "proud, noble"; 

< sardhu I Gt 
mustarhutu, multarhutu, Bogh. multalerrihutu 

"arrogance" MB, Bogh.; < mustarhu 
mustarilu (name of planet Mercury) j/NB [prob. 

MUL.UDU.IDIM.GU4.UD] 
mustarrihu(m), multarrihu "praising o.s.; self- 
important, conceited" O/jB; MB in PN of deity 

"proud"; < sardhu I Gtn/Dt 
*mustarrihutu — > mustarhutu Bogh. 
mustarriqu 'that steals in', i.e. "(secret) lover" 

jB; < sardqu I Gtn 
musta(r)ristu (a bird) Bogh. lex. 
mustaship(t)u, multaship(t)u (a stone) jB; NA 

[NA4.MUNUS.LA] also as a drug; < sahdpu St 
mustasimu — > summu II St 
mustaskinu, multaskinu jB lex. (desig. of god, 

of potter's tool); < sakdnu Stn 
mustasnintu, Susa mustannintu (part of the 

liver) jB; < sandnu St 
musta"u; f. musta'itu "idle, at leisure" MB 

fPN; < suta"um 
*musta"iitu, multa'utu, multa"itu, NA 

mussa"itu "leisure, relaxation" M/jB(Ass.), 

NA; < musta" u 
mustebilum mng. unkn. OA; < wabdlu St 
mustelum — > mustdlu 
mustemiqu(m), multemiqu "devout supplicant" 

Bab.(lit.);<eme^MlSt 
muste(n)nium 1. OB lex. (a vessel) 2. jB 

mustenu, mustennd "having reached puberty; 

nubile"jB;<ew<IIISt? 



m ustepisu 



224 



muttalliktu(m) 



mustepisu; f. muslltepis/ltu jB 1. "sorcerer, 
bewitcher; sorceress" 2. adj. "crafty" of fox ; 

< epesu II St 

mustepisutu, multepisutu "magical ritual" jB; 

< mustepisu 

mustertum "waking time, morning" Mari; ace. 
"in the morning"; < eru St 

mustesertu, MA multesertu l.jB "(woman) 
having normal childbirth"; < eseru St 1 2. MA 
"repair, maintenance", of chariot; < eseru St 2 

muste"u "repeatedly searching, deliberate" jB; 
<se'u Gtn 

mustezzibu — ♦ ezebu Stn 

musti(n)nu(iTi) "urethra" O/jB; aban m. "bladder 
stone"; OAkk mng. unkn.; < sidnum Gt 

mustu — ♦ miirtu 

mustinnu (a plant) jB lex. 

mustu(m), multu f.; pi. mustdtu "comb" 
[(GIS.)GA.RIG] m. sipdtim "wool comb"; OB 
sinni m. "tooth of a comb"; > musdtu 

musu(m) "night" [GE6]; ace. musa(m) "at night"; 
miisamma "yesterday night"; Mari musam 
musanima "at dead of night"; urrulali u 
musulali and vice versa miisurri "day and 
night, continuously"; sat m. "night-time", also 
(the second watch of the night); massarti, 
massardti sa m. "watch(es) of the night"; ina 
milsi masil, masli "at midnight"; > miisis; 
musitu, musitis; sumsu; — ♦ misu II; muskasdt 

mus'u (an animal) jB lex., equated with kusu'u 

musumnia mng. unkn. OB 

musurri — ♦ miisu 

muta'imu — » mute"imu 

mutamu — » mutawum 

mutanu(ni) "epidemic, plague" Bab., NA 
[NAM.ClS.MES; US.MES]; < mutu 

niutaplu(m), mutappilu(m) "that intercedes for; 
intercessor" in PN, of deity; < apdlu I Gt(n) 

mutaqqinu (a gardening tool)? NB; < taqdnu D 

mutaqu(m), muttdqu, muntdqu "confectionery, 
sweetmeat" Bab., NA; sa m.(-su) "con- 
fectioner" [(LU.)NINDA.KU7.KU7]; < matdqu; 
> mutdqutu 

mutaqu; pi. mutaqdtu "passage(way), street" 
j/NB; < etequ 

mutaqutu "service as a confectioner" NB; 

< mutaqu 

mutawum, jB mutamu ~ "eloquent"? O/jB lex.; 

< awum Gt 

mute"imu, muta'imu "master, ruler, prince" 

NB(Achaem.); < tu'umu II 
mutellum — ♦ muttellum 
muterru jB, NA '( re ) tumer ' 1- lex. (a bolt) 

2. lex. (wooden part of a fowler's net) 3. NA 



"poker" 4. m. gimilli "avenger" 5. m. temi 

"adviser; agent"; < tdru D; mutertu 
mutertu(m); pi. muterretu Bab. 1. "leaf of a 

door"; pi. "double door"; NB bit m. "portico" 

2. (a fowler's net); < muterru 
muthummu, mithummu "fruit(s), product(s) of 

a garden" M/jB [NIG.SA.SA(.HI.A)] 
muti(ina) "ever" OA, Bogh.; — » matima 
mutinnu — » muttinnu 
Mutir (a month) OAkk 
mutku mng. unkn. jB lex. 
mutlellu "that rises; lofty, exalted" j/NB, of deity; 

< utlellu 

mutnennu "who prays much, pious" M/NB; 

< utnenu II 

mutqltu (a sweet bread)? NA; < mutqu 

mutqu I "sweet thing, sweetness" jB in akal m. 
"sweet bread"; < matdqu; — ♦ mutqu 

mutqu II "head louse" jB 

mutqu(m) "sweet bread" Bab. [NINDA. 
KU7.KU7 ?]; < matdqu; > mutqitu; -» mutqu I 

muttabbiltu jB 1. "female servant" 2. ~ "fur- 
niture" 3. lex. pi. (a slide for battering ram) 
4. lex. (a hunting net); < muttabbilu 

muttabbilu(m) "servant" O/jB; < wabdlu Gtn 

muttablakkatum "rebellious" OB; 

< nabalkutu II Ntn 
Muttabriqu -» hardqu Ntn 
muttabritum mng. unci. Mari 
muttabritu -* also mustabritu 

muttaddinu "salesman, seller" jB lex.; 

< naddnu II Gtn 

mutta'du, muttddu ~ "attentive, submissive" jB; 

< na'ddu Gt 

muttaggisu(m), once mustaggisu "bustling, 
restlessly busy" O/jB of human, demon; 

< nagdsu Gtn 

muttah(al)lilu(m) and sim. "roaming around; 

prowler, vagabond" Bab.; < haldlu III Ntn 
muttahsu —* mundafosu 
mutta'ilu mng. unci. jB; < itulu Gtn 
muttakkipu "goring" jB of demon; 

< nakdpu Gtn 

muttaklu "trusted person" jB; < takdlu N 
muttakpu "goring" jB of animal, storm; 

< nakdpu Gt 
muttalku — ♦ mumtalkum 

muttalliktu(m); pi. muttallikdtu(m) 'regularly 
moving' 1. OA, O/jB (a mobile group); 
"expeditionary force"; (a group of harvest- 
collectors)?; (a group of herdsmen); OA 
uncert. 2. MB/MA, NA "course, way"; OB 
math, (a coefficient); jB (slide, rails for 



muttalliku 



225 



muzibbu 



battering ram) 3. Bogh., jB (a sliding door); 

< muttalliku 

muttalliku "mobile, movable, agile" jB; of 
person "roaming, restless"; "travelling"; lex. of 
oven "portable"; "movable furniture"; 

< aldku Gtn 
muttallitum —* muttellu 
muttallulu — ♦ muttellum 

muttallutu "superiority" Bab. lex.; < muttellu 
muttan(an)bitu "bright, shining" jB; < nabdtu 

Gtn 
muttaparsidu — ♦ muttaprassidu 
muttaplisu ~ "inspector" OB lex.; < paldsu Ntn 
muttaprassidu, muttaparsidu "fugitive, home- 
less" jB; < naparsudu Ntn 
muttaprirru "roaming around" jB; <pardru 
muttapri.su, mustaprisu "winged, flying" M/jB 
[DAL.DAL] of bird, insect; transf. of fire; 

< naprusu II Ntn 
muttdqu — ♦ mutaqu 

muttarrittum; pi. muttarriddtu(m) "perpen- 
dicular (line)" OB math.; abbr. mu-ut; 

< warddum Gtn 

muUHarrltu (a woman hairdresser)? jB lex. 
muttarrum, muttarrium "guide; leader (of a 

caravan)" OA, OB; < warum II Gtn 
muttaru (a canal) jB lex.; < warum Gt 
muttasrabbitu "drifting about" jB; < nasarbulu 

Ntn 
muttassitu "arrogant"? jB; < wasdtum 
muttatiku "habitual fornicator" jB lex.; < nidku 

Gtn 
muttatu(m) I "half of parts of the body etc.; 

field; number of objects, people; OB occas. 

"one-third"; OA (a half-container on one side 

of a donkey; half of a standard donkey's load ?) 
muttatu II "dead (animal)" NB; < mdtu 
mutteklemmu "ever-frowning" jB; < nekelmu 

Ntn 
mu(t)tellum, muttallulu ~ "princely, noble" 

Bab.(lit.) of deity; of human, in PN; of falcon; 

of divine or human speech, order etc.; 

> muttallutu 
muttellu, muttillu - 'that roams around' jB, NB?; 

OB f. muttallitum (a servant)?; < ne'ellu Ntn 
mutte(r)ritu (a tool) jB lex. 
muttetendu "conspiring, conspirator" jB; 

< emedu 

muttikku, muttiku (person suffering from a 
venereal disease)? jB lex.; < nidku Gtn; -* 
muttatiku 

muttillu — ♦ muttellu 

muttll(t)u (a demon) jB [KIN.GAL.UD.DA]; 

< itulu ? 



mu(t)tinnu "choice wine" jB; < Sum.(Emesal) 
muttis "in front, before (s.o.)" O/jB; < muttu 
muttu(m) "front (part)" OA, O/jB; Bogh. "front 

side" of the body; with poss. suff. "before 

(s.o.)";> muttis 
muttu(m), mattum (a pole) O/jB lex.; -+ 

mandu I 
mutturu — ♦ watdrum D 
mutu(m) [DAM] m. 1. "husband", m. ahdti 

"brother-in-law"; in PNs 2. "man, warrior"; 

> mututu I 
mutu(m) "death" [(NAM.)US]; jB d Mutu (demon 

Death); m. simti(m), m. ilisu "natural death"; 

OB aran mutim "capital punishment"; bit m. 

"grave"; < mdtu; > miitdnu 
mutussu (a warrior) jB lex. 
mututu(m) I O/jB 1. "status of a husband" in 

ana assiitim u m. ahdzum, naddnum "to take, 

give as wife and husband" 2. "manliness, 

bravery"; < mutu 
mututu II mng. unkn. NA 
muta'Mmu, mute" emu, mute"e'u. "lawgiver" 

NB(roy. inscr.); -+ temu denom.? 
mutappilu(m) "slanderer"; < tapdlu D 
mutd'u —* mutu 
mute" emu — ♦ muta" imu 
mutibtu 'that beautifies', (desig. of a door) jB 

lex.; < tidbu D 
muttarridum? (a transporter) OA; < tarddu Gtn 
muttu "very little, too little" Bab.; < matu II 
mutu(m), Ass. pi. tant. mutd'u "deficit, missing 

sum; deficiency, shortage" Ass., O/jB [NA 

LAL- ?]; < matu II; — » muddu 
mu'(ud)du "(large) quantity; multitude" jB/NA; 

< mddu 

mu"untu "rations, sustenance" NB; <mdnu; 

NA -+ ma'uttu 
mu'uru in m. seri "hunting" MB(Ass.); -+ 

bu" uru I 
mu'uru — ♦ warum D 
muwarritum, M/jB mumalerritu, namritu (a 

weapon or tool) O/jB, Am., Nuzi; < aru VI D 
muwassum, mumasslssu ~ "inspector of 

slaves"? O/jB lex.; jB of DN [MAS.SU.GAL]; 

< wussilm 
muwerrum —* mu'erru 

muza'Mztu "distributer" MB as fPN; < zazu D 
muzakkum 'cleaner' Mari, desig. of an 

implement; < zaku II 
muzannitfu (or musannipu) mng. unkn. OB lex. 
muzaqqipu (an agricultural occupation) OB lex.; 

< zaqdpu D 

muzibbu 'letting flow' j/NB, desig. of a water- 
clock; < zdbu D 



muzibtu 226 

muzibtu "drainage" NB; < zdbu 
muziqatu (a disease)? jB lex.; < mazdqu 
muzlqu, munziqu "raisin" M/NB [(GIS.) 

GESTIN.UD.A] 
muzzapru (or mussabru) 
"malicious") jB of lips 
< zapdru (or sabdru I) Gt 
muzzazu(m), muzzizu(m), munzizu "standing" 
(later — » mazzizu) 1. OAkk, pi. muzzdzu "wit- 
ness" 2. OA ~ "guarantor of appearance"? 
3. "standing (on duty), serving", OB muzzaz 



very bad" (or 
words, person; 



blti "servant"; muzzaz ekallim "courtier"; m. 
bdbi (a tax collector) 4. OB f.pl. muzzaztum 
(part of a necklace); < izuzzum 

muzzerru, munzerru "enemies" O/jB; < zeru Gt 



muzzuzu (or mussusu) D mng. unkn. jB lex. 



N 



na- as nominal prefix — » GAG §56b, c, h 

-na 1. OAkk, OB subjunct. suff. GAG §83c 
2. OB in prohibition after Id 

na'adu(m) "to be attentive, concerned" G (i/i) 
"pay attention" (to = ana); "be concerned, 
worry" (about = ana); stat. "is worrying(ly 
bad)" of physical condition, disease, assets Gtn 
iter, "be constantly worried" Gt "watch 
carefully"; "observe strictly" (divine) order 
D OA, OB "alert, notify" s.o. (about = ace), 
"inform, advise" (of = ace.); Bogh. "start a 
war"? Dtn "alert in each case", Am. "start wars 
repeatedly" S OA "indicate to s.o. the 
inadmissibility, impropriety of an action"; OB, 
j/NB "inform"; NA (of deity) mng. unkn.; MB 
-> ddu S Stn OA iter, of S; M/NA mng. 
unkn.; > na' du; na'dis; nayyddu; ni'ittum; 
mutta'du; ta"ittu 

na'ddu — » also nddu 

na'alu(m) ~ "to moisten" O/jB G (i/i) eye, tree; 
>na'ilu; riiluYL; nayydlulV 

na'amu(m) ~ "to advance boldly"? jB G (i/i) of 
soldiers; > nd'imum 

na'apu(m) "to be(come) dry, wither" O/jB 
G (ulu) of land, wood Gtn iter, of G of roots 
"wither repeatedly" Dt "be made to wither"; 

> na'pu; nipu 

na'arruru(m) N "to go to assist, bring 
reinforcements" OB, Am. (-» GAG §101g-i); 

> ne'rdru, ne' rdrdnum, nerdrutu; mu'arrirum; 
— » ardru III Ntn 

na'aru(m) "to roar, snarl" O/jB G of lion, demon 

D, Dt = G; > nd'eru; — ► nahdru II 
na'asu(m) "to chew up, gnaw" O/jB G (i/i) 

drugs D = G 



na' dm — » ndsu 

na'asu "to have difficulty breathing, wheeze"? 
M/jB G (i/i) D = G ?; > ni'su 

na'dsum — * also nesu 

na'd'um — » ne'u 

nababtu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

nababu "to play the flute"? jB G (ulu) 

nabddis — » napddis 

nabahu "to bark" j/NB G (ulu) of dog, demon 
Gtn iter. ofGD~G 

nabakum (or nablpdklqum) "to bring (in, 
along)" OB(lit.) G (Hi, alu) a person 

nabalis, ndpalis "on dry land" jB; convert "into 
dry land"; < ndbalu 

nabalkattanu jB "insurgent, rebel"; NB 
"contravener (of contract)"; < nabalkattu 

nabalkattu(m) "crossing" Bab., NA [KI.BAL; 
NB BAL] "crossing" of terrain; (illegal) 
"crossing" of wall, "burglary"; "(ladder) for 
crossing, climbing"; "uprising, insurrection, 
desertion"; "reversal, retreat"; NB "fallow part" 
of field; NB astr. "excess"; "revolution" of 
planet; < nabalkutu II 

nabalkutu(m) I "having crossed over" O/jB; 
"having exceeded" a certain age; "inverted, 
awry" of part of body; < nabalkutu II 

nabalkutu(m) II, nubalkutu "to cross over" 
N [BAL; Nuzi KI.BAL] (Mari stat. also 
nabalkat) 1. "cross, traverse" terrain, mountain, 
frontier, "ford" a canal, also transf.; "go 
across", vent, "come across" 2. jB of witchcraft 
etc. "befall" (s.o. = ace.); ina libbi- n. "come 
into o.'s mind" 3. Mari "change o.'s mind", "go 
over" to s.o.'s side; "revolt, defect" (from = 
ace.; eli, seru- ; ana muhhi; itti) 4. "resist" an 



nabalum 



228 



nabu(m) II 



order; "oppose" (s.o. = ace); "be in breach of 
contract" 5. of parts of the body "turn over, be 
inverted"; of earthquake; "roll" eyes; "turn" to 
flee 6. jB nabalkut dini "perversion of justice" 
7. of interest rate "change" 8. "overflow", NB 
"go beyond, exceed", also math., astr.; OB of 
delivery "pass time limit"? Ntn iter, of N 
[BAL.BAL; BAL.MES] S caus. "send" or "bring 
across, transport" cattle 7 , ships; "forward" 
letters; "transfer (s.th.) into (another 
container)"; "copy" text; "cause, allow to 
defect"; "foment rebellion"; pi ...s. "incite (s.o. 
to do s.th.)"; OA "cause to commit breach of 
contract"; "displace, upset, remove" object, 
frontier; "overthrow" throne, government; 
"reverse, overturn" judgement; "make 
ineffective" spell; NA "extend past time limit" 
Stn iter, of S OA "repeatedly transport" letter, 
"try repeatedly to move" St Mari pass, of S "be 
transported"; Nuzi mng. unkn.; > nabalkattu, 
nabalkattdnu, nabalkutu I; sutabalkuttu; 
muttablakkatum; mustablakkitum {-* GAG 
§110c-d) 

nabalum (part of a chariot) Early Mari; -> 
nubdlum ? 

nabalu "dry land, mainland" MA, M/NB 
[PA.RI.IM]; < abdlu; > ndbalis 

nabdqum — ► nabdkum 

nabaru, nabdrtu(m) "(fish-)trap" O/jB, "cage" 
for lions etc.; < baru I 

nabasis "like red wool" jB; < nabasu 

nabasu(m), nabassu, nabasu, napdsu 
"red(-dyed) wool" Bab., NA [SIK.yE.MED/ 
ME.DA]; > nabasis 

nabassuhum — » namassu'um 

nabasu — » nabasu 

nabatu(m) "to be(come) bright, shine" Bab. 
G {ulu) of celestial body, divine weapon D 
"make bright" Dt pass, of D S "make shine" 
face, statue; temple fafade, building, object 
St jB "be illuminated, lit" N, Ntn (mostly Hi) 
iter, of G "(repeatedly) come alight"; 
> muttananbitu; nibtu; nambatu 

naba'um (type of reed mat)? OAkk(Sum.) 

naba'u(m) ~ "to rise, well up"? O/jB G {ulu) of 
Tigris flood; > ndbi'u I; namba'u; nib'u 

naba'um — » also nabu II; ndbi'u II 

nabazu "to bleat" jB G {ulu) of goat 

nabbillu — » nappillu 

nabbu — ► nabu II 

nabhatum — ► naphatum 

nabhatum — » nahbdtu 

nabihum (a gold ornament)? OAkk(Sum.), OB 



ndbihum — ► ndbi'u I 

nabirium — ► nabrium 

nabium — ► nabu I 

nabi'u(m) I, ndbihum "who rises, revolts" O/jB; 

< nabd'u 

nabi'u II, ndpi'/hu "plunderer" jB, of city, land 
nablaltum "mixing vat" Mari; < baldlu 
nablalu (a reed stirring-stick)? NB; < baldlu 
nablatu(m) 1. O/jB "subsistence" 2.jB "healing, 
cure", mehis la n. "incurable wound"; 

< baldtu II 

nablis "like a flame" O/jB; < nablu I 

nablu(m) I "flash of fire, flame; fire-arrow" 
O/jB, also as DN; transf. and in simile of 
rainbow, king, dog; jB (a flame-symbol)?; 

> nablis 

nablu II (desig. of wool) NB; < Aram.? 

nablu III (a vessel)? jB 

nabnitu "creation" M/NB, NA(lit.), by god(s); 
"(all) creation, creatures"; "progeny" of king; 
"product(ion)" of gold, image; "shape, figure, 
physique" of king, statue; < banu IV 

nabramu (a piece of furniture) lex.; 

< bardmu II ? 
nabraqqu — » namruqqu 

nabrartu, naprartu (a reed mat) jB lex.; 

< bardru or pardru ? 

nabraru, napraru "plain, open country" jB; 

< bardru or pardru ? 

nabritu(m) I 1. OA (an object) 2.jB lex. (part 

of plough); < nabru 
Nabritum II "Bom on the day of the nabru 

offering" OB fPN; < nabrium 
nabritum III ~ "inspection" OA; < baru I; -> 

also nebrltu 
nabrium, nabru(m), nabirium OAkk, Bab. 

1. OAkk(Sum.) (an offering, a festival) 

2. OAkk, OB(Esn., N.Mes.) (a month) 3.JB 
lex., NB (a copper vessel)?; > Nabritum II 

nabru, napru (part of plough) jB lex.; 

> nabritu I 

nabru — » also nabrium 
nabruqqu — » namruqqu 

nabsium "deposit" OAkk, OA; ana n. ezdbum, 
naddnum "to leave, hand over on deposit"; 

< basu 

nabtu, nebtu ~ "horizon" jB; < bedum ? 

nabu(m) I, nabium "called, authorized person" 
of king; in PN "called" by a deity; Bab., M/NA 
as DN [ d AG; d MUATl]; also a star; < nabu II 

nabu(m) II, OAkk, OA naba'um "to name; 
nominate; decree" G {Hi) [SA4] "name" 
persons, things, places (+ 2 ace); "invoke" 



nabu(m) I 



229 



naditu(m) 



deity; with mala "(as much as) is named", i.e. 
"exists"; "call s.o. (to s.th.)" of deity, esp. in 
PN; of deity "nominate" king/deity to his/her 
office; "decree, ordain" rulership, fate, 
judgement; NB "declare" conversion rate 
D "lament, wail" S "cause to name" N "be 
named"; "be called (upon)"; > nabu I; nibul, 
nibitu, nibutu; nubu; munabbu; tabbitum 

nabu — ► also nebu I.II 

nabu(m) I, nebu "insect eggs" 1. O/jB "nit", jB 
also as drug 2. lex. "butterfly eggs" 

nabu(m) II, nabbu "deity, god" Bab.; < Elam. 

ndbudu — ► abdtu II N 

naburris "like battlements" jB; < naburru 

naburru (or napurru) "battlement(s)" jB(Ass.); 
> naburris 

nabutum "escaped; fugitive" OB; also PN ?; 

< abdtu II N 

ndbutu — » also abdtu II N 

na'butu — » abdtu II N; nahbutu I.II 

nadabaktu — ► natbaktu 

nadabdku — » natbdku 

nadadu(m) G {Hi) NB "to cede, give way"? 

< Aram.? D OA "search for"?; MA "drive 
together, round up"? horses; > nidittum) 

naddku — » naddqu 

nadal (or natal) (a garden plant) NB 
nadanis "for giving" OAkk; < naddnu II 
nadanu I "gift" M/NB, Bogh., Ug. "gift, 

payment, tribute"; < naddnu II infin. 
nadanu(m) II "to give" G (pres. OAkk and 
occas. later inaddan, Bab. inaddin, inanlmdin, 
Ass. iddan; perf. ittadin, Ass. ittidin, pi. 
ittadnu, NB, M/jB rarely ittannu, vent. MB 
onwards ittanna, NB also ittannu; pret. iddin, 
vent. wr. OB in PN, MA rarely idinnafm); NB 
before pron. suff. also inaddassu, taddassu; 
imper. OAkk, Bab. idin, pi. idnd, NB innd, 
Ass. din; Am. also W.Sem. pass, iu-da-anlna; 
Bogh. also Ass. forms (-» GAG §102j-l)) 
[mostly SUM; in PNs MU, AS] 1. of person 
"give, hand over, offer"; "pay" silver, interest; 
"leave, cede" s.th. to s.o.; "put at s.o.'s 
disposal" soldier, porter; "deliver"; "give s.o. 
(in marriage)"; of deity "grant" offspring, 
(long) life, prosperity; "confer, bestow" 
rulership on king; "commit, entrust (to s.o.)" 
sceptre, land; "deliver" enemy; "give" order, 
advice, reason 2. "sell", also ana kaspim, 
analas-simim n. 3. awdtam, qabam n. 
"promise" 4. math, "give" a result 5. with ana + 
infin. or ace. infin. "allow, permit" to do s.th. 
6. with parts of the body: with idu O/jB 
"endeavour", NA "give o.s. up"?; with libbu 



"encourage"; pdni n. "turn the face toward", 
"give attention to", NB "reveal o.s."; Mari, Am. 
"get ready to travel (to)"; pd(m) n. "give o.'s 
consent"; OA sepe n. "set out" for Gtn iter, of 
G "give, grant repeatedly"; "sell repeatedly" 
S "cause to give", esp. "collect, make to pay" 
tax, debt etc.; "recover" silver, payment Stn iter, 
of S OB "collect repeatedly" St 1 OB "be col- 
lected" St 2 (pres. mostly ustaddan, rarely 
ustanaddan) [SUM.SUM.MES] jB "intermingle" 
liquids; "exchange (advice) with one another, 
confer"; "ponder" N "be given, granted"; "be 
delivered"; "be sold"; > nadnu, nadinu, 
nadintu; nidnu, nidintu; nddinum, nddindnu, 
naddinu, nddittu, nddinatu; naddnu I, nadanis; 
nudunnu; madddnum, maddattu, mandittu 1 -; 
musaddinum, mustaddinu; muttaddinu; 
sadduttu; tadduntu; — > taddnu 

nadaqu (or naddku) mng. unkn. jB lex. 

nadarruru -* dardru I N 

nadaru(m) I "to be wild, furious" O/jB G stat. of 
demons N [SU.ZI] inchoative "become wild, go 
on the rampage" of animal, god, demon Ntn 
iter, of N [om. also IDIM(.MES)]; > nadru; 
nanduru I 

nadarum II "to vow" OB; < W.Sem. 

nadasum mng. unkn. OB lex. 

nadd'um — ► nadu III 

nadbdku -* natbdku 

naddinu "generously giving"? jB lex.; 

< naddnu II 

nadianu "the one who laid out" a garden MA; 

< nadu III 

nadimmu (a stone-cutting tool) jB lex.; < Sum. 
nadinanu(m) "the one who gave" Bab.; "seller"; 

Nuzi "deliverer, supplier"; < nddinum; -* 

tddindnu 
nadinatu "(woman) who has sold" NB; 

< naddnu II 

nadintu(m), nadittu(m) "gift" O/MB; < nadnu 
nadinu "extra, additional gift"? NB; < nadnu 
nadinum "giver, donor; seller" OAkk, OB, 

Nuzi; < naddnu II 
nadiru -* nadru 

na'dis "attentively, piously" jB; < na'du 
nadittu -* nadintu 

nadittu "(female) seller" NB; < naddnu II 
naditu(m) 1. OAkk, Bab. "'fallow' (i.e. 
childless) woman" [LUKUR]; OB "celibate 
(priestess)" {-* gagu) 2. O/jB lex. (a ware- 
house) 3. OA "deposited document"; < nadu" I 
nadium -* nadu I 



nadnu 



230 



nagalu 



nadnu "given" NB in PN; < naddnu II; 
> nadintu; nadinu 

nadru(m), nadiru "wild, aggressive" O/jB; 
< naddru I 

nadu(m) I, OAkk, OA nadium "placed, laid 
(down)" [SUB] 1. of document "deposited"; jB 
of foundation "laid"; of saliva "spat out" 2. OB 
of bag "dropped"? 3. of field "fallow"; of 
building, city, region "deserted, abandoned" 
4. lex. (desig. of headdress)? 5. lex., of person 
"fallen"?; < nadu III 

nadu II, nadu (a stele)? lex.; < Sum.; — » nam 

nadu(m) III, OAkk, OA nadd'um "to throw 
(down); lay down" G (///) [SUB] 1. "throw 
s.o., s.th." esp. into (= ana or ace.) fire, water, 
prison; "cast" lot, net; of hot oil "bubble" 
2. "emit, throw up, expectorate" bile, mucus, 
"spit"; "sweat, discharge" moisture etc.; "utter" 
noises, "recite" incantation 3. "drop" prey; 
"throw off, shed" skin, clothes; "let drop" parts 
of the body; of bird "let hang" wings; aha(m) n. 
"be idle" 4. "knock over, upset"; "knock out" 
teeth: "repel" army 5. "reproach s.o. (= eli) for 
s.th., accuse s.o. (= eli) of 6. "reject, desert"; 
"disobey, ignore" orders; "neglect" field; 
"abandon" house, nest; "stop, give up (doing 
s.th.)" 7. "lay down"; "pour, fill (in)" liquids, 
flour, earth; OA "lay down, deposit" goods; 
M/NB "lay" foundations; "lay out" building, 
garden, sleeping place, abode; "pitch" camp; 
"lay" eggs 8. "impose"; "(put) load" (on) 
animal; with 2 ace. "put s.o." in chains; "put on" 
jewellery; "fasten" a lock, bolt; "set" fire (to); 
"bring about" need, trouble; with qdtu "lay 
hands on s.o., s.th.", "desecrate" temple; "write, 
set down" in writing; OB math, "put in, enter" 
number; MB "launch" boat; "apply" irrigation 
water 9. various: OA with inu "keep (o.'s eyes) 
on, be attentive"; OB ina napistim n. "put in 
mortal danger"; NB with libbu "take s.th. to 
heart"; "recommend s.th. warmly"?; M/jB 
"apply, put on" colour; Nuzi "sentence s.o. to" 
10. stat. of person "is lying down, laid up, ill"; 
ana dinim nadi "is in dispute, at issue"; Qatna 
of gem "is set, mounted"; Am. of metal "is 
incorporated" Gtn iter, of G [SUB.SUB] OA 
qdtam itaddum "deposit the respective 
share(s)"; stat. "is covered with" spots etc. 
(= ace.) S caus. of G "cause (s.o.) to give up, 
force s.o."; "hinder s.o." in doing s.th.; "bring 
to a standstill" Stn iter, of S, NB "leave fallow 
repeatedly" St pass, of S N pass, of G "be 
thrown (away), laid down" [SUB]; >nadd\, 
naditw, nddidnu; nidu, niditu, nidutu; mandu II, 



manditu; musaddu; nudud'um; nuddidtu; 
saddu atum; tadditum 
nadu IV D "to cast s.o. out, expel" Am.; 

< W.Sem. 

nadu — » also natfi. IV 

nadu(m), nayyddu f. 1. OAkk, Bab., NA 
"( water- )skin" [KUS.UMMU(=A.EDIN.LAL)] 

2. Mari "leather pouch" [KUS.EDIN.NA] 

nadu — » also nadd II; na'du 

nadu(m), na'ddu "to praise, celebrate" G (pres. 
indd, pi. inaddu, pret. indd, M/NB also ina" ad, 
i"ud; prec. lu-'a^-ad OB in PN) [I; NI.TUKU] 
"extol" deity, king in PN Gtn iter, of G NB 
D = G Dtn iter, of D "praise repeatedly" Dt "be 
praised" St "sing praises antiphonally" N "be 
praised"; > sanudu; sutanidu; tanidu, tanattu, 
tanittu; 

na'du(m), nadu "attentive, reverent" Bab.; of 
king, deity; OB of dog "watchful"; jB horse, 
king na'id qabli "devoted to battle"; < na'ddu; 

> na'dis 
naduhhu — » natuhhu 
nadunnu — » nudunnu 

na'duru, nanduru "darkened, obscured, 

eclipsed" jB; < addru I N 
nadusu ~ "scion, offspring" jB 
na'eltu mng. unkn. jB lex. 
na'eru(m), nd'lhiru, ne'iru "roaring" O/jB of 

lion (figure), deity; "screeching" of bird; 

<na'dru 
nagabbis "into the depths of the water" jB; 

< nagbu I 
nagabbu — » nagbu I 
nagabtum — » naqabtum 

nagabum ~ "to store up"? Mari; < W.Sem.?; 

> nagbu II 

nagagu(m) "to bray, bellow, bawl" O/jB G (a/u, 
ulu) of donkey etc., demon, human sufferer; 

> nuggatu; naggigu; tangagtu 1 

naga(h)hu jB 1. lex. (a plant name) 2. n. satti (a 

disease) 3. ~ "barbarian" 
nagallum (or naqallum) (a title or function of a 

person) OB 
nagalmusu ~ "lofty, exalted"? jB lex.; — » 

sagalmusu 
nagaltu, negeltu "to awake, wake (up)" intrans. 

M/jB (pret. iggeltu, later also iggelti, Ass. 

iggalti; jB perf. (vent.) ittegeltd) (— » GAG 

§110i) 
nagalu ~ "to glisten, (be a)glow" M/jB G of star, 

animal D "make glow" N of star; of person 

"glow"; transf. of heart, liver "burn"; 

> nangulu; naggdlu; mangdlu 1 - 



naga(p)pu(m) 



231 



nafrasu(m) 



nagamarute — » nagmuru 

naga(p)pu(m) 1. O/jB "sheaf, bundle" 2. Mari 

mng. unkn. 
nagargallu "master joiner" jB of deity; .< Sum.; 

— » nagdru I 
nagarruru — » qardru N 
*nagarsu N (or gardsu N ?) ~ "to run about in 

confusion" jB S "confuse, upset" offerings ? 
nagaru(m) I, nan/mgdru, naggdru "joiner, 

carpenter" [(LU.)NAGAR] maker of furniture, 

doors, boats; M/NA n. pdsi "adze-worker"; NA 

n. mugirri "wheelwright, cartwright"; NB as 

family name; < Sum.; > nagdrutu; — » 

nagargallu 
nagaru(m) II G NA mng. unkn. D "to 

denounce" O/jB; > ndgiru, ndgirtu, ndgirutu; 

mangdru II ? ; munaggiru, munaggirutu; 

taggertum 
nagarutu (prof., craft of the carpenter) jB, NA; 

< nagdru I 

nagasu(m) "to go to( wards)" O/jB G {ulu) of 
men, animals Gtn (///) "wander, travel about" 
[DAG.DAG] D jB of woman mng. unkn. Dtn jB 
"roam around" N ~ G jB; > nugussu; 
muttaggisu 

nagbu(m) I, nagabbu 1. OAkk, Bab., NA 
"underground water" [IDIM], "source, head- 
waters" of a river; deified [ d IDlM] (= Ea) 
2. Bab. "(the) whole, entirety" of wisdom, cult; 
of people; > nagabbis 

nagbu(m) II ~ "stored" Mari, jB lex., of grain; 

< nagabum 
naggalapu — » naglabu 

naggalu "glowing" MB in PN; < nagalu 

naggdru — » nagdru I 

naggigu, nangigu, ndgigu "that brays, braying" 

jB lex., of donkey, man; < nagdgu 
nagimu — » ligimu 
nagirtu "(female) herald" jB, of goddess; 

< ndgiru 

nagiru(m) "(town) crier, herald" [LU.NIMGIR, 
NA often LU.NIMGIR, 600(=DIS+U)]; also of 
deities, transf. of animals; jB, NA (a high 
official), n. rabu "chief herald", n. ekalli "palace 
herald"; < nagdru II 

nagirutu, nammigirutu (office of the herald) jB; 

< ndgiru 
nagissu — » namgissu 

nagitu "district" j/NB; also in PINs; NB bdb n. 

(a city gate or quarter in Uruk); < nagu I 
nagiu — » nagu I 
naglabu(m), NA also nag(ga)lapu Bab., M/NA 

1. "razor, shaving blade" [Gte] 2. "hip", du. 



"flanks" of animal [(UZU.)MAS.SILA; OB also 
Su.I]; astr. (part of moon); < gullubu II 
nagmaru(m) 1. OB "final payment" 2. M/jB 
"end" (of a month) 3. MB "completion" of 
work; < gamaru II 
*nagmuru; pi. nagamarute "completed, finis- 
hed"? NA; < gamaru II N 
nagum (a bird) OB 
nagu(m) I, NA nagiu; pi. nagu, NA nagidni 

"region, district; coastal area" Bab., M/NA; jB 

"island"?; > nagitu 
nagu(m) II, negu "to sing joyfully, carol" O/jB 

G {ulu, jB also Hi) Gtn; > nugu; nigutu; 

tamgltu 
nagubinakku (a stone vessel) jB lex.; < Sum. 
nagurtu "hire"? NA, of persons; < agdru 
nahabu — » nahbu 
nahalaptu — » nahlaptu 
naha(l)littu (a garment)? MA; rdg. uncert. 
nahallu(m), nahlu(m) "stream, wadi, gorge" 

Bab., M/NA; OB also in PIN 
nahallulu — » haldlu III N 
nahalsu — » nehelsu 
nahalu(m) I "to (pass through a) sieve, sift" 

O/jB G {alu) D ~ G lex.?; > nahlu; nehlu; 

nuhhulu; mahhalu 1 , mahhaltu 
nahalum II "to share out, transfer property" (to 

s.o. = ace.) G (///) Mari D ? OB ext. mng. 

unkn. N pass, of G ? Mari; < W.Sem.; 

> nihlatum 
nahansu in kardn n. (a type of wine) NA 
nahaptu — » nahhaptu 
naharbusu "to freeze" intrans.? jB Ntn iter.; 

< hurbdsu denom. 
naharmumu "to break down, collapse" M/NB 

N; S "cause to collapse" 
naharmutu(m) N "to dissolve, melt, 

disintegrate" intrans. O/jB, of ice, tablet, person, 

dream S trans, "melt, dissolve"; also transf., 

enemy 
naharsusu N ~ "to collapse" jB S caus. 
naharu(m) I ~ "to be shrivelled, withered"? 

O/jB, MA G MA stat. of document "is 

invalid"? D "make shrivel, cause to wither"?; 

transf. "invalidate"; -» na'dru D Dt "be made 

to shrivel"?; > nahru; nuhhuru 1 
naharu(m) II "to snort" jB G {ulu); > nahim; 

ndhiru, ndhiranu, nehru; nuhhuru'-; — » na'dru 
nahasu(m), j/NB nehesu "to (re)cede; return" 

Bab. G {Hi) [LAL] of troops "withdraw, yield"; 

of entrails "recede, be sunken"?; in chariot 

malfunction — » narkabtu; of flood "subside, 

abate"; MB of wall "cave in"; NB "deduct"; NB 



nat)asu(m) 



232 



nahutum 



"flow back", of payments into treasury; of field 
"revert (to s.o.)"; "withdraw, shrink from" (an 
oath); j/NB of celestial bodies "retrograde"; 
Am. "halt, stop s.o." Gtn jB iter, "subside 
repeatedly" of flood Gt jB "pale, blanch"? D ~ 
"retch"? (Dt -♦ duhhusu Dt) S NB 1. "send 
back, return" (s.o. or s.th.) 2. "let recede"; 

> nahsu; nihistu 

nahasu(m) "to be(come) luxuriant" Bab., MA 
G (//;') "prosper, thrive, be healthy", also in PN; 
infin. "health, prosperity"; Nuzi "be pleasing" to 
s.o. D "grant prosperity, health", NB also in PN 
N OB lex. "become prosperous, happy"?; 

> nahsu; nuhsu, nuhsanu; nuhdsu 
nahatu(m) "to be(come) small, diminished" 

O/jB G (stat. nahut) "be of inferior quality", of 
field; with libbu "be(come) despondent, 
fainthearted" D "diminish, reduce"?; "castrate"? 
bulls; "clip" wings; > nahtu; nehtu 1 -; nuhhutu; 
nihittiP-: tahhittu 1 - 

nahbaltu "pit(fall)"? jB; < nahbalu 

nahbalu(m) "trap" O/jB "pitfall" for lions etc., 
"box-trap"; n. tdmti "trap of the sea"?; 

< habdlu IV; > nahbaltu 

nahbasu (an oil flask) jB, NA; < habdsu II ? 
nahbastum (a reed object) OAkk(Sum.); 

< habdsu II 

nahbasu (a chaff-cutter)? jB lex., NB; 

< habdsu II 

nahbatu(m), nabhdtum, nahpdtum (a leather or 
reed carrying-case) OAkk(Ur III), O/jB; 

< habu IV 

nahbu, nahabu (a drinking vessel) M/NB, NA; 

NB sa nahbesu (a drinks vendor) as family 

name; < habu III 
nahbutum I "migrated"? OB in kakkum n. 

(feature on part of the liver); < habdtu III N ? 
nahbutu II "robbery"? NA; < habdtu I 
nahellu (part of a cup) Qatna; < Hurr.? 
nahhaptu (or nahaptu) (a garment) NA 
nahhasu — ♦ nahsu 

nahhu ~ "rent" NB for garden, house 
nahhuhu (a container) MB 
nahiranu "snorter, puffer" MB as PN; < ndhiru 
nahiru(m) "nostril" Bab., M/NA [KA.BUN]; 

MB/MA "spout" for water; < nahdru II 
nahiru 'snorter' MA, M/jB 1. MB/MA - 

"dolphin" 2. jB lex. (a bird); < nahdru II 
ndhiru — ♦ also nd'eru 

nahisum (or na'lhislsum) (a prof.) OB lex. 
nahlaptu(m), nahlapu, later nahalaptu, Nuzi 

occas. nahnaptu 1. "garment, cloak, coat" 

[(TUG.)GU.E(.A); NA TUG.DUL/DUL] Bogh. 



epis n. (a tailor); lex. n. uri "loincloth" 2. NB 

brick "facing, cladding" (of ziggurrat) 3. NA n. 

pemi (a cut of meat); < haldpu I; -♦ tahlaptu 
nahlu(m); f. nahiltu "sieved; strained" 1. Bab., 

MA of com etc. 2. lex. of textile "open-work"? 

3. MB lex. (desig. of diseased skin); < nahdlu I 
nahlu —* also nahallu 
nahmasu (a stand for a cauldron)? NB; 

< hamdsu 

nahmum (an ominous sign) Mari 

nahnahatu "(nasal) septum"? NA 

nahnaptu —* nahlaptu 

nahparum (a wrap)? OAkk; < hapdru I ? 

nahpdtum -* nahbdtu 

nahpum adj. mng. unkn. Mari, of finger; 

< nakdpu ? 

nahpu (a tool, phps.) "(clod-)breaker" jB lex.; 

< hepu II 

nahramum, in pi. nahramu "blanket" or 

"cloak"? OB; < hardmum I; — ♦ ndramu 
nahru ~ "withered, shrivelled"? jB lex. of wood; 

med., of patient "wasted, emaciated"?; mums n. 

(desig. of a disease); < nahdru I 
nahsu(m), nahhasu "(very) thin, narrow" 

O/MB; of fabric "delicate, fine"; of arrow 

"pointed, sharp"; < nahdsu 
nahsabum (an object made of silver)? Mari; 

< hasdbu I ? 

nahsu(m) "thriving, healthy; lusty" OAkk, O/jB; 
OAkk, OB as PN; f. pi. nahsdtu "haemo- 
rrhage"; < nahdsu 

nahtu "small, slight" j/NB 1. "young (bird)" 
2. lex. (a part of the entrails)? 3. lex. (a type of 
garment); < nahdtu; —* nehtu 

nahii mng. unkn. Am. 

nahu(m), nuhhu "pig's fat, lard" OAkk, OA, 
O/jB [I.SAH] " 

nahu(m), OAkk, Ass. nudhu(m) "to rest" 
G [HUN.GA] 1. "be at rest, become restful"; of 
celestial bodies "be still"; of fire "bum steadily"; 
of a maniac "quieten, calm down"; of ritual 
"stop"; of country, battle "be pacified", MA, 
MB also in fPN; "calm o.s., relent" of deity, 
also of human anger, excitement 2. jB mng. 
unkn. D "calm (s.o.), appease, placate" deities; 
"pacify" a country; "soothe, sedate" pain, anger; 
"extinguish" fire; "settle" (i.e. draw back ?) a 
curtain S ~ D "soothe" the heart N of a patient 
"come to rest"; > nehu, nehtu, nehis; nuhtu; 
nuhhu; tanehu, tanehtu; tanuhtum'-; mandhtu 

nahurutu — ► nufrurtu 

nahutum, na'utum ? (a type of onion)? OB 



na'ikanu 



233 



nakistu 



na'ikanu "the one who had intercourse" MA; 
< nidku 

na'Tlu "flooded valley" Bab., MA; < na'dlu 

na'imum "bold" OB PN; < na'dmu 

nd'iru — ► nd'eru 

na'lslsum —* nahisum 

naistum —* napistu 

nak(a) —* annaka 

nakabtum —* naqabtum 

nakadu(m) "to beat, throb" Bab., MA G (u/u) 
"be frightened, anxious"; of the heart "pound, 
beat" Gt, Gtn; (D -► naqddu D) S OA, NB 
"make" the heart "throb", "worry (s.o.)" N OB 
(pres. u) "be anxious"; > nakkadu 

nakalmu —* nekelmu 

nakalu(m) "to be(come) skilful, artful, clever" 
Bab., NA G (;/;') "be clever, skilful"; NB mng. 
uncert.; niklu n. jB "outwit, dupe" s.o., NA, NB 
"be insidious, deceive" D "make skilfully"; NB 
nikiltu n. "trick" s.o. S jB "cause to make (s.th.) 
.skilfully"; > naklu, naklutu, naklis; nakllum; 
niklu, nikiltu; takkilu; takkaldtu 

nakamaru — ♦ nakmaru 

nakainu(in) "to heap, pile (up)" Bab., OA 
G {alu, OA, M/jB also ;'/;') "amass, accumulate" 
goods, tribute D ~ G N pass.; > nakmu I, 
nakimunp; nikmu, nikimtu; nakkamtu 

nakapu(m) "to push, thrust" Bab., NA G (;/;) 
[DU7] of homed animals "gore, butt"; transf. 
"touch, abut"; "mutilate, stub" finger; (as var. of 
naqdbu) "pierce, stab" with a weapon; 
"penetrate (sexually), deflower" Gtn iter, of G 
"push forward, advance repeatedly" in battle; 
"push aside, away"; of mountains "abut" 
Gt [DU7.DU7] of animals "butt each other"; 
transf. of rulers "fight each other, battle"; of 
storm "shake s.th. thoroughly, knock about"; of 
water "surge, break over s.th. or s.o." D "knock 
down, push away"; "butt"; > nakpu; ndkipu; 
nikpu, nikiptu I; nakkapu, nakkaptu, nakkdpu; 
takkiptu; muttakkipu, muttakpu; nahpwrP 

nakaru(m); f. nakartu(m), NB nakastu "strange, 
unknown; enemy" OAkk, Bab., NA [(LU.) 
KUR] OB also PN; of planet Mars; < nakdru; 
—* nakru 

nakaru(m) "to be(come) different, strange, 
hostile" G (///; stat. nakilar) [KUR] "change (in 
appearance)"; of plan, order "change"; 
"be(come) estranged", "grow angry"; "rebel, 
revolt" (against = itti, NA issi); NB bel nakdri 
"enemy"; "be at feud with"; "deny" a statement, 
with neg. "confirm"; "contest, dispute"; "deny 
s.o. s.th., refuse" Gtn iter, of G [KUR.KUR] 



"keep changing o.'s mind"; of flame "flicker, 
waver"; of constellation "change position 
repeatedly"; "move house repeatedly" Gt recipr. 
"become (each other's) enemies" D [KUR] 
"change, alter" words, names, prices, plans; 
"improve"; "give up" a vice; "eliminate, 
remove" (seat of) a disease; "remove, abolish" 
king(ship); "hand s.th. on"; "transfer, move s.o. 
elsewhere"; "remove" from office; "shift, 
(re)move" objects; clothes; "clear" a building 
site, ruins; "clear out" brazier, vessel; "move" 
domicile etc.; OB stat. "is strange, outlandish"; 
NA "make enemies of'; W.Sem. nukkir "made 
hostile" Dtn iter, of D [KUR.KUR] Dt pass, of 
D "be changed, removed"; Bogh. "be horrified, 
panic-stricken"? S "make enemies of, cause 
enmity between"; > nakru, nakaru, nakkarum, 
nakris, nakrutu; nikaru; nukru, nukurtu; 
nukurru; takkirum 

nakasu(m) "to cut, fell" [KUD] G (Hi) 1. "fell, 
cut down" trees etc.; "cut, trim" beams; "knock, 
cut off; Nuzi, NB "partition off field; "cut 
off dates from tree; "cut through" s.th., esp. 
garment, hem (in legal context) 2. "sever" parts 
of the body; with qaqqadu "decapitate", napistu 
("throat; life"); OB transf. "keep away, hold 
off; "kill, slaughter" people, animals Gtn iter. 
of G D ~ G esp. with pi. or du. objects; also 
"chop, hack to pieces"; MA "mutilate"; 
"slaughter" Dt of sacrificial animal "be 
slaughtered" N pass, of G; > naksu, nakistu?, 
niksu; nikkas^; nakusu?; nukdsu; ndkisu; 
nukkusu I; makkasu, makkastu 

nakastu —* nakaru 

nakasu(m) "to set aside" OA, O/jB G (;'//) Mari 
"turn away" envoys; "leave unused" field, 
female breasts; "set" fire to s.th. (= 2 ace.) D = 
G Ntn ?; > nakistu?; nikistum? 

nakbartu (a thick garment) MB; < kabdru 

nakbasu(m), nakbassu 1. O/jB "step" of a 
staircase 2. M/NA, Nuzi (a mat) 3. Mari "sole" 
of foot; < kabdsu 

nakbatu(m) "weight, combat power" of troops 
O/jB [DUGUD; IDIM], esp. om.; also "main 
body" of army; < kabdtu 

nakdu —* nakkadu 

nakiltu —* naklu; naksu 

nakflum mng. unkn. OB; < nakdlu ? 

nakimtu —* nakmu II 

nakimum OB as PN; < W.Sem. or nakdmu ? 

nakipu "goring" jB; < nakdpu 

nakiru — ♦ nakru 

nakistu (or nakistu) mng. unkn. jB lex.; 
< nakdsu (or nakdsu) 



nakisu 

nakisu, NB also nekisu 1. NA, NB "butcher" 

2. NA "woodcutter"; < nakdsu 
nakistu — » nakistu 
nak(ka)du ~ "(still) twitching, pulsating" of 

liver jB; < nakddu 
nakkamtu(m), j/NB also nakkantldu "treasure, 

stores; treasury, storehouse" Bab., M/NA; also 

bit n. "storehouse"; NA of horses "reserves"; 

< nakamu 
nakkaptu(m) "brow, temple" Bab. [SAG.Kl]; 

often du.; also of sheep; < nakdpu 
nakkapu(m) l.jB (projecting part), "tip" of 

foot, lung 2. NA (or iiakuppu, wr. na-ku-pu) 

after measurement "in circumference" 3. OA (a 

caulking tool)?; < nakdpu 
nakkapu(m) "goring, liable to butt" OB 

[DU7XDU7]; < nakdpu 
nakkarum "hostile" OB; < nakdru 
nakkatu (or naqqatu) (a type of land) Nuzi 
nakku(r)ru mng. unkn. OA; -» namkuru; 

naqquru 
nakkuru — » namkuru 
nakkussu "substitute (worker)"? OB(Alal.), 

Nuzi; < Hurr. 
naklamu — » nekelmu 

naklis "artistically, skilfully" M/NB; < naklu 
naklu; f. nakiltu "skilful, elaborate, clever" Bab., 

NA; < nakdlu; > naklis; naklutu 
naklutu "ingenuity" jB; < naklu 
nakmartu(m) 1. OB math, "sum, total" 2. jB (an 

ailment)?; < kamdru IV 
nakmaru(m), NB also nakamaru, NA nakuaru 

(a basket, pannier) Bab., NA for textiles, 

liquids etc.; < kamdru IV 
nakmasu mng. unkn. jB; < kamdsu I ? 
nakmu I "heaped (up)" jB; med. "accumulated" 

matter in a body; < nakamu 
nakmu II (or naqmu); f. naklqimtu mng. unkn. 

O/jB (desig. of people) 
nakmu, Mari nakwum "roasting implement" 

O/jB; < kawum II 
nakpu "mutilated, crushed"? jB of finger, 

< nakdpu 
nakramu, NB nakhmu (leather container for 

liquids) MA, NB; < kardmu 
nakris "like an enemy" jB; < nakru 
nakru(m), nakiru(m), NB nekru "strange, 

foreign" [KUR] of language, city, people; 

"hostile (person); enemy"; OB lex. sa nakirti 

"enemy"; < nakdru; > nakris, nakrutu; -* 

nakaru 
nakrutu "hostilities" jB; < nakru 
nakrutu "mercy"; < kardtu N 



234 nalu(m) 

naksu(m); jB f. nakiltu "cut (off)" Bab., NA 

[kud]; of tree "felled"; of limb "severed"; of 

animal "slaughtered"; < nakdsu 
naktamtu(m) 1. OA, jB lex. (vessel with) "lid" 

2. OAkk, jB lex. (a door); < katdmu 
naktamu(m) 1. O/jB "cover, lid" 2. lex. in n. pi 

"horse's bit"; < katdmu 
naktu (a textile) Ug. 
naku (stopper, plug)? Am. 
naku "to browse on"? jB G of elephants 
ndku — » also nidku 
nakuaru — » nakmaru 
nakuppu — » nakkapu 2 

nakusu mng. uncert. jB in n. nakis; < nakdsu ? 
nakwum — » nakmu 
nalabanu — » nalbanu 
nalabdna — » nalbdn 
nalasu(m) "to (fall as) dew" O/jB G (ulu) of 

demon in simile D "bedew"; < nalsu denom. 
nalbabu "rage, fury" jB; < labdbu 
nalban, nalabdna "all around" M/NA; 

< lawtim II 
nalbanatta "like a brick mould" jB; < nalbattu 
nalbantu — » nalbattu 
nalbanu(m), later also nal(a)ba/inu "brick 

mould" Bab. [GlS.U.SUB]; OB math, (a 

coefficient); < labdnu; — » nalbattu 
nalbasu(m), Am. also malbasu "cloak, coat" 

O/jB [TUCMAtf]; n. seni "sheep's fleece"; n. 

same [an.MA] 'cloak of the skies', i.e. "cloud 

cover"; < labdsu 
nalbattu(m), nalbantu; pi. nalbandtu "brick 

mould" OAkk, Bab., NA [GlS.fJ.SUB]; Mari 

also "frame" for gems; < labdnu; > nalbanatta; 

— » nalbanu 
nalbetu ~ "wrap(ping), overlay" M/NA of 

textile, gold; < lawum II 
nalbinu — » nalbanu 

nalbubu "furious, raging" jB; < labdbu 
naldar — » naltar 
nalis "like a deer" jB; < ndlu 
nalmu, nermu ~ "foundation" jB lex. 
nalpattu(m) 1. OB math, "given value" of a 

number 2. Bab. (shallow bowl, jar) [GIS. 

DiLlM.TUR]; < lapdtu 
nalpatu, nalpitu (a metal tool) Mari; < lapdtu 
nalsu, nassu(m), namsu "(nocturnal) dew" Bab., 

NA [SfeG]; > naldsu 
naltar, naldar, ndtar (a type or quality of gold) 

NB 
naltiptu — » nastiptum 
nalu(m), nayyalu "roe deer"? O/jB, M/NA 

[DARA.MAS.dA]; > nalis 



nalu(m) 



235 



namkuru(m) 



nalu(m), nidlu(m) "to lie down (to sleep)" 
G (pret. indl, pres. indl, inel; stat. OA, Nuzi 
ndl) [NU] "lie down" to die; stat. "is lying 
down" sick etc. D (pret. unil, MA una"il) "lay, 
strike down" soldiers S 1. "lay s.o. down" 
[NU]; "lay out" for burial; "spread out" 
substances for mag. purposes; lex. "lay, spread 
out" com for cleaning ? 2. "flatten" a city 
3. "preserve" s.th. in salt or sand; >riilul; 
nayyalu I; mayydlu, mayyaltu; — » itiilu (— » 
GAG §107i-m) 

na'lu(m), ne'lu(m) (a disease) Bab. 

namaddu(m) I, namandu(m), Bogh. namm= 
anlddu 1. Bab., OA "measuring vessel" [NB 
DUG.NINDA ?] 2. M/NA "measurement, 
dimension", pi. f.; < rnadddu I 

namaddu II "darling, loved one" Ass., M/jB; 
< rnadddu II 

nam'adum "(large) quantity, amount, number" 
OA; < mddu 

namallu, namullu "plank-bed" jB lex.; < Hurr. 

namalu(m), namlu "ant" O/jB, Am.; OB also 
(f)PN 

namandu — » namaddu I 

namansu'um — » namassu' um 

namanu (a medicinal plant) jB 

namaritu, namirdtu; pi. namdrdtu "daybreak, 
third watch of the night" jB [EN.NUN. 
ZALAG.GA]; < nawdru 

namarku, nemerku "to be late, be delayed" 
M/NB, NA N (pret. immerki, Ass. immarki, 
pres. immerekki, Ass. immarakki) esp. on 
journey; also of stars; "fall behind, default" 
(with payments or obligations) (concerning = 
ace.) S caus. of N "delay s.o."; <wark&m 
denom.? 

namartu "appearance" jB; OA of first sighting 
of moon; < amdru I 

namaru (a quiver)? jB lex. 

namaru "clearing, path" jB; < nawdru 

namaru — » also nawdru 

namaru(m), ndmeru 1. OAkk, O/MB, Qatna, 
Am., NA "mirror" 2. OAkk, MB (a garment) 
3. Ass., jB "watch-tower"; jB bit n.; < amdru I 

namasu, nemesu "(butter) chum" jB lex.; 
<mdsu; — » namusu 

namasiatum mng. unkn. OB 

namassu'um, namassuhum, OAkk(Ur III) 
nablwassu Ihum, OB namansu'um (a garment) 
OAkk, OA, OB 

namasu(m) "to set (o.s.) in motion, start out" 
G {ulu) on journey, campaign; Ug. dina n. 
"bring a lawsuit" (itti = against s.o.) Gt "move 



towards each other"? D "make s.o. move, set 

s.th. in motion"; NA "depart" (ellipt.); Ug. 

"initiate" lawsuit (-+ G) R OB lex. (-» 

nammusisu); > nammastu 
namattanni (a herdsman)? MB(AlaL); < Hurr. 
namattu "increase, enlargement"? MA; < mddu 
namd'um -» namu II 
nambaslsum — » nambazum 
nambattu rdg. unci. (wr. ndm-BAD-tii) (a 

ghost)? jB lex. 
nambatu (a bright mark)? jB; <nabdtu; -» 

nambazum 
namba'u "source, spring" M/jB; < nabd'u 
nambazum (or nambaslsum) mng. unkn. OB; = 

nambatu ? 
nambubtu, nambumtu "wasp" jB; — » niibtu 
namburbu "apotropaic ritual" j/NB, NA [NAM. 

BTJR.BI]; < Sum. 
namdalu, nanddlu "millipede" jB lex. 
namdattum "(amount) measured, paid" OB; 

< rnadddu I 

namerimburrudu (ritual to remove a curse) jB 
[NAM.ERIM.BUR.ru.DA]; < Sum. 

ndmeru — » namaru 

namgaru — » namkaru 

namgdru — » nagdru I 

namgissu, nagissu mng. unkn. JB 

namgugu — » magdgu N 

namhartu(m), namharu "receipt(s), takings" 
O/jB [SU.TI.A ?]; n. ekallim goods "received by 
palace"; measure, weight sa n. "for receipts"; 

< mahdru 

namharu l.jB lex. (container on cart)? -» 

hard I 2. jB (a poisonous plant); < Sum. 
namharu(m) (a vessel) OAkk, Bab.; often of 

metal, for flour, beer etc.; < mahdru 
namhas(t)u(m), NA nanhas(t)u (a wooden 

pole) O/jB, NA; < mahdsu 
namiratu — » nawiratum 
namirdtu — » namaritu 
namirtu — » nawiratum 
namiru — » nawru 
namkaru(m), M/NB mostly namgaru, also 

namqaru "irrigation canal, reservoir"? Bab.; 

MB, NB also in PIN Na(m)k/gar-DN; 

< makdru I 
namkattum mng. unkn. Mari 
namkuru(m), namkurru, Bogh. also nanlkkuru, 

often pi. "property, possession(s), capital" 
O/jB, M/NA [NIG.GA]; O/MB res n. "liquid 
capital, available funds"; jB lex. n. ini (an 
expression for mirror); < makdru II 



namlaktum 



236 



namutu 



namlaktum, usu. pi. "(governed) territory, 

realm" Mari; < maldku III 
namlu —* namdlu 
nammanlddu — ► namaddu I 
nammar —* nimru I 
nammastu(m), nammassu(m), nammastu 

1. Bab.(lit.) "moving things, animals" [NIG.KI ?; 
A.ZA.LU.LU; NIG.ZI.GAL] namasse (sa) seri 
"wild animals" 2. Mari, jB [A.DAM] (a human 
settlement) ; < namdsu ? 

nammigirutu — ► ndgirutu 

nammu (a headband, headdress) jB lex. 

na(m)musisu(m), nam(mu)susum, namsisu ~ 
"mobile, agile" O/jB; jB aldku n, "to pass away, 
die"; < namdsu R or Sum.? 

nampasu — ► nappasu 

namqaru — ► namkaru 

namrasis "with hardship" jB; < namrdsu 

Namra-sit —* nawru 

namrasu(m) "hardship, difficulty" Bab.(M/NA) 
of terrain, experience; < mardsu 

namrdtum — ► namriatum 

namra'um, usu. pi. "fattening" OB; < maru II 

namriatum, nawridtum, namrdtum f. pi. OB, 
Ug. l."fat(tened) animals, fatstock"; sa 
namridtim "official in charge of fattening 
animals" 2. (a festival)? (-► namritu); 

< maru II 

namrirum, namrirru "awe-inspiring radiance" 

OAkk, Bab.(lit); usu. pi.; of deities, demons, 

kings, temples; < nawdru 
namris "splendidly, brilliantly" j/NB; < nawru 
namritu (a festival) OB; < maru II or nawdru ?; 

— ► namriatum 2 
namritu —* also muwarritum 
namru —* nawru; nimru I 
namru —* namra'um 
namruqqu, nabrulaqqu (a medicinal plant) 

M/jB 
namruratu — » namurratu 
namrutu "mother-of-pearl"? jB/NA; of the sea 

(sa tdmti); < nawru 
namsitu — » nemsetu 
namsu —* nemsu 
namsuhu, nemsahu "crocodile" MA, MB; Qatna 

as figurine; < Eg. 
namsabu — ► nassabu 
namsartu, nassartu (a storage vessel) j/NB; 

< nasdru ? 

namsaru(m), Ug. mamsdru 1. OAkk, Bab. 
"sword" [GIR.GAL]; also transf. for deities 

2. lex., Ug. (a squared stick, mace)? 3. lex. 
(desig. of a canal); < masdru 



nams(at)u — ► lamsu 

namsa (an alabastron) Am.; < Eg. 

namsahu(m) (leather container for cosmetics)? 

O/jB; < masdhu I 
namsarratu mng. unkn. Am. 
namsartu; pi. namsardte "threshing-sledge"? 

MA, Am.?; < masdru 
namsaru, namsdsu "stomach" jB lex. 
namsihu — ► nassihu 
namsisu —* nammusisu 
namsu — ► nalsu 
namsusum —* nammusisu 
namtaggu "sin" jB lex.; < Sum. 
namtallum, nantallu(m) "(solar, lunar) eclipse" 

OB; < Sum. nam-dalla ?; — ► antallu 
namtaru(m), namtarru "fate" OB lex., M/jB 

[NAM.TAR]; as desig. of demon or underworld 

god; < Sum. 
namtullu —* nattullu 

namu I; pi. namuti "living in the steppe, steppe- 
dweller" Ug.; MB(Alal.) (desig. of a social 

group); < nawum I + -i 
namu II, OAkk namd'um (a copper object) 

OAkk?, Nuzi,jB 
namu — ► also nawum I.II 
namu (a bird call or noise) jB 
namuggatu — ► namungatu 
namu 'is (to turn) "into a wasteland" jB; 

< nawum I 
namulhu (a plant) jB lex. 
namullu —* namallu 
namundu mng. unkn. jB lex. 

namungatu, namuggatu "(state of) paralysis" 
MB; < magdgu 

namurratu(m), jB also namruratu "awe- 
inspiring radiance" OAkk, Bab.; of deities, 
kings, weapons; < namurru 

namurru(m) "awe-inspiringly radiant" OAkk, 
O/jB; of deities also in PN; of kings, weapons; 

< nawdru; > namurratu 

namurtu, NB ndmustu "audience gift, present" 
M/NA, M/NB; < amdru I; — ► tdmartu 

namurtu — ► also nanmurtu 

namusu (a tool) jB lex.; — ► namdsu 

namusisu —* nammusisu 

ndmustu —* namurtu 

namutu (m), jB(NA) numuttu, nalu'utu ~ 
"derision, mockery" O/jB, MA; n. epesu(m) "to 
deride, mock", epis n. "scorner, mocker" 

namutu "desolation, wasteland" jB; n. aldku "to 
turn into, become wasteland", n. suluku "to turn 
s.th. into wasteland, make desolate"; < nawum I 



namzaqu(m) 



237 



napalu(m) I 



namzaqu(m), nanzdqu "key" O/jB [GIS.En; 

NIG.GAG.TI]; sa n. (a doorkeeper, person in 

charge of keys ) 
namzitu(m), nanzitu, NA nazzitu "mash tub" 

OAkk, Bab., NA [DUG.NIG.DtJR.BUR]; 

< mazd'u II 
nanahu —* ananihu 

nanaptum (or ndnaptum) (a type of rope) Mari 

nanbu (a garment) jB lex. 

nanddlu —* namddlu 

nanduru I "very wild, furious" jB; < naddru I 

nanduru II "intertwined" jB of features on liver; 

< ederu N 

nanduru —* also na'duru 
nangdru — ► nagdru I 
nangigu — ► naggigu 
nangu (a vessel)? NB 
nangugu —* agdgu N 

nangulu, nankulu, nengulu "glowing" jB of star; 
A Nengultu, Neggultu (name for planet Venus); 

< nagdlu N 
nanhas(t)u — ► namhastu 

nanhuzu ~ "inflamed, burning" jB of demons; 

< ahdzu N 
nanihu —* ananihu 
naniqu (a plant)? jB lex. 
nankulu —* nangulu 
nankuru — > namkuru 

nanmurtu(m), namurtu ? O/jB 1. "meeting, 
confrontation" of armies etc. 2. "heliacal rising!' 
of star, planet; < amdru I N 
nannabu "offspring, seed" Bab., NA; < enehu 
nannaris "like the moon" jB; < nanndru 
nannartu "light of the sky, luminary" M/jB; 

epith. of Istar; < nawdru 
nannaru(m) "light of the sky; moon" 1. Bab. 
epith. of Sin, folk etym. of Nanna [( d >NANNA/ 
NAN.NA( -rulri); U4.SAKAR] 2.jB (a bird); 

< nawdru 

nannu(m) "command, behest" 0/jB(poet.) with 
loc.-adv. + pers. suff. "at" s.o.'s "command" 

nansitu —* nemsetu 

nansu —* nemsu 

nansahu — ► nassabu 

nansahu, nansuhu (an iron tool) NB 

nansu —* nassu 

nansuhu —* nansahu 

nantallu — ► namtallum 

nanzdqu —* namzdqu 

nanzazu, manzazu M/NB 1. "that stands (in 
attendance)" before (= maffri-) s.o. 2. pi. 
nanzazu "attendant, courtier" 3. "position (of 



honour); prominent position" of deities; 

< izuzzum G, N; — ► mazzizu 
nanziqu —* nazziqu 
nanzirum —* nazziru 
nanzitu —* namzitu 

nanzu —* nassu 

napadis, nahddis "for the purpose of separating" 

(from the empire)? jB; < napddu II ? 
napadu(m) I (a wooden clamp)? OAkk, O/MB; 

< pddu 

napadu II "to separate, cut off O/jB lex. G; D; 

> nipdu; napadis 1 
napagu ~ "to go into hiding, disappear"? OB 
lex., M/jB G 

napahu(m) "to blow; light up; rise" Bab., NA 
G (a/u) [MU] l.med. "blow" a drug into eye 
etc. 2. "kindle, light" fire, oven; of parts of the 
body "become inflamed" or "swollen" [BAR7] 
3. of celestial bodies, esp. the sun "light up, 
appear" [KUR]; also in PN; napdh samsi 
"sunrise, east"; Nuzi of month "begin" Gt jB 
"catch fire, be ablaze" D [MVJ] "wheeze, gasp"; 
jB of snake "hiss" (at) [BUN]; of wind "blow 
gustily ?"; trans, "ignite" beacon, also stat. "is 
ignited"; of parts of the body "become inflamed, 
swollen" Dt pass, of D "be ignited" St MB 
"blow at each other"? in a game N pass, "be 
blown at, fanned" [MU], jB "be incited" of 
rebellion; of fire, torch "be ignited"; astr. "light 
up" Ntn iter, of N [MU.MU] "be ignited 
repeatedly"; "shine repeatedly"; "be(come) 
inflamed, swollen repeatedly"; > naphu; niphu; 
nappahtu; nappdhu, nappdhtu, nappdhutu; 
nuppuhu; munappihu, munappihtum; 

tappuhitum; tanpahu 1 

napdkum — ► nahdkum 

ndpalis —* ndhalis 

napalku "(having become) wide"? jB; < nepelku 

napalku —* also nepelku 

napalsahtum, napalseluhtu(m) ~ "low stool" 
O/jB; < napalsuhu 

napalsuhu(m), naparsuhu "to fall to the ground, 
squat, grovel" Bab. N of humans, statue, chariot 
S "make prostrate"; > napalsahtum; muppal= 
sihum 

napaltu —* napastum 

napaltu(m) "answer" OA, O/jB; OB in PN; 
< apdlu I 

napaltu "to pass, go past" M/jB N of weapons 
"miss" target S caus. of N 

napalu(m) I "to dig out, hack down, demolish" 
G (a/u) "dig out, up", OAkk "quarry" stones; 
jB of dog "dig s.th. out"; "gouge out" eyes; 



napalu(m) II 



238 



napharu(m) 



"hack down, demolish" cities, buildings D ~ G 
"search, rummage through"; of animals "forage, 
rootle"; "turn up (the soil of)" a garden; "gouge 
out" eyes, "blind" N astr., of star, mng. unkn. 
(-♦ ;?. II?); >niplu\V; nipiltul; ndpilu; 
nuppulu; nappaltu I; munappilum 

napalu(m) II "to pay balance" OA, O/jB G 
(alu); astr. "give way", of day to night, and vice 
versa Gtn iter, of G D = G S "cause s.o. to pay 
balance" N pass.? (-♦ n. I?); > nipiltuU; 
nappaltu II; tappildtu 

napalu III "to fall" Am. G (imper. nupul); 

< W.Sem. 

napalu "interpreter, translator" jB; ndpale tub 
kabatti "that imparts joy to o.'s heart"; < apdlu I 

napdpum — » apdpu N 

napaqu(m) G lex. Gtn MA of husks "to 
harden"? D med. "be constipated", of nose, 
bronchial tube "become blocked"; — » nuppuqu 
Dtn iter, of D 

napdqum — » also nabdkum 

naparahtu — » naprahtu 

napardu I, neperdu "shining brightly" M/jB, 
esp. of day; < napardu II 

napardu II, neperdu "to shine brightly" M/NB, 
NA N of day, deity; of mind, mood "be 
cheerful" S "lighten, illuminate" darkness; 
"make cheerful, cheer up" person, mood, heart; 
> napardu I 

naparku I, neperku "ceasing, inactive" M/NB; la 
n. "ceaselessly, unremittingly"; < naparku II 

naparku II, naleperku(m) "to cease, stop doing" 
s.th. Bab. N (pret. ipparku, NB also ipparki) 
"leave off work"; "become inactive"; idd ... n. 
"leave s.o.'s side, desert s.o."; of hymns, 
offerings "cease, be discontinued"; Id n. "be 
incessant, constant", Id mupparku "cease- 
less(ly)"; OB(Bogh.) trans, "neglect" Ntn of 
eyes, speech "fail repeatedly" S O/MB "allow 
to cease", MB tribute, offering; > naparku I 

naparqudu(m) "to lie on o.'s back, lie flat 
(against)" O/jB N esp. om. of parts of body, 
features of liver Ntn iter, of N; > purqidam 

naparrurtu, Susa napurratu "divergence, 
dispersal" jB om., Susa; < pardru N 

naparruru — » pardru N 

naparsuffu — » napalsuhu 

naparsudis "(in order) to escape" jB; 

< naparsudu 

naparsudu(m) "to flee, escape" Bab., M/NA 
N "escape (from = ina)"; Ass. (Ip)parsidu, as 
PN; transf. ina qdii n. "fall into desuetude" Ntn 
iter, of N "run away repeatedly"; "(attempt to) 



flee from time to time"; > naparsudis; 
muttaprassidu 
naparu mng. unkn. Elam G; S; < Elam. denom.? 
napdsu — » nabdsu 

napasu(m) "to push away, down; smash, 
abolish" G (alu) "push s.o. down, away"; 
qdtam n. "push (s.o.'s) hand away" = "refuse 
o.'s consent"; "convulse, jerk" of limbs; 
"crush" objects, grain; "beat s.o. up"; OB "defer 
(payment) of accounts Gtn of jaws, lips "snap 
repeatedly", "flop about repeatedly" Gt "beat 
each other"? D ~ G "crush" grain, "smash" 
door; "beat" wings; transf. pi. obj. "kill, smite" 
enemies, offspring; OA "defer payment of 
accounts Dt "thrash about"; > napsu; nipsu; 
nappasu; nuppusu; tapplsu 

napastum, MA napaltu; pi. napsdtu "life; 
throat" OAkk, O/MA (Bab. -♦ napistu; -* also 
napustu); OAkk in PN; OA sa n. "provider"; 
MA bel napsdte (avenger of a life); < napdsu I 

napasu(m) I "to breathe; be(come) wide" 
G (ulu) [PES5; PA.AN] "draw breath, calm 
down"; OAkk, OB also in PN; "snort"; MA of 
horse "pause for breath"; OB of disease "ease 
off; jB of organ "distend, expand", of fever 
"spread"?; OA "stand up for o.'s claim(s), 
make a claim"; jB of harvest, food "become 
plentiful, abundant" Gtn iter, of G; OA "make 
claims repeatedly" D "make wide" canal; "make 
productive, fertile" garden; "let breathe freely, 
relax" heart; "air" garments Dtn of deity 
"expand" domination "overall" Dt of land, place 
"be widened, enlarged" N Mart "ease up, 
become easier", of assignment; > napsu I.III; 
nipsu I; napisu, napastum, napistu, napustu; 
nupusu; nappasu; tappistum I 

napasu(m) II "to pluck, pick (wool)" Ass., jB 
G (alu) NA "pluck" rose D ~ G N "be plucked 
apart", also in simile; transf. of oil; > napsu II; 
nipsu II; napistu; tappistu II; tappastu 

napatu "to look at"? jB(Gilg.) G (alu ?) 

napatu (a vessel, bucket) jB lex. 

napdu 1. MA/MB "fastening" (rope, band ?) 
2. jB lex. (a mat) 3. jB lex. ('elephant hide'?, a 
plant); <padu ? 

naperku — » naparku II 

naphartum "sum total"? OB; < napharu 

napharu(m) "total, sum; (the) whole, entirety" 
[(SU.)NlGIN/NlGIN; pap] construed absol., as st. 
constr. before nouns, or with pron. suff. 1. in 
additions "sum total"; "sub-total" [PAP]; Mari 
pi. f. naphardtu "totals" of troops 2. "entirety" 



naphatum 



239 



napsamu(m) 



of people, countries, objects, rites etc.; 

< pahdru II; > naphartum 

naphatum (or nabhatum) (a wooden object) 

OAkk 
naphu(m) "blown on" Bab. 1. O/jB of fire, 

"kindled", also transf. of quarrel; "shining, 

bright" 2. NB naphdti "kindling"? 3. lex. (a 

plant); < napdhu 
napilu(m), nappilu 1. NA (a siege implement for 

demolishing walls) 2. OB (an excavator)?; 

< napalu I 

napistu(m), napsatu(m), OB also na ' istum 
"throat, life" OAkk ?, Bab. (Ass. — » napastum; 
— » also napustu) [ZI] 1. "throat" of humans, 
animals; O/jB napistam lapdtum "to grasp 
(o.'s) throat" in oath-taking; napsdt martim 
(part of the gall bladder), n. ubdnim (part of 
liver); OB, Qatna sa (pdni) n. "pendant" 
2. "(essence of) life", often pi.; O/jB in PN 
Uta-napistim (also -na'istim); baldt napsdti 
"preservation of life"; n. sakdnu "to give up the 
ghost"; (awdt, din) n. "matter of life (and 
death), lawsuit (deciding over) life (and 
death)"; OB bel n. "protector" 3. "living, 
livelihood, subsistence" 4. "living being", 
"self; Bogh. pi. "personnel, staff 5.jB lex. 
"neckerchief?; < napdsu I; — » siknat napisti 

napistu "female wool-plucker" jB lex.; 

< napdsu II 

naplsu(m) "breath(ing)" Bab. [PA.AN]; OB also 
"breathing (space)" granted by deity; "scent, 
aroma"; sa n. "censer"; < napdsu I 

napkapu mng. unkn. NB 

naplaqtum, napldqu "slaughtering knife" OAkk, 
jB; < paldqu 

naplastu(m), naplastum 1. O/jB "blinker, 
blinder (for animals, slaves)"; O/MB also 
feature of liver [IGI.BAR] 2. Mari (a kind of 
payment); <paldsu; — ► napldsu 

naplasu(m) "look, glance" O/jB; Mari = 
naplastu "blinker (for animals)"; om. (feature 
on liver) [IGI.TAB] = naplastu; < paldsu 

naplastum — » naplastu 

napluhatum in res n. mng. unkn. OB(poet.); 

< paldhu ? 
nappahanu mng. unkn. jB 

nappah(t)u M/jB [BUN/BtlN] 1. "bellows" 
2. "bladder" or "prostate gland"?; hiniq(ti) n. 
"urinary retention" 3. "rebellion"; < napdhu 

nappahtu "female smith, metalworker" NA; 

< nappdhu 

nappahu(m) "smith, metalworker" [(LO.) 
SIMUG] "(gold-, copper-, bronze-) smith", NB 



as family name; n. hurdsi "goldsmith"; n. ere 
"coppersmith"; M/NA, NB n. siparri 
"bronzesmith"; jB Ea sa n. (Ea as patron deity 
of smiths); DN d N. (desig. of Ea); bit n. 
"smithy"; MB PIN dl nappdhi; < napdhu; 
> nappahtu, nappdhutu 

nappahutu "trade of smith" Nuzi; < nappdhu 

nappaltu I "(building) rubble, excavated debris" 
j/NB [IM.BAL]; < napalu I 

nappaltu II ~ "balance, balancing amount"? MA 
"share (of harvest)"?; j/NB astr. (difference in 
arithmetical sequence)?; < napalu II 

nappalu — » nappillu 

nappasu, nappdstu "wooden beater, club"? jB 
lex.; MA PN Nappasdni; < napdsu 

nappasu, nampasu "air hole" Ug., j/NB 1. lex. 
"venthole" of an oven; "opening" in a wall, 
canal 2. (a type of) "window" 3. "nasal open- 
ing"; < napdsu I 

nappatum ? (a type of land)? OB lex. 

nappatu (a small oven, brazier) jB; OB lex.? 

nappillu, nabbiUu, nappalu "caterpillars )" jB 

nappilu — » ndpilu 

nappitu(m) 1. O/jB, NA "sieve" [GI.MA.AN.SIM] 
2. jB lex. (desig. of a snake); < napu II 

nappu(m) "sieve" Bab. [GI.SA.SUR]; < napu II 

nappu'um ? mng. unkn. OA 

naprahtu(m), naparahtu (a fermenting vessel) 
Bab.; < pardhu 

napraku "bolt, (cross )bar" jB [GIS.SU.GI4] 
"bolt", part of door lock; transf. of blocked 
mouth; "barrier, obstacle"; < pardku 

naprartu — ► nabrartu 

napraru — ► nabraru 

naprasu(m) (a tool, phps.) "chisel" OA, O/jB; 
also transf. of DN n. parakkim "chisel 7 of the 
dais"; < pardsu I or II ? 

naprU — » nabru 

naprusul "flying" jB; of insect, bird; 

< naprusu II 

naprusu(m) II "to fly" Bab., NA N [DAL] Am. 
in simile of messenger "speed, rush"; of 
humans "flee" (like birds) Ntn "fly about" 
[DAL.DAL] of birds; of demon; of grain "fly 
everywhere"; transf. of humans Nt jB of 
disease "fly away" S "let fly" bird, arrow; in 
simile "cause (humans) to fly" like birds SD as 
§ in simile "let fly" Stn iter, of § "repeatedly 
shoot" javelin; > naprusu I; mupparsu; 
muttaprisu 

napsamu(m) "nose bag" Mari, MA, jB; 

<